- Abrahams Maslow’s hiracery needs:
Abraham Maslow is well renowned for proposing the Hierarchy of Needs Theory in 1943. This theory is a classical depiction of human motivation. This theory is based on the assumption that there is a hierarchy of five needs within each individual. The urgency of these needs varies. These five needs are as follows-
Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of air, water, food, clothing and shelter. In other words, physiological needs are the needs for basic amenities of life.
Safety needs- Safety needs include physical, environmental and emotional safety and protection. For instance- Job security, financial security, protection from animals, family security, health security, etc.
Social needs- Social needs include the need for love, affection, care, belongingness, and friendship.
Esteem needs- Esteem needs are of two types: internal esteem needs (self- respect, confidence, competence, achievement and freedom) and external esteem needs (recognition, power, status, attention and admiration).
Self-actualization need- This include the urge to become what you are capable of becoming / what you have the potential to become. It includes the need for growth and self-contentment. It also includes desire for gaining more knowledge, social- service, creativity and being aesthetic. The self- actualization needs are never fully satiable. As an individual grows psychologically, opportunities keep cropping up to continue growing.
According to Maslow, individuals are motivated by unsatisfied needs. As each of these needs is significantly satisfied, it drives and forces the next need to emerge. Maslow grouped the five needs into two categories - Higher-order needs and Lower-order needs. The physiological and the safety needs constituted the lower-order needs. These lower-order needs are mainly satisfied externally. The social, esteem, and self-actualization needs constituted the higher-order needs. These higher-order needs are generally satisfied internally, i.e., within an individual. Thus, we can conclude that during boom period, the employees lower-order needs are significantly met.
P2: explain the potential impact on self-concept of three major life changes
Self-concept: It is the way a person views him or herself, and includes things like self-esteem, self-image, family roles, identity, values, religion, occupation, philosophy, goals, or whatever is important to the person in how he or she views him or herself.
The way you view yourself is your self-concept. Concept means idea so your self-concept is the idea that you have about yourself. The way you see yourself, of course, may be completely different to how others see you.
What affects self-concept?
This table shows you about the life events and show you the negative and positive effects
I shall now discuss the impact of two predictable and two unpredictable major life events in relation to an individual's development.
Throughout everyone's life, we come across a variety of factors that influence an individual's development. These factors can come in the form of predictable and unpredictable events. By this I mean that some of our major changes in life can be predicted and some can be chosen. Others may be predictable. Everyone experiences life events differently to other people.
Some major life changes may influence your development, because you find positive ways of coping, which then may help in the future. Alternatively some people fail to adapt to a major factors in life, which can result in stress and a loss of self-confidence in ability to cope with change. Most changes in life involve a whole range of issues. Even predictable and welcome changes involve a great deal of new learning and coping with a range of loss.
The events that we experience in our lives influence how we develop and change in each stage of our lives. Life pushes us through changes at particular point. These periods of change are all transition points which can be little unsettling. They are usually counterbalanced by periods of clam and stability. These changes may make us feel awkward or even be painful but they are necessary because life does not stand still.
A life event can change the direction of our lives, affecting our personal development. Some major changes in life can be predicted and even chosen, while others may be unpredicted. Predictable life events, such as starting school, going through puberty and retiring from work, often mark a transition from one stage of life to another, acting as milestones in our personal development. Unpredictable life events, such as sudden illness or injury, redundancy or the death of a friend or relative, occur unexpectedly and are often associated with loss, but may also lead to positive change in our lives.
Predictable life events tend to happen at particular points of our lives and these events are expected. We can already consider some of the physical changes that occur or we undergo through the lifespan like if are already an adult puberty is an example and a child would expect as well to undergo this process where lots of physical changes will happen and there will be emotional changes like higher level of sense of self-esteem and peer pressure but some might or might not have problem with this but surely they will undergo through this.
