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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 50
  • Peer Reviewed essays 12
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    The most important reason for Wolseys fall from power was his failure to obtain a divorce for Henry VIII- How far do you agree with this statement?

    5 star(s)

    The Duke of Norfolk was also related to Anne Boleyn, therefore Henry was influenced by the Boleyn faction to rid of Wolsey thus providing reason for his downfall. Wolsey himself could easily influence Henry to get rid of his enemies in addition to acquiring more power, therefore the fact that the King was easily influenced also suggests a reason as to why Wolsey fell from power. In addition to this, Henry had a constant ambition to being a popular figure, which Wolsey may have damaged.

    • Word count: 1102
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Why did the Liberals lose the 1874 election?

    5 star(s)

    Disraeli's numerous speeches also contributed to the loss of Liberal support such as his speech at Manchester in 1872 in which he attacked Gladstone's policies as 'endangering national institutions'. These speeches appealed to all aspects of society and played on the middle class fear of radicalism. In addition to this, Disraeli improved the organisation of the Conservative Party through the Conservative Central Office and John Gorst co-ordinating working men's clubs. However, Evans argues that the Conservatives actually won due to votes from the traditionally Conservative counties, and did not effectively broaden their appeal basis.

    • Word count: 1009
  3. Marked by a teacher

    How liberal were Gladstone's domestic reforms during his first ministry?

    5 star(s)

    The new government wanted to introduce free trade in order to guarantee increased wealth to spread throughout all sections of the society. When Gladstone became president he introduced many new laws in order to improve the country and the living and working conditions. Most of his policies fitted in with his ideals of Liberalism, however there were a few which didn't or proved ineffective. One of his first policies was the Administrative Reform. Initially the only possible way to enlist the civil service was based on social background; this resulted in many talented individuals being excluded from the system.

    • Word count: 1467
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Explain how Ferdinand and Isabella dealt with the problems facing them before 1479.

    5 star(s)

    Foreign menaces. v) Religious issues - Jews, Muslims, Reconquista. PARA 2 - HOW THEY DEALT WITH THEM: i) Civil War in Aragon: well, King John of Aragon was very much in favour of a marriage alliance of Ferdinand with Isabella. John saw this as a way of engineering territorial security in area like Catalonia, keeping the French at bay. He also saw the possibility of better economic ties that would help halt the decline of Barcelona and peasant unrest.

    • Word count: 1735
  5. Free essay

    To what extent did Henry VII reduce the power of the nobility

    4 star(s)

    This just puts into context the amount of suppression that Henry VII used against his nobility, using his law enforcement power as far as he could take it. Another thing it shows is the reduction in powerful nobles, as 51 attainders had been sent to suppress the nobles of Henry's choice. A second example of law enforcement under Henry VII is his use of bonds along with recognisances. Both of these, Henry VII did not make, they were already in place, having said that Henry VII milked them for all they were worth.

    • Word count: 1629
  6. Marked by a teacher

    The victory of Sinn Fein in the 1918 general election was solely due to the mistakes of the IPP after 1914. discuss

    4 star(s)

    One of the IPP?s core principles was the idea of achieving Home Rule for Ireland, with this postponed the IPP may have looked in the eyes of the electorate directionless and without clear-cut policy. Furthermore, the party?s deception by Lloyd-George during the 1916 Home Rule Negotiations further weakened its standing, particularly with some members of the Roman Catholic hierarchy and it become wrongly associated with permanent partition. Jackson argues that the Home Rule negotiations were a ?defining moment? for a party already marginalised by the War.

    • Word count: 1291
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Do you accept the view in Source V that Wolseys domestic policies were disappointing?

    4 star(s)

    of grief by displeasing so many of the common people and nobles, which also made it harder to bring about other change in his domestic policies. Contrary to this it can be argued that not all of Wolsey's financial policies were a failure such as levying tax which "favoured the people exceedingly, and especially the poor" as they were taxed according to the amount they earned, making it more affordable. It was also a success as it bought in more tax as a whole then the old system of fifteenths and tenths.

    • Word count: 1134
  8. Marked by a teacher

    How far do you agree that the building of castles was the main reason why the English were unable to mount a successful challenge to William's rule?

    4 star(s)

    The castles were placed strategically at important points, mainly 15 miles apart, in the centre of towns or in locations which allowed the Normans to control the countryside or river crossings- this way, not only did William control a particular region for any opposing activity, he could also monitor what entered and left that area. Moreover, castles even acted as centres for diplomacy and were given to chosen nobles of William, so he could trust the control of an area.

    • Word count: 1015
  9. Marked by a teacher

    Elizabeth I: There is much debate amongst historians concerning the religious priorities of Elizabeth in formulating the momentous Church Settlement of 1559

    4 star(s)

    After the Protestant burnings of the reign of 'bloody Mary', many radical Protestants returned to England from their refuges of Geneva and Strasbourg, both hot-beds of Protestant ideas. Under Elizabeth they perceived a chance to return England to its rightful religion and with no compromise with the Catholics. However, the historians following Neale's theory paint Elizabeth as preferring the Henrician form of religion of her father, with more conservative practices such as keeping a crucifix in the Chapel Royal, even when they had been removed from most of the churches in England.

