Health, Safety and security in Health and Social Care
BTEC National Certificate in Care
Unit 3 Health, Safety and security in Health and Social Care
~Hazards, Legislation, Policies and Procedures ~
Date: 24 May 2006
To: Mike Guy – Academic Tutor
From: Chih Lung Cheng
P1(a) Explain potential hazards in health and social care settings.
Polegate Nursing Centre, consisting of 2 floors. There are 20 beds on each floor. I have identified 1 potentially hazardous working practice, 3 potentially hazardous incidents, 3 potential risks and 3 potential accidents that may occur.
(1-1) Potentially hazardous working practice – these include activities, procedures, use of materials or equipment and working techniques. The following examples of lifting/pushing hazards can cause injuries such as sprains and strains of the back, neck, shoulders, knees, wrists and ankles.
- Awkward postures (e.g., reaching across beds to lift patients/residents)
- Using a great deal of force (e.g., pushing/pulling chairs or gurneys
Cross infection –.wearing protective cloths, change gloves and wash hands can prevent cross infection and is a good working practice. If the carer does not change gloves and wash hands between patients, the disease such as hepatitis or MRSA etc. can easily be spread from one person to another
(1-2) 3 Potentially hazardous incidents that may occur – including intruders, chemical spillages, lost keys/purses etc, missing individuals, individuals locked out, contamination risk, aggressive and dangerous encounters.
Chemical spillages - Employee exposure to possibly hazardous chemicals, such as pesticides, disinfectants, and hazardous drugs in the workplace for example:
- Ammonia, used as a cleaning agent, and chlorine solutions used as disinfectants in dishwashing, can cause skin, eye, and nose irritations.
- Drain cleaners, oven cleaners, and grill cleaners can be caustic solutions that can cause skin burns and eye and skin irritations.
Contaminated Laundry - if there is blood or other body fluids (semen, vaginal secretions, saliva) If a person has an infectious disease (hepatitis, MRSA, other multiple drug-resistant organisms) or is on contact precautions, then their feces or vomitus also causes laundry to be contaminated.
Aggressive and dangerous encounters- this can be resident to resident, carer to resident, resident to carer or an intruder to residents or carer.
(1-3) 3 Potential risks – eg possibility of injury and harm to people, infection, possibility of danger, damage and destruction to the environment and goods
Pressure sore Dehydration/choking Malnutrition
This is a preview of the whole essay
Pressure sore, dehydration, choking malnutrition are potential risk and is likely to happen, if the resident has not been given proper attention and treatment.
Cross Contamination - food poisoning is often caused by inappropriate practice of food preparation. The bacteria are transferred from livestock to food which has been contaminated.
Possible fires from heat producing
equipment, storage of flammable
chemicals and faulty electrical wiring
(1-4) 3 Potential accidents that may occur – due to, eg falls, hazards in environment, illness, weaknesses, disability, frailty, sensory and cognitive impairment.
Slip/Trips/Falls - Slips, trips and falls in nursing homes can result in serious injuries including fractures, sprained joints, back injuries
The lost or stolen of medication can happen when dispensing them carelessly or store them in a safe place after used.
Burns -Kitchen equipment pose special hazards to the dietary worker. Some of these hazards include: hot surfaces, which may cause burns; cuts and lacerations from the use of sharp objects.
Electrocution or shock hazard can happen from unsafe work practices, faulty electrical equipment, or wiring
P1 (b) Write a concise report to explain hazards in health and social care environments
A hazard is a potential danger, but the risk of the hazard causing harm to someone may be low or extremely high. Almost all workplaces have potential hazards and risks. The important thing is to identify what these are by carrying out a risk assessment and try to minimise or prevent hazards or risks to happen by implementing a control program, which can involve staff training and supervision. The most common potential hazards and risks in a health and social care setting can be:
Manual handling- can pose a great risk to employees and residents, if the equipment is damaged or the employees have not followed the handling procedures correctly when moving a resident. The resident can be injured, by rough handling of carer and have a bruise or even a fracture and so as the carer may have a long-term injuries due to awkward postures. Pushing, pulling, carrying or lifting heavy objects such as laundry bag, food trolley, hoist or wheelchairs, etc can be a potentially hazardous working practice to employees as well. They often suffer back injury and can never recover fully or require a long period of time for rehabilitation before they are able to work again.
Unsafe working practice – such as caring between patients without changing gloves and washing hands can cause the disease to pass from one person to another. In some cases of hepatitis or MRSA, there are strict procedures to follow, the employees must not enter the room and care the patient before wearing apron and gloves and they are required to wash their hands, and dispose the gloves, apron in a designated bin after the task has been done. Also, the residents are at risk of being Choked, dehydration and malnutrition due to neglect and abuse of carer.
Hazardous chemicals/environment – chemicals, such as pesticides, disinfectants, and hazardous drugs can cause harm to residents and employees if they are not labelled or store in a safe place. Wet floor, poor lighting, unexpected objects on the floor [such as papers, books, clothes, shoes or wire] can be dangerous for anyone to have a fall which can then result in serious injuries including fractures, sprained joints, back injuries. Possible fires from heat producing equipment, storage of flammable chemicals and faulty electrical wiring can be prevented by fire prevention measures and staff training as well as fire drill every six months.
Machinery- the faulty of equipment can cause harm to employees and residents. The machinery or equipment must be checked and maintained regularly. Training should be given to use hoist, lifts, trolley, and kitchen equipment, etc.
Cross contamination- such as food poisoning or contaminated laundry cause disease to spread to others. The preparation of food is vital in regard to the health and safety of residents and staffs. The staff work in the kitchen must follow the hygiene policy and the laundry staff must wash the clothes of those hepatitis, MRSA’ patients separately.