One of the predictable life events that a person can go through is starting school or nursery. Families and school often go to great lengths to prepare children for this transition. Going to school or nursery for the first time is a big event for most children. Through this event, child’s intellectual development will boost up; they will learn new things in different ways. It means that it will help them to stimulate their brains and gradually will understand that they are growing up into a successful and independent individual. Staring school also contribute to the child’s social life because they will learn to make new friends and cope with the changes of their social life. They will begin to learn how to communicate properly and how to interact with others besides of their parents and other close family member. However, there might be some problems that may appear like even the most well prepared child may be reluctant to be left by their parents on their first day. They may feel unsafe because they are out of their safe side and will feel loss of support from their carers and they not really have not found that trust they need from others yet and because of that they will be withdrawn from others. Teachers and other staff can usually provide enough support and reassurance to help the young child to settle.
Another predictable life event is achieving employment and at some point of your life you will retire. Beginning work or may be changing jobs may affect our development. Through this event, we will be able to have an income which we are going to use to make that we meet our need and probably wants as well. Having good enough income will afford us our basic needs like how healthy diet we can have, how good is our housing and clothes that we need which will affect us physically. It can also give us things that we do not actually need but we want to have like may be different technologies, nice cars and better housing. Having a job could also promote our individual responsibility and personal independence; it will lead us to new social relationships and development of social skills; it also promotes our intellectual development through training and development of work-related skills and it will boost our self-confidence and changes our individuality as we gain experience and engage more through different activities. Although this event provides positive outcomes there are some negative consequences that we may experience like having free time for our family or even for ourselves and it means that our family relationship and our lifestyle will be affected. We might also feel pressured by new demands on time and mental energy.
Retirement is a predictable event of having a work. This event contributes positive and negative effect on our development. This event would mean that we could have more free time and we can control more our lives compared when we have work. We can do things that we always wanted to do but because of work we have not got the chance to do it like may be some hobbies or having holidays in different places. By this it can boost up our intellectual, emotional and even social skills. However, this could also affect us negatively like lack of daily routine because or loss of previous work roles, may be loss of contact with your close work colleagues which affect your social life and could lead to loneliness, less money and difficulty in establishing a new lifestyle and may become ill.
The other side of this event is an unpredictable event which is losing your job or made redundant because of either the job is no longer needed of the company has gone bankrupt which can affect our development as it can lead to financial pressures; lack of daily routine and loss of sense of identity; loss of self-confidence or even worse self-respect; loss of social relationships with work colleagues; increased strain in personal and family relationships which means that stress levels also increases where your mental health will be at risk. However, redundancy can lead to positive outcomes for some people; they may be motivated to learn new skills, start a new business or change their lifestyle in a way that causes them to feel happier and come satisfied in the long term.
Sometimes events happen that take us by surprise and we will not have had any preparation for them. We may all see them taking place in other people’s lives but never think it will happen to us. If these events do occur they can change our lives forever. Most of these events seem to be ones which involves some sort of loss and require a great deal of adjustment. These events are called unpredictable events.
Marriage is usually a positive life event, celebrated by hundreds of thousands of people. Although in some cases this event can be predicted but this can be unpredicted as well as you cannot tell if you going to get married or not because of some circumstances like even you are in relationship you would not know if your partner would be ready to have the kind of commitment or in some part of the world this can be unpredictable in time matter as parents decides whether their child will get married or not and when it should happen. Marriage could come out to positive and negative results. Positive results would be that the person will have someone to share their life with who cares for them and they will establish a deeper emotional commitment to each other. Negative results might be that they will feel threatened by intimacy and sharing possessions and making compromises. There might be some conflict between their families or in a good way they gain more family members that will support them.
Divorce could be the unpredictable side of it. People do not marry intending to get divorced. Usually they individuals will be financially worse off as two homes need to be maintained. Arrangements for their children if they have any are made so that they are able to spend time with both parents and although many children find this difficult, if handled sensitively, it would not have a serious negative impact. It affects more one of the couple emotionally as they might grief at the loss of the relationship and failure to adapt to an unwanted lifestyle or even develop mental illness such as depression. Though divorce can a have a negative impact on the lives of those affected, it may still preferable to being in a stressful and unsatisfactory relationship. Positive side is many parents will learn to cope in such a difficult situation, new stills and even go on to develop new relationships but this will require many adjustments.
