Unit 25: Coping with change in health and social care

Authors Avatar by alasadif (student)


Unit 25: Coping with change in health and social care context

Student name: Fatima Al_asadi

Teacher name: Ms John

Aim and purpose:

This unit aims to enable learners to explore the nature of self –concept and the way can change impact on this.  Learners will also be able to explore the role of health and social care professionals in providing appropriate support.


You are a trainee social worker undertaking a part time course at a local university. You have been asked to write an essay about how change and transition affects the self-concept. You are also required to make recommendations about how health and social care workers. Professional can offer support to those experiencing transition and change.  

Learning outcomes:

  • Understand the nature of self-concept and its links with self-esteem.
  • Understand the potential impact on self-concept of major life changes.
  • Understand the role of the health and social care professional in supporting transition and change.  

P1: discuss factors which may affect the development of self esteem

Self-esteem refers to your opinion of self. High self-esteem means you hold yourself in high regard, whereas low self-esteem means you do not have a good opinion about yourself and can be the cause of depression and a host of other problems. Therefore, self-esteem refers to how much you value yourself and how important you think you are. It’s a measure of how you see how important you think you are. It’s a measure of how you see yourself and how you feel about your life and your achievements. Self-esteem is not about bragging about yourself, it’s actually knowing within, that you are worthy of the best. It is about loving and accepting yourself just the way you are – not about thinking you are perfect (nobody is).

Why is self-esteem important?

Every individual needs to have self-esteem, quite simply because it affects every aspect of one’s life. Having a good self-esteem is essential, because: It helps you feel good about yourself and everything you do. it translates into belief in yourself, giving you the courage to try new things.  It allows you to respect and honour yourself, even when you make mistakes. And when you respect yourself, others will respect you too. When you have a good self-esteem, you will know that you’re smart enough to make your own decisions. When you honour yourself, you will make choices that nourish your mind and body. You will value your safety, your feelings and health. Therefore, you will choose to make healthier eating choices, exercising, or taking time off to do something you like (without feeling guilty about not doing something for somebody else)

Positive self-esteem:

Positive Self Esteem is different from high self-esteem. A positive self-evaluation will lead to confidence and the deeply held belief that you are able to deal with the challenges that life presents. Positive self-worth leads you to believe that you are worthy of experiencing happiness. Some people are blessed with an early childhood that installs the thought habits and patters that lead to a healthy view of one's self. Others are not so fortunate. Some struggle through life with low self-esteem or a high self-esteem that is not based in reality.



Negative self-esteem:

People who have low self-esteem often put themselves down. This can have a dramatic effect on a relationship, as it can cause issues with jealousy, and also make people feel as if they are ‘lucky’ to be with their partner, resulting in them constantly worrying that they may be ditched. Low self-esteem affects everybody, some more so than others, but it is how you deal with it that can prevent it from becoming a cog in your relationship. If you allow issues with self-esteem to run your relationship, then this can be the basis of its ruin.


Ego identity:

Our ego identity is a series of core beliefs (self-definitions) that also function as a defence/protection mechanism. Our ego identity is who we think us are as well as familiar feelings and emotions we identify with ourselves. One of the most familiar and unconscious (out of awareness) emotions that confirm everyone’s ego identity is nervous anxiety. Our ego identity is a mental and emotional construct held together by core beliefs. A belief is a firmly held opinion that is taken as truth. Beliefs are necessary to build a workable understanding of life, explain your relationship to people and develop a way to recognize who you are, during childhood. Beliefs are unquestioned assumptions that are taken for granted. In contrast, knowingness emerges from common sense wisdom. Knowingness is derived directly from experiences once the brain has fully developed and, abstract reasoning is available and functioning well. Children believe beliefs while adults have the capacity to Know, provided they are psychologically matured.


Self-actualisation is a term coined by psychologist Abraham Maslow to describe the on-going process of fully developing your personal potential. The first thing to note about self-actualisation is that it is a process not a goal. In other words, self-actualisation is not something that you aim for: it is something that you do. The second thing to note is that self-actualisation is not restricted to high-profile, high-achieving individuals; you don't have to be famous to self-actualise. Self-actualisers feel safe, calm, accepted, loved, loving and alive. They share a number of characteristics:

  • Peak experiences. Self-actualisers frequently experience moments of high excitement, ecstasy, harmony and deep meaning.

