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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 50
  • Peer Reviewed essays 12
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Labour weakness was the most important reason for Conservative dominance from 1951 to 1964. How far do you agree?

    5 star(s)

    This prosperity heavily contrasted to Labour's post-war government, when the country was still in the grips of rationing and shortages, and the public's remembrance of this time would not be favourable. They would not want to vote Labour back in when they were thriving so well under the Conservative rule, meaning it was one of the important reasons for which the Conservatives dominated. The property owning democracy was another reason which links to prosperity. Since more people could own their own homes, it led to a time that Macmillan coined the "property owning democracy".

    • Word count: 940
  2. Marked by a teacher

    ' Did Alexander II deserve the title Tsar Liberator

    5 star(s)

    The Czar abolished a Russia tradition, the serfdom, which symbolizing class struggle and feudalism. This was a very great step forward in the modernisation of Russia. Reforms of local government were closely followed emancipation. Russia, for the first time, was given a judicial system that in important respects could stand comparison with those of Western countries. In 1864, most local government in the European part of Russia was organized into provincial and districts Zemstva, which were made up of representatives of all classes and were responsible for local schools, public health, roads, prisons, food supply, and other concerns.

    • Word count: 989
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Conservative scandals were the most important reason for why they lost in the 1964 election. Do you agree?

    4 star(s)

    Another Soviet spy case, the Kim Philby scandal, showed the government to be incompetent as they hadn't caught a spy for decades, reflecting badly on them as it once again highlighted the disorganisation of the government. The third case, the Argyll divorce case, was scandalous as it was seen as immoral and dissociated the Conservatives from their family image. These scandals together were an important factor as they made the public lose a lot of trust for the party. The Profumo affair was another important factor for the Conservative loss.

    • Word count: 928
  4. Marked by a teacher

    How far do the sources suggest that Captain Nolan was to blame for the disastrous charge by the Light Brigade at Balaclava?

    4 star(s)

    The source is an extract from Captain Nolan?s obituary in the Illustrated London News published on the 25th of November, therefore the source can be valued as it was published in a reputable Newspaper and was written around the time, but time had passed giving them an opportunity to figure out the true story and also gives a balanced view, that he was initially responsible for the disaster that occurred in ?first accounts?. Despite this the Source has got some limitations since it was an obituary so it had to be respectful and sensitive towards the matter and its purpose of publishing was to clear Nolan?s name.

    • Word count: 957
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Expain why the general strike broke out in 1926

    4 star(s)

    In addition to this both France and Italy were receiving free coal from Germany as part of the reparations so had very little need to buy it from somewhere else. The problems with exports were only made worse by the decision to go back on the gold standard after the war, the pound, according to some experts, was overpriced by 10%, leading to further losses in the sales of various staple exports from Britain. These loss of sales caused loss in profits for the industry owners, they blamed the loss on high wages, that were kept the same during the war, they attempted to lower wages and consequently strained the relationship between themselves and the workforce.

    • Word count: 920
  6. Marked by a teacher

    Which of the grievances of the Third Estates in France in 1789 were the most important?

    4 star(s)

    On the other hand, there were the peasants. They were the poor. They included from gross fermiers to landless labourers. Peasants made up the largest group within the Third Estate. They were 80% of the total population in France. So on the whole, it can be said the Third Estate represented the majority of the French population. In anticipation of the meeting of the Estates-General, the king requested cahiers which were lists of grievances drawn up by local groups of each of the three Estates. Therefore, by 1789, the bourgeoisie along with the peasants had numerous grievances they wished addressed. But which of them were the most noteworthy?

    • Word count: 713
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Why did the liberal government introduce social reforms 1906-1914?

    4 star(s)

    This idea is very realistic as three reforms were influenced by the Labour party. Both parties main aim was to eliminate the poor and introduced benefits for the unemployed, elderly and ill. By introducing just some social reform the Liberals believed it would stave off threats from the Labour party and hopefully lessen the demand for more. There were two key event that brought the Liberals into reality and made them realize what poor health Britain's population was facing and the actual need for reform.

    • Word count: 731
  8. Marked by a teacher

    Richard Arkwright.

    4 star(s)

    Richard Arkwright became very rich so his idea was clearly a good one because if there were a claim against the factory the manager would be responsible for sorting it out. You could also say that he did this so his factories would be more productive and efficient, and he would then gain more money. The mills would have helped local business because it says in Viscount Torrington's diary "given at year's end to such bakers, butchers etc, as shall have best supplied the market."