Bereavement can be expected or an unexpected even depending on when, how and which family member or friend has passed away. It can cause a major change in our lives, affecting our social and emotional development, as well as impacting on out self-concept. As we get older, we expect to lose our parents our partners but we do not expect to lose a child, sibling, parent or close friend when they are young. If a person has lived to great age or has a terminal illness, we may anticipate and prepare ourselves for their death. In other cases, however, a person’s death may be sudden or unexpected. In either case, a grieving process takes place and people experience a range of emotions. There may be disbelief that the person had died; there may be sadness; anger or guilt depending on the circumstances may be very difficult to deal with. Bereavement can be especially traumatic when a person dies suddenly or dramatically because of accident, serious injury or suicide, for example. It is hard to change but adjustments have to take place as we learn to cope without that significant person in our life.
Some changes are inevitable, some are not. Some will contribute positive outcomes in our lives, some will be negative. We all need to learn to cope and adjust our selves in different situations. If we can’t be prepared enough maybe we should learn how we can control things to be able to have a positive impact in our development.
P3: explain the role of one health and social care professional in supporting individuals who are experiencing transition and change
- Social worker:
The skills needed:
Social workers should be emotionally mature, objective, and sensitive to people and their problems. They must be able to handle responsibility, work independently, and maintain good working relationships with clients and co-workers. Volunteer or paid jobs as a social work aide can help people test their interest in this field. Advocate for individual clients or the community on identified problems.
- Serve as a broker by connecting individual with resources.
- Create and maintain professional helping relationships.
- Improve problem-solving, coping, and development capacities of all people.
- Be able to engage and communicate with diverse population and groups of all Sizes.
- Have a knowledge and understanding of human relationships.
- Provide services to not only support change in the individual but also in his/her environment as well.
The qualifications needed:
Social work is a graduate profession and you will need either an honours or postgraduate degree in social work approved by the General Social Care Council (GSCC) in England, although the diploma in social work (DipSW) and other previous social work qualifications are still recognised as valid social work qualifications.
Entry for HND/foundation degree holders is normally via the undergraduate degree in social work. The following subjects may improve your chances or allow some exemptions:
- politics/government/public administration;
- legal studies;
- social sciences;
- Social care.
Most undergraduate degrees are full-time courses lasting three years, although there are some part-time courses. A minimum 2:2 honours degree is often needed for entry to the postgraduate professional training. If your degree is not in a relevant subject, such as social sciences, education, psychology or nursing, substantial work experience in a relevant area can increase your chances of being considered for training.
You need to have relevant experience before being accepted on to the postgraduate course. Gain as much work experience as possible, either through paid positions in community care centres or by undertaking relevant voluntary work.
Candidates will need to show evidence of the following:
- patience and the ability to remain calm in a crisis;
- flexibility to adapt to new roles, tasks and situations;
- strong observation, analytical and listening skills;
- the capacity to absorb legal/procedural information;
- The ability to negotiate/mediate/interpret on behalf of service users.
The job role:
The Roles of the Social Worker
In doing their day-to-day work, a social worker is expected to be knowledgeable and skillful in a variety of roles. The role that is selected and used should ideally be the role that is most effective with a particular client, in the particular circumstances.
Social worker may be involved in a few or all of these roles depending on the nature of their job, and the approach to practice that they use.
A social worker works with people who have been socially excluded or who are experiencing crisis. Their role is to provide support to enable service users to help themselves. They maintain professional relationships with service users, acting as guides, advocates or critical friends. Social workers work in a variety of settings within a framework of relevant legislation and procedures, supporting individuals, families and groups within the community. Settings may include the service user's home or schools, hospitals or the premises of other public sector and voluntary organisations.
