• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Use examples to explain how body systems interrelate with each other. D1

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Use examples to explain how body systems interrelate with each other. D1 Homeostasis is a point of balance or internal equilibrium. All living organisms need homeostasis. They use a variety of techniques, e.g. the release of hormones and physical reactions like sweating or panting. One way to think about homeostasis is to imagine a set of scales. If coins are poured into one side of the scale, the scales slip out of balance. If weights are piled onto the other side, the scales will eventually balance. If too many weights are added, the scales will become unbalanced again. The body is like a set of scales, working constantly to achieve a state of balance. One process in homeostasis is known as negative feedback. Negative feedback reflects the body's desire to return to a normal state, signalling that a problem is occurring and regulating the resulting processes to ensure that the body reaches homeostasis rather than going too far in the wrong direction. In positive feedback, the body encourages the rapid increase of an activity to deal with an emerging situation, as for example when white blood cell production increases to cope with an infection. A number of things can interfere with the body's desire to achieve homeostasis, causing a variety of medical conditions. ...read more.

Middle

If the kidneys did not remove them, these wastes would build up in the blood and damage the body. The actual removal of wastes occurs in tiny units inside the kidneys called nephrons. Each kidney has about a million nephrons. In the nephron, a glomerulus-which is a tiny blood vessel, or capillary-intertwines with a tiny urine-collecting tube called a tubule. The glomerulus acts as a filtering unit, or sieve, and keeps normal proteins and cells in the bloodstream, allowing extra fluid and wastes to pass through. A complicated chemical exchange takes place, as waste materials and water leave the blood and enter the urinary system. In the nephron, tiny blood vessels intertwine with urine-collecting tubes. Each kidney contains about 1 million nephrons. At first, the tubules receive a combination of waste materials and chemicals the body can still use. The kidneys measure out chemicals like sodium, phosphorus, and potassium and release them back to the blood to return to the body. In this way, the kidneys regulate the body's level of these substances. The right balance is necessary for life. Most people believe that the filtering of wastes is the kidney's most important homeostatic role. However, in addition to removing excess salt, water, toxins, etc., they also release hormones. ...read more.

Conclusion

Calcitriol is normally produced in the kidneys and controls absorption of calcium and phosphate from the intestine. In chronic renal failure the kidneys do not produce enough calcitriol which results in less calcium and phosphate being absorbed. What is anaemia? A person whose blood is low in red blood cells has anaemia. Red blood cells carry oxygen to tissues and organs throughout the body and enable them to use the energy from food. Without oxygen, these tissues and organs-particularly the heart and brain-may not do their jobs as well as they should. For this reason, a person who has anaemia may tire easily and look pale. Anaemia may also contribute to heart problems. Anaemia is common in people with kidney disease. Healthy kidneys produce a hormone called erythropoietin, or EPO, which stimulates the bone marrow to produce the proper number of red blood cells needed to carry oxygen to vital organs. Diseased kidneys, however, often don't make enough EPO. As a result, the bone marrow makes fewer red blood cells. Other common causes of anaemia include blood loss from haemodialysis and low levels of iron and folic acid. These nutrients from food help young red blood cells make haemoglobin, their main oxygen-carrying protein. Healthy kidneys produce a hormone called erythropoietin, or EPO, which stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells needed to carry oxygen throughout the body. Diseased kidneys don't make enough EPO, and bone marrow then makes fewer red blood cells. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Role of Energy in the Body and the Physiology of Three Named Body ...

    5 star(s)

    The trachea (or windpipe) and the bronchi have rings of cartilage to prevent them collapsing; those in the trachea are C-shaped with the gap at the back against the main food tube, the oesophagus. This is because when food is chewed in the mouth, it is made into a ball shape (called a bolus)

  2. P2 - Physiology of fluid balance

    Na+, K+ Firstly, I will look closely at diffusion. As I have mentioned previously molecules and atoms are in constant random motion, more so in liquids and gases due to the atoms being further apart allowing them to move more freely. This motion results in what is known as a net movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

  1. Use examples to explain how body systems interrelate with each other

    The respiratory system provides a way of exchanging nutrients and waste between our bloods. Its main function is to provide the blood with oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere, and to release the waste product carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.

  2. Describe the role of energy in the body and the physiology of three named ...

    These have cords which connect to their free ends and are attached by petite papillary muscles to the ventricles heart muscles. The papillary muscle because hard just before the pressure of the muscle in the ventricle start to contract, the tendous cords are what holds the valves in position.

  1. Use examples to explain how body systems interrelate with each other

    heat, build up larger molecules using smaller ones and it is used in the active transport of materials across boundaries Those who take regular aerobic exercise can help avoid chronic diseases such as heart disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes and some cancers.

  2. Female hormones

    Next, this altered hormone stimulates the pituitary to produce luteinising hormone (LH) which causes the egg follicles to burst and the ovum to be released. After the egg is expelled, progesterone is also manufactured by the collapsed egg follicle which develops into the corpus luteum.

  1. P4 explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism ...

    parts of the circulatory system because it is through them that nutrients and oxygen are delivered to the cells. In addition, waste products such as carbon dioxide are also removed by the capillaries. What the Heart & Circulatory System Do The circulatory system works closely with other systems in our bodies.

  2. Human Anatomy and Physiology

    if keratin did not exist the water would flow down our skin. The skin has an outer layer of epithelium similar in structure to the stratified epithelium but with the important addition of a layer of crushed dead cells on the outside.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work