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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 50
  • Peer Reviewed essays 12
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the role of the nobility in providing political stability in Tudor England

    5 star(s)

    Many nobles also held leading political positions in Tudor administration, for example in Henry VII's reign the Earl of Surrey governed the Northern council and the Earl of Pembroke administered the Welsh council. The nobles however were not expected to just give advice and guidance, as there was no such thing as a police force or a professional standing army during the 16th century so it was down to the unpaid services of his nobility and gentry to act as Lord Lieutenants, Sheriffs and Justices of Peace.

    • Word count: 1609
  2. Marked by a teacher

    The most important reason for Wolseys fall from power was his failure to obtain a divorce for Henry VIII- How far do you agree with this statement?

    5 star(s)

    The Duke of Norfolk was also related to Anne Boleyn, therefore Henry was influenced by the Boleyn faction to rid of Wolsey thus providing reason for his downfall. Wolsey himself could easily influence Henry to get rid of his enemies in addition to acquiring more power, therefore the fact that the King was easily influenced also suggests a reason as to why Wolsey fell from power. In addition to this, Henry had a constant ambition to being a popular figure, which Wolsey may have damaged.

    • Word count: 1102
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Labour weakness was the most important reason for Conservative dominance from 1951 to 1964. How far do you agree?

    5 star(s)

    This prosperity heavily contrasted to Labour's post-war government, when the country was still in the grips of rationing and shortages, and the public's remembrance of this time would not be favourable. They would not want to vote Labour back in when they were thriving so well under the Conservative rule, meaning it was one of the important reasons for which the Conservatives dominated. The property owning democracy was another reason which links to prosperity. Since more people could own their own homes, it led to a time that Macmillan coined the "property owning democracy".

    • Word count: 940
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Why did the Liberals lose the 1874 election?

    5 star(s)

    Disraeli's numerous speeches also contributed to the loss of Liberal support such as his speech at Manchester in 1872 in which he attacked Gladstone's policies as 'endangering national institutions'. These speeches appealed to all aspects of society and played on the middle class fear of radicalism. In addition to this, Disraeli improved the organisation of the Conservative Party through the Conservative Central Office and John Gorst co-ordinating working men's clubs. However, Evans argues that the Conservatives actually won due to votes from the traditionally Conservative counties, and did not effectively broaden their appeal basis.

    • Word count: 1009
  5. Marked by a teacher

    How liberal were Gladstone's domestic reforms during his first ministry?

    5 star(s)

    The new government wanted to introduce free trade in order to guarantee increased wealth to spread throughout all sections of the society. When Gladstone became president he introduced many new laws in order to improve the country and the living and working conditions. Most of his policies fitted in with his ideals of Liberalism, however there were a few which didn't or proved ineffective. One of his first policies was the Administrative Reform. Initially the only possible way to enlist the civil service was based on social background; this resulted in many talented individuals being excluded from the system.

    • Word count: 1467
  6. Marked by a teacher

    ' Did Alexander II deserve the title Tsar Liberator

    5 star(s)

    The Czar abolished a Russia tradition, the serfdom, which symbolizing class struggle and feudalism. This was a very great step forward in the modernisation of Russia. Reforms of local government were closely followed emancipation. Russia, for the first time, was given a judicial system that in important respects could stand comparison with those of Western countries. In 1864, most local government in the European part of Russia was organized into provincial and districts Zemstva, which were made up of representatives of all classes and were responsible for local schools, public health, roads, prisons, food supply, and other concerns.

    • Word count: 989
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Did Oliver Cromwell achieve his objectives from 1642 to 1658?

    5 star(s)

    However the army was associated with radicalism by the propertied and gentry, again causing more compromises for Cromwell. Foreign Policy and the unity of Great Britain were also important in Cromwell's eyes. All these objectives will be looked at and assessed as to whether they were a failure or success in both Cromwell's and others eyes. Many have described Cromwell's idea of 'Liberty of Conscience', the idea of religious tolerance, to be well ahead of its time. Cromwell believed people should find their own route to God, and as humans the government had no right to determine what route people should take, as long as it was not disruptive to society, if "the most mistaken Christian, shall desire to live peaceably and quietly under you....

    • Word count: 2367
  8. Marked by a teacher

    In what ways and to what extent does the concept of Spain's Golden Age apply more specifically to the reign of Philip II than to the whole period 1474 - 1598?

    5 star(s)

    The soldiers, bred in a country with a very harsh climate 'nine months winter, three months h**l,'1 were physically the fittest in Europe. The period of stability provided by Ferdinand and Isabella had generated enough wealth to keep the army well supplied, and their battles were fought with a high level of organisation and good tactics. These features are exhibited with the large number of successful battles fought in this period. The army began to decline as its commitments rose.

    • Word count: 2747
  9. Marked by a teacher

    Explain how Ferdinand and Isabella dealt with the problems facing them before 1479.