Qualified social work professionals are often supported by social work assistants. They also work closely with other health and social care staff.
Typical work activities
Many social workers work with young people and their families. They may also work with the following groups:
- young offenders;
- people with mental health conditions;
- school non-attenders;
- drug and alcohol abusers;
- people with learning and physical disabilities;
- the homeless;
- The elderly.
Government legislation focusing on the integration of health and social work services means that social workers often work in multidisciplinary teams.
Tasks typically involve:
- undertaking and writing up assessments (often with medical staff), which meet specified standards and timescales;
- conducting interviews with service users and their families to assess and review their situation;
- offering information and counselling support to service users and their families;
- organising and managing packages of support to enable service users to lead the fullest lives possible;
- recommending and sometimes making decisions about the best course of action for a particular service user;
- liaising with, and making referrals to, other agencies;
- participating in multidisciplinary teams and meetings regarding, for example, child protection or mental health;
- maintaining accurate records and preparing reports for legal action;
- giving evidence in court;
- Participating in training, supervision and team meetings.
How a social worker would support a child with cystic fibrosis:
Living with cystic fibrosis is a challenging journey no one should take without the support, education, and teamwork social workers can provide.
Social workers who serve patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) on hospital interdisciplinary teams help them deal with myriad psychosocial issues. Because CF is an inherited chronic disease with no cure, it remains with a person from birth until death, and a social worker encounters issues that change as a patient ages.
Because CF is characterized by thick, sticky mucus that clogs the lungs and causes shortness of breath; a persistent, phlegmy cough; and lung infections, it is often thought of as a lung disease. However, the mucus also affects the digestive system, preventing digestive enzymes from properly breaking down food and the body from absorbing nutrients. The result can be a malnourished, underdeveloped individual who suffers with troublesome bowel movements, including greasy, bulky stools.
Due to the possibility of patients with CF transmitting bacteria to each other, students with CF in the same school should be separated into different lunch periods and classes, according to Chambers. When separate rooms are not an option, the students with CF must remain on opposite sides of the room. Chambers teaches her patients and their families what she calls the “3-ft rule,” meaning that people with CF should always remain at least 3 ft away from each other.
In fact, CF is an isolating illness that requires patients to avoid the very people who share their experiences and understand their struggles. Camps created exclusively for kids with CF are relics of the past.
How a social worker help the elderly through bereavement:
The older people get, the more major life events they experience which can cause depression. Some of the major risk factors to look out for are:
- Death of a loved one
- Medical illness
- social isolation and loneliness
- Divorce, separation, abusive relationships
- Economic and other chronic stress
- Caring for an ill spouse or adult child
- Estrangement from family
- General decline of one's former abilities
- Relocation or other major lifestyle change
When older people have little to do, and feel they are no longer capable of their former activities like working, driving, sports, etc., they experience a loss of feeling competent. They feel their best years are behind them and that there is not much purpose to life. They may not be suicidal, but they have lost their desire to live; this condition in clinical terms is apathy, and it can get much worse if not addressed.
Identifying Depression in Older People
Some symptoms of depression in the elderly are:
- Loss of appetite for food or overeating
- Disruption in sleep patterns (either too little or too much, especially excessive napping during the day)
- Loss of desire for things they used to enjoy, such as reading, walking, etc.
- Loss of interest in prior social activities, including family activities
All of this sounds so gloomy. It is easy to look at the life of an older person and think, "I'd be depressed too if it were me." But aging can be a time of peace and fulfilment and even freedom from prior burdens. No one should have to suffer prolonged depression when there is treatment available.
An over-arching issue for many older people is social isolation and loneliness. When people are more connected socially, they feel much better. Talking to a therapist is often the first important link in helping the elderly to regain connection and enhance their ego strength. Treatment options are diverse: individual counselling or therapy, therapeutic groups, and referrals to community centres and structured social activities.
