AS Level Edexcel History Spain 1931-33 Revision Notes

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Widespread poverty in Spain meant that there was little demand for consumer goods, this prevented development and led to a cycle of poverty.

The New republic  were troubled from the start. Previous government overspent and, in the late 1920s, left a substantial deficit. The 1929 wall street crash hit Europe badly in the early 1930s.

Political culture of Spain before 1931

  • Spain had four civil wars 1830-1939 and was deeply politically divided in terms of
  • Politics
  • Class
  • Religion
  • National Identity
  • Church sided with the old land-owning aristocracy and wanted to instil traditional values. They saw modernisation as a threat to Spanish tradition and their own power. The church had been part of the crushing of three governments – 1856, 1874 and 1923.
  • Lack of democractic culture in spain was one reason for the outbreak of war.
  • Middle class, who tended to support democracy in Britain and Franc, were weaker in Spain and sometimes opposed democracy. Following the 1850s there was widespread intermarriage between the new middle class and the old aristocracy. This alliance was further strengthened following 1917 when both groups came together in opposition to working class strikes and peasant risings. Thus, in 1923, they supported the dictatorship of Primo De Rivera.

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The end of the Spanish monarchy, 1931.

  • Despite being a constitutional monarchy, Alfonso XIII preferred to work with the military rather than politicians.
  • He never won the affection of his people and displayed no real understanding of how to tackle Spain’s social and economic problems.
  • Alfonso was closely connected to the Church. He claimed he was ‘ready to shed his own blood for the Church.’
  • The king gave his support to General Primo de Rivera, who overthrew the government in 1923 and instituted a dictatorship which lasted until 1930. At the end ...

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