• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Psychology - Unit 8 Health and Social Care P1 M1

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Selena Ahmed Unit 8 Christine Behaviourist: The behaviourist perspective is that we can understand any type of behaviour by looking at what a person has learned. This will include personality traits such as; confidence, shyness, optimism or pessimism as well as other fleeting behaviours. Behaviourist psychologists can explain all human behaviour as resulting from experience. They are two associated thinkers with the behaviourist perspective and they are Pavlov (classical conditioning) and Skinner (operant conditioning). Both the theorists explained all the types of behaviour as being a result of learning everything i.e. from shyness to aggression, from happiness to depression. Classical conditioning is a theory that was developed by a Russian physiologist called Ivan Pavlov (1849 ? 1936). Pavlov worked with dogs in order to investigate their digestive systems, the dogs were attached to a harness and Pavlov attached monitors to their stomachs and mouths in order for him to measure the production of saliva. Pavlov one day had noticed the dog began to produce saliva when the laboratory assistant had entered the room with a bowl of food before the dog had actually tasted the food. As salivation is an automatic response it seemed quite strange, Pavlov gathered that the dog was producing saliva because it had learned to associate the laboratory assistant with food. Food automatically led to the response of salivation due to salivation being an automatic response which was referred as ?unconditional response?. Unconditioned meant ?not learned?, as food automatically led to this response which he referred as ?unconditional stimulus?. Pavlov then displayed food at the exact same time as ringing a bell to see if the dog would learn to associate the bell with food. ...read more.


For e.g. Between birth and the age of one. The Humanistic Perspective: Humanistic psychology looks at human experience from the viewpoint of the individual. It focuses on the idea of free will and the belief that we are all capable of making choices. They are two psychologists that are associated with this approach they are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Abraham Maslow: Maslow (1908 ? 1970) was an American psychologist who believed that we are all seeking to become the best we can possibly be; spiritually, physically emotionally and intellectually. He referred this as self-actualisation which is tendency we all possess as human beings to become the best that we all can be in all aspects of personality. He developed a theory known as the hierarchy of needs which he explained every human being requires certain basic needs to be met before they can progress and approach to the next level. Carl Rogers: Rogers (1902 ? 1987) was particularly interested in the concept of self. There many aspects of self but two are especially important here. Self ? concept refers to how we view ourselves, this includes physical and biological attributes such as being male or female, blonde or brunette, tall or short along with personality traits such as being kind, humble, assertive and hard working. Self- concept is formed at an early stage of life and young children internalise which is when we take in information from the outer world and build it into sense ourselves which then becomes a part of our feelings, thoughts and beliefs about who we are and what we expect from the society around us, other peoples judgments of them. This becomes a part of one?s self concept, for e.g. ...read more.


Also aggressive behaviour could be learnt by a parent if a child sees their parents as their role model and watches them being aggressive this will make them want to copy their parents and become aggressive. Psychodynamic approach & aggressive behaviour: The psychodynamic approach assumes that we may possibly all unconsciously have a desire to destruct ourselves however due to our functioning egos it does not allow us to self destruct therefore due to instincts we would turn this behaviour towards others. Supporters of the psychodynamic approach believe that aggression may be caused by the unconscious death instinct. This approach also believes aggression could be caused by some of our needs not being met such as Erikson?s eight stages of development which are hopes, will, purpose, competence fidelity, love, care and wisdom. The psychodynamic approach believes we may get aggressive if we do not go through all of these stages in the order we should and something crucial may be missing in our lives which could cause a negative pattern that could cause aggressive behaviour. Cognitive & aggressive behaviour: The cognitive approach believes that everybody?s brains are comparable but dissimilar because we all process things in our brains differently to each other. Aggressive behaviour may be due to a person being exposed to violence most of their life which may lead to them to behave differently towards someone who has never been exposed to violence before and this may lead the person to become aggressive. This approach believes that behaviour is based upon experience and genetic make- up so someone may have aggressive behaviour early in life and it may get worse if it is permitted to progress. This approach could possibly be criticised by being abstract and not too realistic. Selena Ahmed Unit 8 Christine ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    PROMOTING HEALTH. P1: explain three different approaches to health education. P2: explain ...

    3 star(s)

    delicious healthy food for you and your whole family and travels to schools Britain to spread his message across. He also travels around the world and he has been interviewed on television on the progress that he has been making with his promotion of healthy eating.

  2. Unit 1 Communiction in Health and Social Care p1

    Furthermore, some of the people use written communication. This type of communication is non-verbal and formal type of communication. It is non-verbal because it does not require speaking or talking. Written communication is use by care practitioners to communicate with their clients by writing them some updates about their nursery, or clinics or what had happened to their results etc.

  1. Describe the processes of care planning with reference to care planning principles For my ...

    Assessing needs would be the third step of the care planning. This is where the patient is looked at in a holistic approach, which means looking at the person as a whole and assessing what their physical, intellectual and emotional needs are.

  2. Effective communication - P1, P2, P3, M1

    they have someone to argue for them so that they receive the things that they are entitle to. However, in some cases, an advocate may not fully understand the physical, emotional, intellectual and social needs of the person they are advocating for.

  1. Unit 18: Working in the Health Sector P1, M1 & D1

    * Being able to counsel and having listening and general communication skills which are essential. * Having excellent people skills. * Having the ability to inspire trust and confidence. * Having respect for the needs of families from a variety of different cultures.

  2. Unit 4, P1, development of an individual through the life stages.

    she was taking a shower ort basically when she wasn?t watching TV Eminem used to put some educational cartoons that learn babies the basic things. He was a very healthy baby and he started to walk when he was 11 months but when he turned 2 he started to feel

  1. Health and social care unit 7 - AO1. I will be describing the ...

    Having friends even affects children's school performance. Children tend to have better attitudes about school and learning when they have friends there. Friends have a powerful influence on a child?s positive school performance and may also help to encourage them, compared to children who lack friends; children with ?good? friends have higher self-esteem.

  2. P1 Explain the principal social perspective P2 Explain different sociological approaches to health and ...

    to get better and co-operating with the medical professionals such as doctors. This view suggests that ill must be cared for and must be dealt with as soon as possible in order for the society to run smoothly. 1. Marxism The founder of Marxism is Karl Marx (1818-1883), who was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist and revolutionary socialist.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work