Aggressive and dangerous encounters- this can be resident to resident, carer to resident, resident to carer or an intruder to residents or carer. Training on handling aggressive behaviour should be provided for the staffs and separation of aggressive resident may be necessary to prevent harms to other residents.
P2 Describe how key legislation in relation to health, safety and security influences health and social care delivery
P3 Using examples from work experience describe how policies and procedures promote health, safety and security in the health and social care workplace
M1 Explain how legislation, polices and procedures are used to promote the health, safety and security of individuals in the health and social care workplace.
The introduction of Manual handling Operations Regulations 1992, has made it a duty to employers to provide a safe and healthy workplace for all employees and the law requires the company to carry out risk assessment relating to manual handling which includes lifting, lowering pushing, carrying, moving an object or person. It also covers activities which require the use of force or effort to operating equipment. The result of company adopting this legislation into practice makes it beneficial to employees and employer. Employees have to be given manual handling training every year so less and less people will be suffering from back injury due to inappropriate use of force or posture. Furthermore, the employer will provide safe working procedures and redesign the task that needs to be done by teamwork. The residents are also benefit from this legislation as they will be assisted or transferred in a safe way by trained staff with good working equipment.
Infection control – groves and apron are provided for staff to carry out personal care to residents who have infectious diseases, which may pass to others. The policy and procedures make clear guideline when, how to use them and wash their hands to protect themselves and other residents.
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 – requires employer to do CRB checked, and provide induction training to new staff, have reduced the risk of recruiting someone who may have criminal offence or abusive behaviour in the previous job. Also, the employer will provide information regarding to health and safety at work to employees. In addition, the employer has a legal duty to make sure the environment and equipment are safe to work for employees, residents and visitors.
P4 Examine the roles and responsibilities of key people in the promotion of health, safety and security in a health and social care setting.
Job title – manager
To adhere to general policy of the company, as set down in the company Health and Safety Policy statement.
- That the work of the site operates in compliance with health and safety legislation and safe work practice. To provide, as far as within her power, the means to enable this requirement to take place, in consultation with other manager and staff as appropriate.
- To act on the advice and reports of her staff where required to resolve health and safety defects or problems.
- To carry out her duties in a safe manner, in accordance with company policy, standards and safe working practice.
- To ensure that all staff reporting to her perform their tasks in a safe manner, in accordance with company policy, standards and safe working practice.
- To be alert to hazards in the workplace and to introduce alternative means of “safer work” standards as appropriate.
- To monitor standards of health and safety on site through overseeing care and development plans for residents, risk assessments, record keeping and completion of checklists.
Job title – Nurse in charge
To adhere to the general policy of the company, as set down in the company Health and safety policy statement.
- It shall be the duty of the nurse in charge to ensure that all applicable health and safety actions are complied with, as set down in the Health and Safety Manual:
- To carry out her duties in a safe manner, in accordance with company policy, standards and safe working practice.
- To be alert to hazards in the workplace and to report all defects to her supervisor. To make suggestions for safer work standards as appropriate.
- To make use of residents care plan in order to ensure the safe delivery of care.
- To be alert to changes in a resident which may affect health and safety and take appropriate action within their training and capabilities and report such changes to her supervisor.
- To deputise for management in the day to day running of the centre and carry out any other duties as required by management.
P5 Carry out a health and safety survey of a local environment used by a specific patient/ service user group.
Environment: Children playground
Patient/ service user group : children and parents
Survey : health, safety and security issues
The playground I surveyed is located in Hampdom Park. It is an outdoor public playground, has no restriction to any age group and supervision depends on parents or guardians. There are some problems and potential risks I have identified as listed below.
Exposure to extremes of weather for extended period of time possibly resulting in sunstroke, dehydration or adverse reactions to cold and wet
Falls, particularly from slides, bars and climbing apparatus
Falls - Slide incline should not exceed 30 degrees.
Burns from metal slides
Risk of being hit by moving equipment in Play Area
Risk of trips and falls Vandalism
Risk of trips and falls risk of infection – no washing facilities and toilets
- Falls, particularly from slides, bars and climbing apparatus.
- Cuts caused from rough edges or protruding bolts.
- Being hit by moving equipment in Play Area
- Misuse of equipment
- Trip , falls, slipping cuts, bruises, grazes, sprains when play equipment is wet
- Vandalism -discarded materials and deliberate acts
- Risk of collision, trips due to poor lighting at night
- Exposure to extremes of weather for extended period of time possibly resulting in sunstroke, dehydration or adverse reactions to cold and wet
- Infection is likely to happen when children’s put their dirty hands in their mouth or eat their food without washing hands
- Burns from metal slides in an extreme hot weather
First aid procedures
There is no any first aid box to be found
Hygiene -Washing facilities and toilets – hand sanitizers should be placed at eating area and toilets should be reopened.
First Aid – first aid box should be available and so as telephones and emergency numbers, in case, there is an accident.
Lighting – sufficient lighting should be placed around the play area.
Shelter should be placed for metal slide, which can reach 180 degrees in hot areas and causing burn to children.
Warning signs – should be placed around the area, identifying potential hazards and minimum ages, where appropriate. For example, parents may well be advised to choose suitable clothing and foodwear for their children in circumstance when the wooden and metal frames become slippery in wet weather.
Redesigned of Equipment – Metal slides incline should not exceed 30 degrees
Inspection of damaged equipment due to vandalism or discarded materials [eg.Used needles] should be carried out on regular basis.
~ Bibliography ~
- Heinemann AVCE health and social care - GNVQ / NEIL MOONIE 2000
- BTEC NATIONAL Care / Heinemann / Neil Moonie, Beryl Stretch, Mark Walsh, David Herne, Elaine Millar, David Webb / 2003