    • Word count: 937
  9. Marked by a teacher

    How successfully did Elizabeth I handle her finances?

    3 star(s)

    Elizabeth also participated in joint stock trading companies. This would help raise revenue by anything that was traded for a profit. An important figure that helped Elizabeth towards the end of her reign to make money was Francis Drake. Often described as a pirate, Drake on a few occasions was sent to Spain to attack ships and bring to England any sources of profit they might have. In 1592, the capture of the bullion ship Madre de Dois in the East Indies meant a return of �80,000.

    • Word count: 952
  10. Marked by a teacher

    Explain why free trade was an issue for the 1906 General Election. (12 marks)

    3 star(s)

    The small loaf represented the fact that food would be affordable (under the Liberals) and the big loaf was there to show that with tariffs, the core necessities would be unaffordable. The issue was that people just wanted cheaper food prices as it was high-priced - this is what brought attention to the "free trade" issue. In the long term - free trade would bring down the price of food as there were less restrictions.

    • Word count: 478
  11. Marked by a teacher

    How far do these sources agree that Wolsey's foreign policy was defensive?

    3 star(s)

    Source F disagrees with the statement as it provides the reader with several facts of Wolsey's policy implying that his policy was to satisfy Henry with enough chivalric duties such as battles. ''... he was internationally regarded as a figure of splendid chivalric kingship...'' This is weighted towards the fact that Wolsey's policy was more about advertising how powerful Henry VIII was, rather than making peace with other powerful countries such as France and Spain therefore, disagreeing with the statement made.

    • Word count: 825
  12. Marked by a teacher

    Do you agree with the view that in 1515-25 Henry VIII wholly surrendered power in government to Cardinal Wolsey?

    3 star(s)

    Wolsey constantly manipulated Henry so Wolsey could pass laws and policy for instance he attempted to bring greater justice to the English legal system. He controlled both of the country's legal systems and thus could always act within the law as he interpreted it, transferring cases from one court system to another as best suited his purposes, in complete defiance of past practises and existing conventions. This shows that Henry had given power to Wolsey throughout the years, even when he was next to no importance.

    • Word count: 754
  13. Marked by a teacher

    1832 reform act

    3 star(s)

    As well as understanding and knowing that popular pressure contributed to the passing of the Great Reform Act we can question and yet assess to what extent how effective it was to the passing of the Great Reform Act. Popular pressure was crucial to the passing of the Great Reform Act of 1832. The involvement of the aristocrats was a key to the cause of popular pressure. However even though the aristocrats (Tories) were involved they were against any sort of reform, and believed that if Britain reformed revolution would come after.

    • Word count: 642
  14. Marked by a teacher

    'How far did the changes of the 1960s in Britain create a 'permissive society'?'

    3 star(s)

    Thus people were exercising their freedom, resulting in the Abortion Act creating a permissive society. Prior to the passing of the Divorce Reform Act in 1969, divorce was only granted with evidence that one party had committed adultery and statistics show that there were fewer than two divorces per 1000 married couples. The Divorce Reform Act allowed couples to divorce if they had lived apart for two years and both wanted it or if they had lived apart for five years and one partner wanted it.

    • Word count: 819
  15. Marked by a teacher

    Why was Richard Arkwright so important to the Industrial Revolution

    3 star(s)

    He used it to make the thread for the looms. At first it was powered by horses but this wasn't successful because the horses needed rest and feeding. So he needed a new form of power. Also this machine couldn't fit in the houses because it was so big. His machine was efficient and didn't need a skilled worker to operate it. Richard picked up ideas from different inventors of the time and quickly put a patent on his invention so nobody copied him. His patent was taken away because he was said to have borrowed all his ideas.

    • Word count: 744
  16. Marked by a teacher

    Why did Disraeli pass the 1867 Second Reform Act?

    3 star(s)

    However, we know that this is not really the case as these riots were nothing in comparison to the riots in 1932 over the first Reform Act when the entire city of Birmingham was seized by protestors and rioters, this was merely given as a reason to help gain support of the MP's in Parliament in passing the Act. A similar reason that Disraeli presented to the Conservative Party for the need to Reform was a phrase that he coined Tory democracy, this he explained was the theory that the Conservatives should not resist social Reform but should in fact use it to gain the support of the newly enfranchised voters i.e.

    • Word count: 823
  17. Marked by a teacher

    Why did the Liberals win the General Election of 1906?