    5 star(s)

    Foreign menaces. v) Religious issues - Jews, Muslims, Reconquista. PARA 2 - HOW THEY DEALT WITH THEM: i) Civil War in Aragon: well, King John of Aragon was very much in favour of a marriage alliance of Ferdinand with Isabella. John saw this as a way of engineering territorial security in area like Catalonia, keeping the French at bay. He also saw the possibility of better economic ties that would help halt the decline of Barcelona and peasant unrest.

    • Word count: 1735
  10. Free essay

    To what extent did Henry VII reduce the power of the nobility

    4 star(s)

    This just puts into context the amount of suppression that Henry VII used against his nobility, using his law enforcement power as far as he could take it. Another thing it shows is the reduction in powerful nobles, as 51 attainders had been sent to suppress the nobles of Henry's choice. A second example of law enforcement under Henry VII is his use of bonds along with recognisances. Both of these, Henry VII did not make, they were already in place, having said that Henry VII milked them for all they were worth.

    • Word count: 1629
  11. Marked by a teacher

    Conservative scandals were the most important reason for why they lost in the 1964 election. Do you agree?

    4 star(s)

    Another Soviet spy case, the Kim Philby scandal, showed the government to be incompetent as they hadn't caught a spy for decades, reflecting badly on them as it once again highlighted the disorganisation of the government. The third case, the Argyll divorce case, was scandalous as it was seen as immoral and dissociated the Conservatives from their family image. These scandals together were an important factor as they made the public lose a lot of trust for the party. The Profumo affair was another important factor for the Conservative loss.

    • Word count: 928
  12. Marked by a teacher

    The victory of Sinn Fein in the 1918 general election was solely due to the mistakes of the IPP after 1914. discuss

    4 star(s)

    One of the IPP?s core principles was the idea of achieving Home Rule for Ireland, with this postponed the IPP may have looked in the eyes of the electorate directionless and without clear-cut policy. Furthermore, the party?s deception by Lloyd-George during the 1916 Home Rule Negotiations further weakened its standing, particularly with some members of the Roman Catholic hierarchy and it become wrongly associated with permanent partition. Jackson argues that the Home Rule negotiations were a ?defining moment? for a party already marginalised by the War.

    • Word count: 1291
  13. Marked by a teacher

    How far do the sources suggest that Captain Nolan was to blame for the disastrous charge by the Light Brigade at Balaclava?

    4 star(s)

    The source is an extract from Captain Nolan?s obituary in the Illustrated London News published on the 25th of November, therefore the source can be valued as it was published in a reputable Newspaper and was written around the time, but time had passed giving them an opportunity to figure out the true story and also gives a balanced view, that he was initially responsible for the disaster that occurred in ?first accounts?. Despite this the Source has got some limitations since it was an obituary so it had to be respectful and sensitive towards the matter and its purpose of publishing was to clear Nolan?s name.

    • Word count: 957
  14. Marked by a teacher

    Do you accept the view in Source V that Wolseys domestic policies were disappointing?

    4 star(s)

    of grief by displeasing so many of the common people and nobles, which also made it harder to bring about other change in his domestic policies. Contrary to this it can be argued that not all of Wolsey's financial policies were a failure such as levying tax which "favoured the people exceedingly, and especially the poor" as they were taxed according to the amount they earned, making it more affordable. It was also a success as it bought in more tax as a whole then the old system of fifteenths and tenths.

    • Word count: 1134
  15. Marked by a teacher

    How far do you agree that the building of castles was the main reason why the English were unable to mount a successful challenge to William's rule?

    4 star(s)

    The castles were placed strategically at important points, mainly 15 miles apart, in the centre of towns or in locations which allowed the Normans to control the countryside or river crossings- this way, not only did William control a particular region for any opposing activity, he could also monitor what entered and left that area. Moreover, castles even acted as centres for diplomacy and were given to chosen nobles of William, so he could trust the control of an area.

    • Word count: 1015
  16. Marked by a teacher

    Elizabeth I: There is much debate amongst historians concerning the religious priorities of Elizabeth in formulating the momentous Church Settlement of 1559

    4 star(s)

    After the Protestant burnings of the reign of 'b****y Mary', many radical Protestants returned to England from their refuges of Geneva and Strasbourg, both hot-beds of Protestant ideas. Under Elizabeth they perceived a chance to return England to its rightful religion and with no compromise with the Catholics. However, the historians following Neale's theory paint Elizabeth as preferring the Henrician form of religion of her father, with more conservative practices such as keeping a crucifix in the Chapel Royal, even when they had been removed from most of the churches in England.

    • Word count: 1270
  17. Marked by a teacher

    How successful was English foreign policy in the years 1509 1529?

