Unit 4 P4, P5 & D2. Development Through The Life Stages

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Jessica Bascombe 20174011   Group D

Unit 4: Development Through the Life Stages

Unit 4: Development Through The Life Stages


Disengagement Theory – The disengagement theory was created by Cumming and Henry in 1961 they claimed that older people make a positive and active effort to withdraw from life as a response to their physical, intellectual, emotional, social skills, abilities, they diminish all interests and some even their expectations of how they should behave. They had suggested that older people willingly retire from work, willingly withdraw from relationships and disengage from roles, prefer to be inactive and they become less friendly. In 1975 Cumming had argued that all older people would become less concerned with others expectations he also argued that it was healthy and appropriate for older people to withdraw from others and that disengagement is natural part with ageing.

Activity Theory – The activity theory was created by 2 mean called Lemon and Peterson in 1972 they had a more optimistic view of the aging compared to the disengagement theory. They had claimed that older people would age healthier when they maintain their relationships, roles, keep their self-busy with day-to-day activities and maintain a positive attitude to life. In addition the more social contacts, positive attitude and activities an elderly individual has the better their quality of life would be. Although as people become older unfortunate of events take place such as retirement and bereavement and these diminish their social networks and social contacts another theorist named Bromley had argued in 1966 that older people needed to remain active so it would prevent disengagement from going to far Bromley also argued that elderly people need to be educated and to be encouraged to be more active.


Each individual age differently there are many changes both physical and psychological that can occur during the ageing process some people may experience many of these changes others may not go though as many go though as many. Also some individuals may go though these changes at an earlier age where as others may not until a later stage some physical changes could happen is skin, bones, joints and muscles, the senses, organs, hormones and different body systems. There are also May psychological changes that can occur within an individual including personal confidence and self-esteem.

Physical Changes:

Cardiovascular System – The heart pumps the blood around the whole body in order to carry oxygen so the develop will be able to breathe elderly people may develop narrow arteries and other blood vessels this would be cause because of fats that have been increased inside the body which increase cholesterol levels so the walls of the arteries would gradually become blocked. This process may consequently end up in an increase of blood pressure, which would put the individual at risk of a stroke this is when blood is unable to reach the brain and could even cause a heart attack. At this life stage the heart is used the hardest the arties harden and the heart beats faster to ensure that the individual is still alive this would also cause an heart attack with increasing age the heart would become more vulnerable to disease.

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Respiratory System – Supplies are blood with oxygen in order to deliver oxygen to all parts of body the respiratory system does this though breathing when we breathe we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide this exchange of gases is the respiratory system meaning of oxygen to the blood. As individual ages their respiratory muscles become weak and would result to them becoming breathless. Many parts of the body such as the chest muscles and the lungs may reduce so they would not function properly this may be because both the body and the individual are becoming weaker due to ...

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