Clinical social workers can make a proper assessment as to the presence of clinical depression, its severity, and how best to treat it. Sometimes medication is needed and sometimes not; the social worker makes a referral to a certified psychologist or psychiatrist who can prescribe medications. All of these mental health professionals can make assessments if there are more serious problems like suicidal thoughts, or the need for hospitalization.
Often counselling or psychotherapy alone is sufficient, with regular monitoring for the need of medication. Counselling and psychotherapy by a certified clinical social worker / psychotherapist helps because it is a very specific type of "active listening" with feedback and guidance. Clinical social workers are professionally trained to ask the right questions, and to encourage and help people express in their own words what is working and what is not working so well in their lives. In this way older people learn, or re-activate, coping skills to make them feel better and manage their emotional and practical lives much more effectively.
How a social worker would help adolescents
Struggling teens usually show signs of distress, such as low self-esteem; school failure and truancy; social isolation; depression and anxiety; substance abuse; defiance toward authority (parents, teachers, police); running away from home; choosing the “wrong” friends; impulsive behaviour (such as speeding); getting in trouble with the law (for example, shoplifting or driving without a license); eating disorders (overeating, not eating, self-induced vomiting); and self-injury (such as cutting).
Social workers can help families with struggling teens by providing the following:
- information about important warning signs of teens who are on a downward spiral, so parents can intervene;
- crisis intervention counselling to help stabilize the situation;
- on-going counselling for the teen, the parents, and the family as a whole to provide emotional support, change counterproductive family dynamics and parenting strategies, and teach problem solving and coping skills;
- comprehensive assessment of the teenager’s and family’s needs and strengths so parents can search for services that truly fit their child’s circumstances;
- information about and referral to needed programs and services, both locally and nationally;
- information about financial resources to pay for needed services (for example, getting subsidies from the local school district or child welfare agency or exploring educational loans designed for families with struggling teens);
- information about legal assistance from educational advocates who are specially trained to pursue funding and services from local school districts;
- Case management (helping staff from multiple agencies coordinate and communicate on behalf of the teen, and advocating for the family with these providers); and
- Guidance in recognizing and avoiding common mistakes made by parents who are desperate for help and want to stop their teen’s free-fall. For example, parents, in their urgency, may want to pick a program quickly and impulsively without sufficient exploration; select a program or school based primarily on cost rather than its suitability to meet the teen’s needs; select a program or school whose methods and approach are not grounded in sound published theory and research; shun out-of-home placement when it is, in fact, the best way to meet the teen’s needs; or select a program or school primarily because it is close to home, not because it fits the teen.
To help parents navigate the disconnected jumble of programs and services, social workers can provide parents with the names of competent educational advocates and consultants who may be able to help parents and teens obtain needed services.
M2: discuss how three types of support may be used by professionals who work with individuals experiencing transition and change
D1: analyse the benefits to the individual who is experiencing transition and change of one of the chosen types of support.
The three types of support I have decided to examine are:
- Residential care:
Residential Care for Children
Residential Care for Children/Children's Homes are there to ensure that the needs of children are met when they cannot live with their own family. They are a place for children to develop and grow, as well as providing food, shelter, and space for play and leisure in a caring environment. Children's Homes look after children with many different needs.
When children and young people come to live in a Children's Home they will have a Care Plan. Their Care Plan says why a child is living in a home, what is supposed to happen while they are living there and what is supposed to happen at the end of their stay. Most children will go home, but a few go to live with other families and a few go to live in other homes. Older children, who are not planning to return home, are given help to prepare them for living on their own - this is called Aftercare.
Education is important. Children go to their own school if they have a school place, or we help to get them back into school. Although some young people may still attend different resources in the community, for example school, college, etc.
It is very important that children and young people stay in touch with their family and friends. It is only when they might be hurt, or a Court Order says that contact is not allowed, that some children will not be able to have visits from their family or will not be able to visit them.
