Respiratory System – Supplies are blood with oxygen in order to deliver oxygen to all parts of body the respiratory system does this though breathing when we breathe we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide this exchange of gases is the respiratory system meaning of oxygen to the blood. As individual ages their respiratory muscles become weak and would result to them becoming breathless. Many parts of the body such as the chest muscles and the lungs may reduce so they would not function properly this may be because both the body and the individual are becoming weaker due to the less function of the blood supply the capacity would decrease with age. Elderly people are vulnerable to emphysema a disease where the lungs may deteriorate due to their alveoli is being damage in this case it may cause the elderly individual to become breathless.
Nervous System – Is a network of nerves and cells that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body. As people age their brain and nervous system had natural changes such as the brain and spinal cord lose nerve begin to slowly transmit messages then they would had in the past the breakdown of nerves can affect the senses elderly people would have reduced or lost reflexes which could lead to problems with movement and safety. These changes are not the same in everyone some people may have many physical changes in their nerves and brain tissue.
Skin Changes – Is the most visible signs of ageing such as wrinkles and sagging skin, whitening or graying of the hair is another side of ageing. Skin is the largest organ of the body it protects you fro, the environment and helps control your body temperature. Skin has many layers such as the outer part epidermis the skin cells, pigment and proteins the middle part contains blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles and oil glands the dermis provides nutrients to the epidermis the inner layer under the dermis contains sweat glands, some hair follicles, blood vessels and fat each layer also contains connective tissue with collagen fibers to give support and elastic fibers. As you age the outer skin layer thins the number of pigment cells decreases the skin becomes thinner, pale and clear large pigmented spots may appear such as liver spots. Changes in the middle layer skin the connective tissue reduces skin elasticity the blood vessels of the dermis become more fragile this can lead to bruising and bleeding under the skin, the fat layer thins reducing its normal insulation and padding this can increase the risk of skin injury and reduce your ability to maintain body temperature which could lead to illnesses such as hypothermia the sweat glands produce less sweat this could make it harder to keep cool and could increase their risk of becoming over heated or developing heat stroke.
Bone Changes – The skeletal system is an organ, which provides the shape and form for individual’s body it also supports, protects allows our body to move and stores minerals. It is separated into 2 sections the axial, which includes the skull, the sternum, the ribs, the vertebral and the appendicualr extremities include the arm, legs, shoulders, pelvis, spinal column, hyoid bone and scapula. The skeletal system stores important minerals like protect are inner organs the skeleton consist of all bones, joints, tendons, ligaments and teeth. As we age the skeleton changes and this can result to bones becoming weaker where the individuals are more at risk to fall down bones become weak and at risk to fall down bones become weak and can cause an inactivate lifestyle which can cause bone wastage, hormonal changes in women can cause a loss of minerals in bone tissue and the bones lose calcium. The joints do not directly touch the bones they are cushioned by a cartilage that lines the bones joints are formed at the end of 2 bones they come together to hold the bones together to allow them to move. There are many different types of joints such as the ball and socket joint, condylod joints, gliding joint, hinge joint, pivot joint and the saddle joint. As we age are joints become stiffer and less flexible because of the less synovial fluid in the joints and the cartilage becomes thinner of the individual continues being inactive this can cause the cartilage to shrink and stiffen reducing joint mobility.
Organ Changes – The human body is made up of several organ systems that work together as one unit. Organs living tissue is made of cells there are many different types of cells but have a basic structure. Tissues are layer of similar cells that perform a specific function all types of tissue supports other tissue blood internal organs; epithelial tissue provides a covering for the deeper body. Muscles tissue like the striated muscle that helps move the skeleton the smooth muscle consist of the stomach and other internal organs, the cardiac muscle which makes up most of the heart wall. As elderly people age their cell experience changes they become larger and are less able to divide and multiply this can cause sells to lose their ability to function and begin function abnormally among other changes there are also an increase in pigments and fatty substances called lipids. Waste products start to build tissue called lipofuscin the connective tissue becomes more stiff which can cause organs, blood vessels and airways more rigid cell membranes change which can cause trouble getting oxygen and nutrients.
Hormonal Changes – Are chemical messengers produced by a cell or gland these messengers are sent out from 1 part of the body to effect cells in the rest of the body hormones are usually released in to the blood stream. Hormones have different side effects on our body such as mood swings, control reproductive cycle, cause hunger/cravings, prepare our body for puberty, childbirth and menopause. As we age changes naturally occur and the amount of hormones produced may change this can affect us such as blood levels of some hormones increases or decrease and hormones break down more slowly.