  • Higher purpose. Self-actualisers have a mission in life. They attempt to solve problems and pursue goals that are outside of themselves.
  • Spontaneous. Self-actualisers are willing to take risks and experiment with their lives. They are unrestrained and uninhibited.

  • Fresh and renewed appreciation. Every day provides an opportunity to enjoy the good things that life has to offer. Self-actualisers never tire of seeing (for example) a golden sunset. Their enjoyment and appreciation are as intense the twentieth time as they were the first.

  • Social interest. Self-actualisers take an interest in others. They care about the well-being of others and the community in which they live. Additionally, their relationships with loved ones are deep and committed.

  • Comfortable with being alone. As well as enjoying close relationships with others, self-actualisers enjoy their own company. They regularly enjoy being alone.

  • Sense of humour. Self-actualisers are able to laugh at themselves. Because their sense of humour is non-hostile, they are able to make jokes about others that are not hurtful or spiteful.

  • Critical thinking. Self-actualisers are not easily fooled. They are both open-minded and sceptical, willing to consider all ideas, but equally willing to dismiss them if they don't stand up to critical analysis.

  • Accepting of imperfection. Self-actualisers are comfortable with their own flaws as well as the flaws in others. Similarly, they calmly accept that life is full of uncertainty and frustration.

  • Self-directed. Self-actualisers are autonomous; they choose the direction of their own lives. They are independent and resourceful.


M1: compare two theories of self-esteem which contribute to our understanding of self-concept

Theories with reference to self-esteem:

  • Roger's and Bowlby four stages of attachment:

Attachment theory describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans. Its most important tenet is that an infant needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for social and emotional development to occur normally. Attachment theory explains how many the parents’ relationship with the child influences development. Attachment theory is an interdisciplinary study encompassing the fields of psychological, evolutionary, and ethological theory. Immediately after World War II, homeless and orphaned children presented many difficulties,[1] and psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby was asked by the UN to write a pamphlet on the issue which he entitled maternal deprivation. Attachment theory grew out of his subsequent work on the issues raised. Infants become attached to individuals who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with them, and who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about six months to two years of age. When an infant begins to crawl and walk they begin to use attachment figures (familiar people) as a secure base to explore from and return to. Caregivers' responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment; these, in turn, lead to internal working models which will guide the individual's perceptions, emotions, thoughts and expectations in later relationships. Separation anxiety or grief following the loss of an attachment figure is considered to be a normal and adaptive response for an attached infant. These behaviours may have evolved because they increase the probability of survival of the child.


  • Beaumeister and self-concept/esteem:

Beaumeister recommendation is this: forget about self-esteem and concentrate more on self-control and self-discipline. Recent work suggests this would be good for the individual and good for society _and might even be able to fill some of those promises that self- esteem once made but could not keep. He basically says that self-esteem isn’t that much of an important thing to be worrying about.


In greater detail I shall now explain:

  • Rosenberg's self-esteem scale:

The Rosenberg self-esteem scale is perhaps the most widely used self-esteem measure in social science research. Rosenberg’s scale of self-esteem is table of questions about yourself i.e. “at times I think I’m no good at all then he has selection of answers whether you feel you agree with the sentence (agree, disagree, slightly disagree, strongly agree, slightly agree, strongly disagree and so on.) Five of the items have positively worded statements and five has negatively worded ones. The scale measures state self-esteem by asking the respondents to reflect on their current feelings to analyse self-esteem. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale is considered a reliable and valid quantitative tool for self-esteem.

Join now!



  • Abrahams Maslow’s hiracery needs:

Abraham Maslow is well renowned for proposing the Hierarchy of Needs Theory in 1943. This theory is a classical depiction of human motivation. This theory is based on the assumption that there is a hierarchy of five needs within each individual. The urgency of these needs varies. These five needs are as follows-

Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of air, water, food, clothing and shelter. In other words, physiological needs are the needs for basic amenities of life.

Safety needs- Safety needs include physical, environmental and emotional safety and protection. ...

This is a preview of the whole essay