    3 star(s)

    The methods used by British soldiers to break the Boer resistance upset many. Back home people were embarrassed and outraged that the British army also took three years to overcome a group of out-numbered and out-gunned farmers. Acts were passed by Arthur Balfour, which he thought he could benefit from. The Education Act was passed in 1902. Although it was an achievement reflecting well on Balfour, it caused a storm of protesters in some areas. Similar to the Education Act the Licensing Act was passed which itself backfired on Balfour.

    • Word count: 777
  18. Marked by a teacher

    How did Wolsey managed to stay in power for so long?

    3 star(s)

    This brought several successes for England; the first one was the Battle of the Spurs, this was where the English routed the French and they "spurred "sway, hence the name of the battle. Although this was more of a propagandist then a militaristic success, it allowed for a large amount of glory, at least domestically for Henry. As Henry's main aim in foreign policy was to make himself appear as the "young buccaneer of Europe" and England as a country to be feared and respected, this was certainly a good start.

    • Word count: 587
  19. Peer reviewed

    Success in the Falklands ensured Thatchers election victory of 1983 Discuss.

    4 star(s)

    This idea of Thatcher as a strong leader was evident throughout the conflict and was a powerful tool for ensuring election victory. She was shown to be a strong leader by sending in the task force to retake the Islands without waiting for approval from either the UN or the USA, and before full negotiations for a peaceful settlement took place. This increased the idea of Britain as a great power once more, that it did not need help from other powers to get what needed to be done done.

    • Word count: 905
  20. Peer reviewed

    How successful were the economic and social reforms of the Peel ministry in the period 1841-1846?

    4 star(s)

    sugar), and reduced import duties, in order to boost the economy and stabilise a discontented society. His aim was to make Britain a cheaper place to live, thereby silencing the discontent. The success of these measures can be seen in the fact that the aforementioned deficit which Peel inherited was into a �5 million surplus by 1845, and the fact that after Peel was forced to resign, there was a mid-Victorian boom, a golden age of prosperity, which can attributed to these measures among others.

    • Word count: 728
  21. Peer reviewed

    Do you agree with the view that the main reason for the emergence of the Chartist movement was disappointment among the working-classes with the Outcome of the 1832 Reform Act?

    3 star(s)

    However the idea if parliamentary debates is trying to set people to vote. Some may argue that it's not true and if it is what the government wants to hear, it can be argued if this is useful. The source agrees with the question to an extent as it states that the working class was disappointed with the lack of change. However it says 'Ministers have no intention of severing the existing ties between the middle classes and the aristocracy. This sets the idea that there main focus was set on the middle class rather than the working class.

    • Word count: 841
  22. How Far do you Agree with the View that Wolseys Domestic Policies were Disappointing?

    Also, Vergil mentions how Wolsey "aroused himself the hatred of the whole country" which can be evidenced by the failure of the Amicable Grant. The Amicable Grant caused a huge rebellion as the people refused to pay for another loan on top of existing taxation. The Grant isolated many groups of society such as the Church and the poor and the fact that people were left with feelings of resentment showed that Wolsey's domestic policy was a disappointment to not only the people, but also to the King as Wolsey was his chief advisor.

    • Word count: 908
  23. Changing Attitudes Towards Poverty, 1880 - 1914

    This more positive attitude towards poverty was related to the growth of New Liberal attitudes and the growth of industrial unrest over poor living and working conditions, which was made worse as Britain's trade declined. In fact in economic terms and in their long term consequences, these industrial problems were even more significant than changing attitudes towards poverty. Increasing conflict with employers and the freedom that came with the Liberal Party's loosening of controls over strikes in the Trades Disputes Act led to serious strikes 1910-1913 for example the Tonypandy Riots and the dockers' strike in Liverpool.

    • Word count: 734
  24. How successful was Lord Liverpools government in defeating radical demands 1815-1827?

    One major issue in the period was Catholic emancipation so was a big target for radicals' demands. As by the mid 1820s the predominantly Catholic country of Ireland was very sensitive on the issue, as shown by the movement of The Catholic Association. Throughout the period of his government Lord Liverpool kept the issue an open question and in his failing to address it showed the Catholics he may be still be willing to grant them repeal of the Act on Union 1800 but at the same time denied all of their demands.

    • Word count: 888
  25. Why did Richard III make himself king in 1483?

    he was ruthless and determined, had powerful allies including Hastings and Buckingham, and seized the opportunities when they arose, and he took those chances and grasped them with both hands. The Woodville family had made many enemies in the past and now they made errors meaning that it was easy for Gloucester to carry through his usurpation.

    • Word count: 411

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

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