Children and young people are respected as individuals. By providing for their religious and cultural needs children are encouraged to keep their sense of personal identity and community.
Eligibility for the Service
Children and young people have to live away from their own families for all sorts of reasons. These include:
- Their parents are unwell
- They have problems with their family and need to spend some time away from home, e.g.: behavior problems or educational difficulties
- They may have a disability and need a break from living with their families
- They are in the care of local authority subject on a Court Order or an Interim Care Order
- Generally, when children and young people need to live away from their families, they will stay with foster carers. It is only when Foster care is either not possible or not desirable accommodation or may not be what the young person would choose
- In all cases, we make sure that all the alternatives are fully considered before recommending residential care.
- Grief therapy:
Grief therapy is used with people who are experiencing complicated grief. In, the mourner talks about the deceased and tries to recognize if he or she is experiencing an expected amount of emotion about the loss.
Grief therapy may allow the mourner to see that anger, guilt, or other negative or uncomfortable feelings can exist at the same time as more positive feelings about the person who died. In grief therapy, six tasks may be used to help the bereaved with accepting the loss.
The therapy will help them develop the ability to experience, express, and adjust to painful grief-related changes. The mourner will also find effective ways to cope with painful changes. Grief therapy will help the mourner to know they can still honour their relationship with the deceased and still move on. The mourner will be encouraged to stay healthy and keep functioning.
Therapy will also help the person to re-establish relationships and understand that others may have difficulty empathizing with the grief they experience. Lastly, grief therapy will help the bereaved to develop a healthy image of oneself and the world.
- Managing terminal illness (hospice care):
Hospice care might be an option if you or a loved one has a terminal illness. Understand how a hospice care works and how to select s program.
If you are a loved one has a terminal illness and you’ve exhausted all treatment options, you may consider hospice care. Find out how hospice care works and how it can provide comfort and support to you or your loved one, as well as your family and friends.
What is hospice care?
Hospice is a special concept of care designed to provide comfort and support to patients and their families when a life-limiting illness no longer responds to cure-oriented treatments.
- Offering comfort and dignity.
- Hospice care is provided by a team-oriented group of specially trained professionals, volunteers and family members.
- Hospice addresses all symptoms of a disease, with a special emphasis on controlling a patient's pain and discomfort.
- Hospice deals with the emotional, social and spiritual impact of the disease on the patient and the patient's family and friends. Hospice offers a variety of bereavement and counselling services to families a patient's death.
- Hospice care neither prolongs life nor hastens death. Hospice staff and volunteers offer a specialized knowledge of medical care, including .
- The goal of hospice care is to improve the quality of a patient's last days by
The benefits of hospice care:
- Hospice allows terminally ill people and their families to remain together in the comfort and dignity of familiar surroundings, often at home.
- Hospice provides expert pain and management allowing a terminally ill person to be as comfortable and pain-free as possible.
- Hospice treats the person, not the disease.
- Hospice care respects and reflects a person's choices about end-of-life care.
- Hospice cares for the entire family unit, not just the patient. A family member is anyone the patient shares a significant relationship with.
- Hospice focuses on quality not quantity of life.
- Recent studies show that people who choose hospice care may live longer than those with similar diagnoses who do not choose hospice.
- Hospice provides an interdisciplinary team of knowledgeable professionals and volunteers to care for people and their loved ones who are experiencing a life-limiting illness.
- Hospice is a cost-effective to the high costs of hospitals and traditional institutional care. Many people find hospice provides financial relief.
The benefits of hospice care and palliative care:
Palliative care primarily involves services by health care providers such as hospitals, hospices, or other community health providers to improve the quality of a seriously ill person's life and to support that person and his or her family during and after treatment. Learn more about palliative care.
If you have (), it may cover some treatments and medications that provide palliative care, including visits from doctors, nurse practitioners, and social workers. Medicare does not use the term palliative, so coverage is provided by standard Medicare Part B benefits. The palliative care provider (the organization offering you the services) will bill Medicare for services provided, but be sure you understand what co-pays or fees, if any, you will be asked to pay. Ask about your responsibility for fees and request a fee schedule before agreeing to receive services.
