The cognitive approach is mainly based on experiments to put their research into practice rather than making assumptions and jumping into conclusions. Jean Piaget believes there is a set of four stages that all individuals go through in order to develop effectively. It helps determine how an individual recognises and deals with different situations and it’s also used in health and social care settings in terms of overcoming stress, anxiety, depression and anger management issues. This theory is also compatible with other theories such as the behaviourist theory which has similar outcomes to the social learning theory.
However George Kelly’s theory compares human beings to computers due to their similarities but the human mind is much more complex as well as feelings and emotions can affect an individuals’ output. This theory focuses on mental processes. Thinking is a mental process and you cannot assume what someone is thinking based on how they act, so this may be unreliable as people show you what they want you to see. This theory also relies on good language skills which may not be suitable for all individuals as some individuals may not know how to express their feelings and emotions.
The biological approach explains in great detail about the nature all individuals’ were born with, supporting the nature side to the debate. Arnold Gesell has also made it easier to understand the human behaviour and disorders individuals’ may have allowing them to receive the right help and care as well as explaining how a parents genes give a child a set of instructions to follow to sprout into the person they are meant to be.
On the other hand the approach does not acknowledge the nurture side to the debate. This means Arnold Gesell does not consider how the environment around you can have an impact on an individuals’ behaviour which has been proven in numerous studies. This theory also generalises to apply to all individuals’ not taking into count every human being is different it excludes individuality and it assumes everyone responds the same way. Gesell only points out genetic disorders ignoring that not all disorders are genetic as some disorders can occur due to environmental factors such as mental health issues i.e. anxiety, depression and stress.
- Stretch B, Whitehouse M 2010 Health and social care level three book 1 BTEC national. Oxford Pearson.