P2: Describe the structure of the tissues of the body and their role in the functioning of two named body systems.

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P2: Describe the structure of the tissues of the body and their role in the functioning of two named body systems.

Epithelial tissue:


Epithelial tissue is one of the four major tissue types in the body, acting as an interface between the body and the rest of the world. Skin is composed of epithelial tissue which lines the body cavities and major organs.

There are several different types of epithelial tissue, which form to fulfil specific needs and functions. This tissue, known collectively as the epithelium, can filter, absorb, and diffuse various substances, and it is also involved in sensory perception and bodily secretions.

According to Marieb (2000) ‘covering and lining epithelium covers all three body surfaces and contains versatile cells. One type forms the outer layer of skin while others dip into the body to line it cavities.’


Cuboidal epithelium is cube-shaped with spherical nuclei in the centre that line ducts and tubes and allows materials to pass through. They are found in secretive or absorptive tissue like the exocrine gland, the lining of the kidney tubules and in the ducts of the glands. They also constitute the germinal epithelium, which produces the egg cells in the female ovary and the sperm cells in the male testes


Columnar epithelium forms the lining of the stomach and intestines. Their nuclei are elongated and are usually located near the base of the cells with slightly oval nuclei. Some columnar cells are specialised for sensory reception such as in the nose, ears and the taste buds of the tongue which secrete the mucus. That mucus then traps the unwanted particles and the cilia transports the flow of the mucus towards the exterior.


Squamous cells have thin, flat plates and each nucleus forms a lump in the centre. They fit close together in tissues so it has a smooth low-friction surface allowing fluids to move easily. Squamous is found in the wall of blood capillaries, lung alveoli and Bowman’s capsule of nephrons.  Squamous epithelia are found lining surfaces utilising simple passive diffusion such as the alveolar epithelium in the lungs and also form the lining of cavities such as the blood vessels, heart and the major cavities found within the body.


Ciliated cells are situated in the large bronchioles within the respiratory and genitourinary tracts. Ciliated cells consist of plasma membranes which are formed from microtubles which are able of beating rhythmically in order to transmit mucus and other substances through the duct. These types of cells are mostly found in the respiratory system and on the lining of the oviduct.


Compound Epithelial Tissue has a range of layers of cells and no basement membrane. It’s made from deep layers of columnar cells and flatter cells towards surface. Compound Epithelial Tissue also protects sensitive parts of the body. There are two types of compound tissue, these are simple, keratinised.


This type of tissue is made up of more than 2 layers and its deepest layer rests on the basement membrane.  As it has many layers, it is unable to secrete or absorb. However it acts as a protective layer against mechanical, chemical, thermal and osmotic stress.

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This type of tissue is found on dry surfaces which are likely to ear and tear such as the skin, hair and nails. The surface layer that covers this tissue is made of dead epithelial cells which consist of the protein keratin. This produces a hard and waterproof layer which protects and prevents the cells underneath from drying.


Connective tissues lie under the epithelial tissues and connect the different body parts. The matrix of the tissue is usually secreted by the connective tissue cells. Its functions are to give support, transport materials and also ...

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This is a good essay that goes into a great deal of depth from a biological point of view. It discusses various forms of tissues and their structures. However, it does not fully discuss how the tissues are related to function of organs. In places there is detail that is not required and the writer needs to choose information and relate it to the topic. ****