Unit 5 Anatomy and physiology in health and social care

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0Unit 5: Anatomy and Physiology for Health and Social Care.

Aim and purpose

This unit aims to enable learners to understand aspects of the anatomy and physiology of human body systems. Learners will be able to gain an overview of the organisation of the human body before looking at how body systems work together to provide energy for the body. Learners will have the opportunity to investigate how homeostatic mechanisms operate in the body.

Unit introduction

This unit introduces core knowledge of cellular structure and function, and the organisation of the body as a whole, and then builds on this to develop a more detailed knowledge of the fine anatomy and physiology of the systems involved in energy metabolism. Learners will examine the homeostatic mechanisms involved in regulating these systems to maintain health. Learners will be given the opportunity to undertake practical activities which will require them to take measurements of the cardio-vascular system, the respiratory system and of body temperature, using noninvasive techniques to investigate normal responses to routine variations in body functioning. This unit provides the core understanding of human physiology that underpins the study of the specialist physiology units within this programme. The unit also provides an overview of body functioning that is valuable for anyone working or intending to work in a field relating to health and social care.

Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit a learner should:

  1.  Know the organisation of the human body

  1. Understand the functioning of the body systems associated with energy metabolism

  1. Understand how homeostatic mechanisms operate in the maintenance of an internal environment.

  1. Be able to interpret data obtained from monitoring routine activities with reference to the functioning of healthy body systems.

P1- Describe the functions of the main cells components

Cells are the basic units if organisms in which all living things are made. The appearance of the cells depends of the area it is located at and the functions within the organism. A cell consists of many components. These are plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, the endo reticulum (rough and smooth), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondrion and the nucleus. Each of these parts of the cell, play an important role, if it did not have all these parts then the cell would not work in and what it is meant to.

The cell membrane- (or plasma) is a thin skin around the cell. It gives the cell its shape and controls what goes into and out of the cell. If the plasma membrane was to get damaged in any way, and it wouldn't let anything enter or exit it, then we would not be able to get oxygen in and let carbon dioxide out. This means that we wouldn't be able to live, as we have to need oxygen and to let out carbon dioxide for respiration which provides our body with the energy to go through the processes that it needs.

The cytoplasm- is the fluid of the cell, which is mostly made up of water. This is also where chemical reactions take place, like metabolism, which keeps the cell alive. The function of the cytoplasm is to provide structure to the cell, a place for all the components of the cell to sit and to also provide a place for things like growth to take place. The jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located. It is represented by the gelatin.

The nucleus- is the largest structure within the cell, containing many organelles. It is usually found in the middle of the cell, but in some plant cells it can be found at the bottom. The function of the nucleus is very important because it controls what the cell does, as well as containing instructions on how to make new cells. It is Spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). It is represented by the plum.

The Golgi apparatus- is a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle which looks like a stack of pancakes. The main function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and package proteins and lipids for delivery to other organelles or outwards from the cell. It is also responsible for the producing lysosomes. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell. It is represented by folded ribbons of hard candy.

The mitochondria- are a spherical to rod shaped organelles with doubled-layered membranes which are scattered round the cytoplasm. The inner membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell. They are represented by raisins.

Centrosome - a small body located near the nucleus - it has a dense centre and radiating tubules. This is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. It is represented by a gum ball.

Lysosome – it is also called cell vesicles, and its round organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing digestive enzymes. This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place. They are represented by M&M's.

Nuclear membrane –it is the membrane that surrounds the nucleus. It is represented by the plum's skin.

Nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced. Some cells have more than one nucleolus. It is represented by the plum pit.

Ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis. They are represented by candy sprinkles.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane). It is represented by sour gummy worms.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transports materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins and lipids to the Golgi body, lysosomes, and membranes. It is represented by gummy worms.

Vacuole - fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell. They are represented by jaw breakers.

P2: outline the structure of the main tissues of the body and their role in the functioning of two named body systems.

Tissues are groups of similar cells carryout specific functions in thin unit, and it is also a non-living material called intercellular matrix, fills the spaces between the cells.