    4 star(s)

    Henry joined the Holy League in the November of 1511, and in early 1512 he sent around 12,000 troops to invade southern France, led by the Marques of Dorset. However, Henry had not been aware that the Spanish had already defeated the French and made peace, and the soldiers that did not die of illness were sent home. This was a failure in that Henry felt humiliated in the eyes of the rest of the world, and felt let down by both the other members of the Holy League.

    • Word count: 2049
  18. Marked by a teacher

    Explain why Richard III was able to usurp the throne of England in June 1483

    4 star(s)

    When Edward IV died, Richard felt that he should be regent for he was the king's brother but the young Edward was under the control of Earl Rivers his maternal uncle this meant that he was a Woodville. Richard did not like the Woodville's and neither did many of the nobles because they were not from royalty or nobility so they were commoners who married their way into power also they were rewarded quite heavily and this would have even further pushed the nobility to hate them.

    • Word count: 1386
  19. Marked by a teacher

    The Liberal Reforms (1906-1914)

    4 star(s)

    The Education (Provision of Meals) Act became law in December 1906, which allowed authorities to "take such steps as they think fit for the provision of meals". Parents were to be charged only if they could afford it or else the local authority could put a halfpenny on the rates. As a result of the Act being introduced, the number of school meals provided rose from 3 million in 1906 to 9 million in 1910 and 14 million in 1914.

    • Word count: 2829
  20. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was the Treaty of Versailles harsh and short-sighted?

    4 star(s)

    However this was compromised and ended up at 6.6million, which was substantially lower than Clemenceau's original proposal. Furthermore, as stated by historian William Carr in 'A History of Germany', 'if Clemenceau had his way, the Rhineland would have become an independent State, the Saarland would have been annexed to France and Danzig would have become an integral part of Poland'. Given that Britain and America restrained Clemenceaus' proposals, it is arguable that Germany got off lightly. If Clemenceau's visions had been accepted, Germany would have been in a much worse situation than she ended up in, therefore, it is debatable that the Treaty of Versailles was justified.

    • Word count: 1170
  21. Marked by a teacher

    Expain why the general strike broke out in 1926

    4 star(s)

    In addition to this both France and Italy were receiving free coal from Germany as part of the reparations so had very little need to buy it from somewhere else. The problems with exports were only made worse by the decision to go back on the gold standard after the war, the pound, according to some experts, was overpriced by 10%, leading to further losses in the sales of various staple exports from Britain. These loss of sales caused loss in profits for the industry owners, they blamed the loss on high wages, that were kept the same during the war, they attempted to lower wages and consequently strained the relationship between themselves and the workforce.

    • Word count: 920
  22. Marked by a teacher

    How serious a threat did the Puritans pose to Elizabeth I and her Church?

    4 star(s)

    However, this didn't happen during Elizabeth I's reign and so clearly she remained in control and handled the situation skilfully in order to maintain stability as much as possible. Guy sums this up saying: 'Irrespective of Elizabeth's private faith, she maintained a vice-like grip on the Church of England and on the pace of change'. Elizabeth I was mainly concerned about Puritans more from a political than theological point of view because their disobedience was undermining her authority as Supreme Governor of the Church.

    • Word count: 3060
  23. Marked by a teacher

    Which of the grievances of the Third Estates in France in 1789 were the most important?

    4 star(s)

    On the other hand, there were the peasants. They were the poor. They included from gross fermiers to landless labourers. Peasants made up the largest group within the Third Estate. They were 80% of the total population in France. So on the whole, it can be said the Third Estate represented the majority of the French population. In anticipation of the meeting of the Estates-General, the king requested cahiers which were lists of grievances drawn up by local groups of each of the three Estates. Therefore, by 1789, the bourgeoisie along with the peasants had numerous grievances they wished addressed. But which of them were the most noteworthy?

    • Word count: 713
  24. Marked by a teacher

    Why did the liberal government introduce social reforms 1906-1914?

    4 star(s)

    This idea is very realistic as three reforms were influenced by the Labour party. Both parties main aim was to eliminate the poor and introduced benefits for the unemployed, elderly and ill. By introducing just some social reform the Liberals believed it would stave off threats from the Labour party and hopefully lessen the demand for more. There were two key event that brought the Liberals into reality and made them realize what poor health Britain's population was facing and the actual need for reform.

    • Word count: 731
  25. Marked by a teacher

    Who was to blame for the war: Charles I or Parliament.

    4 star(s)

    Charles also didn't help matter when in 1625 he married a French Catholic princess, Henrietta Maria. One problem with the marriage was that she was Catholic and Catholicism was not approved in England, as England was a protestant country. Another cause of concern was that the French had been enemies with England for centuries. The last cause for concern was not the country and religion that the princess was, but the influency she had over Charles. Charles asked Henrietta Maria for advice; he relied on her advice when it came to different decisions. When Parliament tried to force Charles to call Parliament regularly- (by only granting custom duties for one year.

    • Word count: 1259

Conclusion analysis

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How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
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  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

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