• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Psychological Approaches in The Care Setting

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rebecca Evans Thursday 11th February 2010 Psychological Perspectives in Health and Social Care Assignment 1: Psychological Approaches in The Care Setting Learning Outcomes:- 1. Understand psychological approaches to study. 2. Be able to apply psychological approaches to Health and Social Care. As part of this assignment, I aim to describe the application of behaviourist perspectives in health and social care. I will then go on to describe the application of psychodynamic perspectives in health and social care. Finally, I will analyse the contribution of different psychological perspectives to the understanding and management of challenging behaviour. Task 1 P1) * Describe the principles of Operant Conditioning in health and social care and use these principles to explain why a child has persistent tantrums. This type of learning was first developed by Burrhus Frederic Skinner, an American Psychologist who worked mainly with rats and pigeons discovering main key principles of learning new behaviours using the now famous "Skinner box", he was able to condition the animal to adapt to behaviour patterns. The box contained a lever, which when pressed produced a food pellet into the box. Initially, when the rat for example, was released in the box, it would run around sniffing various objects until it accidently presses the lever to release the food pellet. Gradually over a period of time, repeats this action and comes to learn that pressing the lever will reward him with food. This is known as "reinforcing behaviour" and increases the chance of the behaviour continuing. There are two forms of reinforcing, positive and negative:- * Positive Reinforcement - Occurs when as the result of following a certain behaviour pattern, a reward is given. * Negative Reinforcement - Occurs when behaviour patterns result in removing something unpleasant. For example:- to investigate negative reinforcement, Skinner installed a small electric current onto the floor of the skinner box, by pressing the lever, the rat came to learn that the current would be deactivated, thus proving negative reinforcement. ...read more.

Middle

Stage 3 (age 3-6) - At this stage of a child's development there is rapid social, physical and intellectual development. Through interaction with others, new skills are developed and an increased self-confidence is formed. By welcoming a child's curiosity about life to explore and learn new skills through play and life experiences together with new physical new initiative is developed. However, negativity at this stage such as parents ignoring questions about the world in which they live and prevention of play and physical activities, will result in a reduction in the child's curiosity about the world in which they live and confidence, competence and initiative will reduce, leaving the child with feelings of lack of self worth and guilt. Stage 4 (age 6-12) - At this stage children become concerned with how things are made and how they work. Teachers, parents and siblings all play a part at this stage of development. Children begin to compare themselves to their peers to assess their own achievements and this is essential in the development of self-worth. A sense of "industry" is developed with the individual encouraged to undertake tasks of a realistic nature where success is likely this encourages high self esteem and a sense of competence. However "Inferiority" results if the child is pushed into doing tasks they are not ready to do. A lack of guidance and encouragement, coupled with criticism for failure will lead the child with a low self esteem and overall negative self concept. Stage 5 (ages 12-18) - Erikson likened the psychological turmoil of teenage years to "storm and stress" where ones self concept is affected by several factors:- * Physical changes to the body causing an affected body image and which may have an effect on the individuals sense of self belief. * Intellectual development which allows the individual to be aware of current levels of intelligence and the potential of what careers may lie ahead. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, again Joe's dominant Id comes to the fore. He is impulsive, careless of others' feelings and does not think through the consequences of his actions. Classically, he is inclined to aggression to people of dominant Id. 3. Humanistic Approach to Joe's Behaviour The humanistic approach to Health and Social care describes the understanding of human experience from the individual's position focusing on free will and the capability of making choices. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are two psychologists associated with this approach. Maslow, an American psychologist constructed his "Hierarchy of Needs" explaining requirements every human being needs in basic needs to eventually achieve self-actualisation (achieve full potential). From information given, it is evident that Joe has not fulfilled the majority of his basic needs. I feel he is at the bottom of Maslow's hierarchy he is getting the basic physical needs (food, drink, warmth, etc...). However, it can be seen that his safety and security is not achieved because he remains anxious, depressed and aggressive. Until such emotions are addressed Joe will not be able to develop accordingly to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Joe can be likened more effectively to the theories of Carl Rogers, a psychologist "particularly interested in the concept of self" (Stretch, B, 2007, Pg388). Self concept is the way in which we see ourselves involving physical and biological traits. He has two key terms he uses "internalise" in the way in which we perceive outside information and build our sense of self. In Joe's case, he has a low self worth and tries to compensate by being dominant and aggressive. He is generally depressed which reinforces the feelings of inadequacy. Initially, staff and clients were supportive and friendly towards him which would help him value himself and increase self esteem. However, increasing aggression, dominance and bad behaviour causes a reverse attitude by clients and staff alike and this in turn contributes to Joe's poor behaviour affecting his self esteem in a negative way. The prospect of being made to leave the home could leave Joe feeling troubled and unhappy and have a negative concept of his ideal self. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

This is a very good essay that includes excellent descriptions of some psychological theories. The behaviourist approach is described well as is Erikson's theory.

The writer could extend the discussion of Freud and include far greater detail of the Humanistic approach.

A very good attempt at application though.

****

Marked by teacher Sam Morran 26/09/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Explain possible priorities and responses when dealing with two particular incidents or emergencies ...

    4 star(s)

    that has in some way been able to access the victim in such a way without getting caught, or bringing attention to themselves or the victim sooner. The third and last most important priority that should be done should a service user in a hospital setting be abused, should be

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Describe the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development for each of the life stages ...

    3 star(s)

    However, there is not much evidence which can back this up or to show that this statement rules for everyone. In the past, this theory was accepted by the majority of people. Bromley argues in 1974 that 'although some individuals fight the process all the way, disengagement of some sort

  1. Marked by a teacher

    PROMOTING HEALTH. P1: explain three different approaches to health education. P2: explain ...

    3 star(s)

    Obesity -: Britain is known as the second obese country in the world due to the increase in obesity. Obesity is a growing health problem in Britain with risk factor of coursing chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, and certain cancers.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into Teenage Pregnancies within Wales and a Comparison with the Netherlands.

    3 star(s)

    3. From the age of 11 ? children are taught about pregnancy, contraception and safe sex. The way the Dutch teach sex education is vastly different to how the curriculum within wales and England tells practitioners to teach children within the UK.

  1. "My Reflective Experience of an Ethical Dilemma"

    This is supported by Benner (1984) (in Baillie 2001), who states that novices have no basis from which to apply their principles it is only in a clinical setting that experience can be gained, however novice can also be applied to nurses working in unfamiliar surroundings.

  2. Unit 3 - P4, M3, D2 Health and safety and responses to emergencies ...

    The people that have had training for CPR and are dealing with this situation they should do CPR with rescue breaths. The steps for this are: * Place the heel of your hand on the centre of the person's chest, then place the other hand on top and press down

  1. Unit 21 Nutrition for health and social care

    In simple terms, photosynthesis is the biological conversion of light energy (that is, electromagnetic energy) from the Sun to chemical energy in plants. It is an extremely complex process, and a thorough treatment of it involves a great deal of technical terminology energy for your cells, tissues and organs'(Reference answers).

  2. Unit 18: Working in the Health Sector P1, M1 & D1

    Training and education for healthcare workers is constantly updated and adjusted and monitored to ensure that all healthcare workers are getting the most relevant and important education to their job role. No matter what path that is chosen or healthcare role that is taken, all workers in the health sector

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work