Menopause – Is a normal condition that all women would experience as they age menopause is the changes a woman goes though either before or after she stops menstruating making an end to her reproductive period. Some women are born with finite number of eggs which are stored in their ovaries/ ovary they produce a hormone called estrogen which regulate menstruation and ovulation. Menopause happens when the ovaries/ ovary are no longer releasing an egg every month so their periods stops. Menopause usually takes place at the age of 40 onwards but some women experience menopause early sometimes because of surgery or damage to the ovaries.
Self Esteem – Is an individuals overall sense of self worth or personal value people with poor self esteem tend to rely on the compliments from friends/family to help counteract the negative feelings and thoughts even though it may be temporary. Healthy self-esteem is based on our ability to assess ourselves and accepting who we are this could mean being able to acknowledge our strengths and weaknesses. As we age our level of self-esteem is not the same for every individual it can mature or deterote.
The services available for elderly people in health and social care provision include activities for elderly people, adult protection, freedom pass, homecare, meals on wheels and residential care homes all of these services are beneficial towards the elderly people.
Activities For Elderly People – Is a group of social workers that provide support and assistance elderly people by implementing tasks such as befriending, visiting, shopping, sitting, and driving or with any task the individual may need assistance with in their daily life’s. This service helps increase the individuals self’s esteem and confidence because they know that care professionals are there to help and encourage them in a positive way this service also helps the elderly individual to become more comfortable with their care worker.
Adult Protection – Is an organization which is across the UK that work together to enhance their understanding of harm and abuse towards vulnerable adults such as the elderly some of the rights are:
- Everyone has the right to live their life’s free from violence, fear and abuse
- All adults have the right to be protected from harm and exploitation
- All adults have the right to independence which involve a degree of risk
This service/organization helps bring a positive out come cause it benefits and supports anyone who is vulnerable, at risk of harming him or herself or harming other. Adult protection works well at helping and supporting elderly people that might suffer from disabilities or illnesses they try to minimize the chance of abuse.
Dial A Ride – This type of service is a community transport for elderly people as not everyone can use public transport, so a special bus/coach called dial a ride takes the individual to and from home and to where ever they would like to go depending on the distance. This service gives elderly people chances to go out and join in on many social activities instead of staying inside not doing much because they can not use public transport this gives elderly people a sense of relief that they can get a mini coach that will drop them home and to their destination. For elderly people to get this service they have to be 85 years or over, getting war pension mobility, supplement and or be resisted blind or partially sighted.
Homecare – This service helps provide care and support towards elderly and vulnerable people to help encourage them to live independently in their own homes. Care workers would help them with there day to day duties and personal care such as washing, dressing, preparing meals with them, prompting medication, shopping and domestic help. These care professionals are there to help elderly individuals to live independently and feel relaxed the service is tailored to meet all their needs. Elderly people can get this service by doing an assessment of their needs and eligibity and the homecare professionals would then discuss with them about the charge for the service.
Meals On Wheels – This service offers healthy and value for money food for elderly people that are not able to prepare their own meals. The service helps makes the elderly person feel more relaxed because they may be having the same meal everyday or having no meal at all so this would give them chance of eating something new and healthy that won’t harm their well being and health.
Residential Care homes - Offer accommodation, meals support with personal care such as bathing, dressing the staff of the care home are available 24 hours a day and provide support for their emotional and physical needs and care though them during their illnesses if the elderly individual can’t afford their rent and mortgage. This service helps give care and stabile for the elderly they can join a restiantial care home weather their staying permantly or temporary the staff would carry out a means test once they have done that they would take account your level of needs and your income. Care homes provide comfortable surroundings with trained staff on hand to look after their needs depending on their financial situation and will arrange a financial assessment to establish what cost they may need to pay.
Freedom Pass – Is given to elderly people because they get their pension that is not enough money and with that they would have to pay bills, food and clothes so this service has chosen to help support elderly and vulnerable individuals by giving free travel without worrying about money elderly people can get a freedom pass by applying online or at the post office. Elderly people can only get this service only if they are 60 years and over and if they are:
- Learning Disability
- No arms
- Can only use it between 9:30am – 23:00pmjessicabasco