These are the types of tissues:

  • Epithelial.
  • Connective.
  • Muscle.
  • Nervous.

  • Epithelial tissues: they perform a variety of functions that includes protection epithelia are the linings of internal and external surfaces and body cavities, including ducts (tubes or channels) carrying secretions from glands. They may be composed of several layers of cells, called compound epithelia, or just a single layer knows as simple epithelia. The west or bottom layer of cells is attached to a basement membrane for support or connection. There are nerve supplies to epithelia but they are supplied with oxygen and nutrients from deeper tissues by diffusion. As they are surface tissues and exposed to friction, their capacity for growth and repair is greater than other tissues and usually occurs during sleep.

Types of epithelial tissues:

Simple squambous_ this type of epithelium is found covering surfaces that are not exposed to much irritation. For example, blood vessels are lined by simple squamous epithelium (which is more specifically called endothelium when it lines a blood vessel). The fluid-filled body cavities (or parts of the coelom) are also lined with simple squamous epithelium, here called mesothelium. This slide is a whole mount of sheet of mesothelium and does not contain other tissues. However, remember that it is not a cross section, so you are looking down on cells.

Simple cuboidal_ are  cells in a single layer of cube like cells with large, spherical central nuclei. Simple cuboidal epithelia are found on the surface of , the lining of , the walls of the , and parts of the  and . On these surfaces, the cells perform  and absorption. These cells provide protection and may be active (pumping material in or out of the lumen) or passive, depending on the location and cellular specialization. They are also found in kidney tubules, glandular ducts, ovaries, and the thyroid gland. Simple cuboidal cells are found in single rows with their spherical nuclei in the center of the cells and are directly attached to the surface. Simple cuboidal epithelium commonly differentiates to form the secretory and duct portions of glands. They also constitute the germinal epithelium which produces the egg cells in the female ovary and the sperm cells in the male testes. These cells offer some protection and function in absorption and secretion.

Simple columnar_ Simple columnar epithelial cells are longer than they are wide. Characteristically, their nucleui are found at the base of the cell. The cells are connected by tight junctions. The cells receive nutrients through the basement membrane, which separates the cells from the capillary basal layer. The main function of simple columnar epithelial cells is protection. For example, the epithelium in the stomach and digestive tract provides an impermeable barrier against any bacteria that could be ingested but is permeable to any necessary ions. This function is especially important in the colon. Simple columnar epithelial cells can specialize to secret mucus that coats and protects the surrounding surface from damage. Because the epithelium can be innervated, simple columnar epithelium is also specialized to provide sensory input. These cells are found in the cornea, inner ear, and nose. Finally, simple columnar epitheliums are very good at absorping and transporting nutrients from locations like the small intestine.

Stratified squambous_ a stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened)  arranged in layers upon a . Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity. Although this epithelium is referred to as squamous, many cells within the layers may not be flattened; this is due to the convention of naming epithelia according to the cell type at the surface. In the deeper layers, the cells may be columnar or cuboidal. This type of epithelium is well suited to areas in the body subject to constant abrasion, as it is the thickest and layers can be sequentially sloughed off and replaced before the basement membrane is exposed. It forms the outermost layer of the skin and the inner lining of the mouth, esophagus, and vagina.

Stratified cuboidal_ it is:

  •  rare
  • cube-shaped
  • commonly cells make up two layers
  • protection of larger ducts -cell layers surround/protect gland ducts
  • sweat glands in the skin
  • mammary gland in the breast
  • salivary glands in the mouth
  • may be active (pump material in/out of lumen)

Pseudostratified columnar_ Pseudostratified columnar epithelium is like simple columnar epithelium, only it has different nuclear layers making it look stratified (hence the name). Some cells have a centrally located nucleus and others have a more basal nucleus. is typically found lining the respiratory system and is also found in other tissues such as the epididymis. Three types of cells make up this epithelium - basal, columnar and fusiform cells. The first two are easy to see, but fusiform cells are difficult to demonstrate due to their shape. All cells rest on the basement membrane, but vary in height, and, as a result, the nuclei are at different levels giving the appearance of stratification.

Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function

  • In animals, most of the body’s cells are arranged into tissues
  • The structure of tissues relates to their specific functions
  • There are four main types of animal tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines its organs and cavities

  • : sheets of tightly packed cells that cover body surfaces and line internal organs and cavities
  • The base (basal) layer of epithelial tissue is attached to a dense layer of extracellular matrix
  • Contains fibrous proteins and sticky polysaccharides
  • The free (apical) surface faces the outside or inside of a surface or organ
  • Epithelial tissues are named for the number of layers they contain and for the shape of their cells

 binds and supports other tissues

  • Contains fewer cells, scattered throughout an extracellular matrix
  • Matrix:
  • Secreted by the cells
  • Contains a web of fibers embedded in a liquid, jelly, or solid
  • Loose connective tissue: binding and packing material to hold organs in place
  • Fibers are mainly loosely woven collagen and elastic
  • Fibrous connective tissue: tendons and ligaments
  • Fibers are densely packed bundles of collagen
  • Adipose tissue: pads and insulates the body and stores energy
  • Stores fat within cells
  • Little matrix
  • Cartilage: shock absorber in joints, nose, and ears
  • Many collagen fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix
  • Bone: support structure
  • Collagen fibers embedded in a hard mineral matrix of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate
  • Blood: functions in transport and immunity
  • Consists of cells suspended in a liquid matrix

These tissues are the most widely distributed in the body and lie beneath the epithelial tissues, connecting different parts of the internal structure. Various types of cells lie in a background material know as matrix. The matrix may be liquid as in blood, jelly like as an areolar tissue, firm as in cartilage or hard as in bone. The matrix of a tissue is usually secreted by the connective tissue cells. The functions of these tissues are to transport material (as in blood), give support (as in areolar tissue and cartilage), and strengthen and protect (as in bone). Many tissues contain different fibres secreted by the cells to provide special characteristics.

  •  consists of bundles of muscle cells which enclose large numbers of contractile proteins arranged in parallel
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Attached to bones by tendons
  • Responsible for voluntary body movements
  • Striped or striated appearance
  • Cardiac muscle
  • Forms the heart
  • Cells are striated and branched
  • Cells connect at specialized junctions for coordinated contraction
  • Smooth muscle
  • Lacks striations
  • Responsible for involuntary organ motions
  • Ex: intestinal movements (peristalsis)

  • : senses stimuli and rapidly transmits information from one part of the animal to another
  • Neuron: structural and functional unit of nervous tissue
  • Specialized to conduct electrical impulses
  • Dendrites convey information toward the neuron cell body
  • Axons convey information away from the neuron cell body
  • Nervous tissue also includes supporting cells

The two organs I chose are:

  • The lungs: The lungs tissues are made up mainly of squamous epithelial tissue (called alveolar epithelium in the lungs). This type of tissue serves a critical function within the lungs because it allows the transfer and exchange of gases with little or no resistance.

    The advantages are a short distance between the Oxygen in the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries.

    The lungs also contain ciliated epithelium. A function of ciliated epithelium is stimulation of goblet cells to produce a mucous-like substance that not only lubricates but also traps pathogens and particles in the bronchi.

  • The kidneys: 

The kidneys are composed of various types of epithelial tissue.

- The proximal convulated tubule is made up of simple cuboidal epithelium; with microvilli.
- The distal convulated tubule is made up of simple cuboidal epithelium; without microvilli.
- The collecting duct is made up of simple cuboidal epithelium.
- The ascending thin limb is made up of simple squamous epithelium.









P3: Outline the gross structure of all the main body systems

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A system is made up of different tissues and organs working together to perform a specific function in the body.

Skeletal system: 

Skeletal system is the system of bones, associated cartilages and joints of human body. Together these structures form the human skeleton. Skeleton can be defined as the hard framework of human body around which the entire body is built. Almost all the hard parts of human body are components of human skeletal system. Joints are very important because they make the hard and rigid skeleton allow different types of movements at different locations. If the skeleton were ...

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