If you are covered by , a health insurance plan for people with low income and few assets, it may cover some palliative care treatments and medications, including visits from doctors. does not use the term palliative, so coverage is provided by standard Medicaid benefits. The palliative care provider (the organization offering you the services) will bill Medicaid for services provided, but be sure you understand what co-pays or fees, if any, you will be asked to pay. Ask about your responsibility for fees and request a fee schedule before agreeing to receive services.
Private insurance, HMOs, managed care programs
Many private health insurance plans provide some coverage for palliative care as part of their hospice or chronic care benefits. If you own a long-term care policy, there may be palliative care benefits provided by that policy. Check with your health insurance or long-term care insurance representative.
Hospice care helps you with:
Since people differ in their spiritual needs and religious beliefs, is set up to meet your specific needs. It may include helping you look at what death means to you, helping you say good-bye, or helping with a certain religious ceremony or ritual.
Home care and inpatient care
Although hospice care can be centred in your home, you may need to be admitted to a hospital, extended-care facility, or a hospice inpatient facility. The hospice can arrange for inpatient care and will stay involved in your care and with your family. You can go back to in-home care when you and your family are ready.
While you are in hospice, your family and caregivers may need some time away. Hospice service may offer them a break through , which is often offered in up to 5-day periods. During this time you will be cared for either in the hospice facility or in beds that are set aside for this in nursing homes or hospitals. Families can plan a mini-vacation, go to special events, or simply get much-needed rest at home while you are cared for in an inpatient setting.
Regularly scheduled family conferences, often led by the hospice nurse or social worker, keep family members informed about your condition and what to expect. Family conferences also give you all a chance to share feelings, talk about what to expect and what is needed, and learn about death and the process of dying. Family members can find great support and stress relief through family conferences. Daily conferences may also be held informally as the nurse or talks with you and your caregivers during their routine visits.
Bereavement is the time of mourning after a loss. The hospice care team works with surviving loved ones to help them through the grieving process. A trained , clergy member, or professional counsellor provides support to survivors through visits, phone calls, and/or letter contact, as well as through support groups. The hospice team can refer family members and care-giving friends to other medical or professional care if needed. Bereavement services are often provided for about a year after the patient's death. To learn more on this topic, please see our documents, , and .
Hospice volunteers play an important role in planning and giving hospice care in the United States. Volunteers may be health professionals or lay people who provide services that range from hands-on care to working in the hospice office or fundraising.
Hospice care staff members are kind and caring. They communicate well, are good listeners, and are interested in working with families who are coping with a life-threatening illness. They are usually specially trained in the unique issues surrounding death and dying. Yet, because the work can be emotionally draining, it is very important that support is available to help the staff with their own grief and stress. Ongoing education about the dying process is also an important part of staff support.
Coordination of care
The interdisciplinary team coordinates and supervises all care 7 days a week, 24 hours a day. This team is responsible for making sure that all involved services share information. This may include the inpatient facility, the home care agency, the doctor, and other community professionals, such as pharmacists, clergy, and funeral directors. You and your caregivers are encouraged to contact your hospice team if you are having a problem, any time of the day or night. There is always someone on call to help you with whatever may arise. Hospice care assures you and your family that you are not alone and help can be reached at any time.
Finding a hospice care:
Hospice and palliative care services support people who have a life-limiting or terminal illness, their family, carers and close friends.
There are a number of other local and national organisations that can offer practical, emotional and financial information and support for people affected by life-limiting and terminal illnesses
Conclusion: from the unit is have learned the nature of self-concept and its links with self-esteem and I learned how a self-concept affect individuals and I learned the potential impact on self-concept of major life changes. From M2 and D1 I have learned the role how the roles of the health and social care professional support individuals with transition and change.