    • Word count: 1270
  10. Marked by a teacher

    Explain why Richard III was able to usurp the throne of England in June 1483

    4 star(s)

    When Edward IV died, Richard felt that he should be regent for he was the king's brother but the young Edward was under the control of Earl Rivers his maternal uncle this meant that he was a Woodville. Richard did not like the Woodville's and neither did many of the nobles because they were not from royalty or nobility so they were commoners who married their way into power also they were rewarded quite heavily and this would have even further pushed the nobility to hate them.

    • Word count: 1386
  11. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was the Treaty of Versailles harsh and short-sighted?

    4 star(s)

    However this was compromised and ended up at 6.6million, which was substantially lower than Clemenceau's original proposal. Furthermore, as stated by historian William Carr in 'A History of Germany', 'if Clemenceau had his way, the Rhineland would have become an independent State, the Saarland would have been annexed to France and Danzig would have become an integral part of Poland'. Given that Britain and America restrained Clemenceaus' proposals, it is arguable that Germany got off lightly. If Clemenceau's visions had been accepted, Germany would have been in a much worse situation than she ended up in, therefore, it is debatable that the Treaty of Versailles was justified.

    • Word count: 1170
  12. Marked by a teacher

    Who was to blame for the war: Charles I or Parliament.

    4 star(s)

    Charles also didn't help matter when in 1625 he married a French Catholic princess, Henrietta Maria. One problem with the marriage was that she was Catholic and Catholicism was not approved in England, as England was a protestant country. Another cause of concern was that the French had been enemies with England for centuries. The last cause for concern was not the country and religion that the princess was, but the influency she had over Charles. Charles asked Henrietta Maria for advice; he relied on her advice when it came to different decisions. When Parliament tried to force Charles to call Parliament regularly- (by only granting custom duties for one year.

    • Word count: 1259
  13. Marked by a teacher

    How Successful Were the Religious Reforms of Somerset and Northumberland?

    4 star(s)

    Seymour quickly overcame many enemies on the council and assumed control of both council and control. He titled himself 'Lord Protector' during his two years in power, and rarely put the council into good use. During his time in power Somerset proved he was a soldier and not a politician and seemed to be far more concerned with himself than with King Edward. He was often seen as "singly ill-suited for the post" and "rude, harsh and arrogant". This shows that Somerset as a person was not so popular. Religious changes under Somerset moved in a more Protestant direction.

    • Word count: 1688
  14. Marked by a teacher

    'Wolsey's foreign policy reveals that he had no other aims than to exalt his master's power and his own glory' How far do you agree with this verdict?

    4 star(s)

    Henry VIII's attempts to emulate his warrior hero, Henry V, must surely have caused problems, if indeed peace was Wolsey's ultimate gain. Scarisbrick explains the discrepancy and argues that Wolsey's foreign policy 'was a peace policy, and for about fifteen years he struggled to make it work'. Peter Gwyn however considered that peace was not Wolsey's ultimate aim, neither was the papacy, but that his loyalty to the king drove his foreign policies, 3'Wolsey believed passionately that it was his duty to work for the greater glory of Henry VIII'.

    • Word count: 1591
  15. Marked by a teacher

    Achievements of the Attlee government and the birth of the welfare state

    3 star(s)

    Such critics argue that the British economy stagnated from 1945 to 1979, when it was 'saved' by Mrs. Thatcher. Critics on the left take a different view. They claim that Attlee was too cautious and too ready to compromise; that he missed the chance to really transform Britain, for example by failing to abolish private education and private medicine. The key aims of the Labour government in 1945 were to take industry into public ownership, to bring in universal State welfare provision, and to set up the NHS.

    • Word count: 1491
  16. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was Henry VII a successful monarch?

    3 star(s)

    He was a swift and decisive king who imprisoned and executed rebels such as de la pole - this was all done to neutralise opposition so that he could succeed in his reign. This worked with great success as by the end of his reign, there was no opposition to be heard of. Other than being bloody and ruthless, Henry also used diplomatic tactics to secure his throne. His treaty and trade treaties with France and within his own towns meant that alliances and security could be founded and built.

    • Word count: 1255
  17. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the view that Henry VIII's wish for a male heir was the main reason for the break with Rome.

    3 star(s)

    But would this have been a good reason for the break with Rome? At this early stage it is probably not the main reason. Henry used an idea from Leviticus, that if a man should marry his dead brother's wife (Arthur) then he shall remain childless, even though this was note entirely true as Henry did have Mary. Also as Henry wished for this divorce so much (as he had already become infatuated with Anne Boelyn) it might have been for this reason that he created this new faith and appointed the new Archbishop of Canterbury (Thomas Cranmer, 1533)

    • Word count: 1132
  18. Marked by a teacher

    How successful was Wolsey's domestic administration of England 1515-1529?

    3 star(s)

    His attitude to nobles can also be seen in the execution of the Duke of Buckingham in 1521. Wolsey aided Henry in his fear for over mighty subjects who may oppose the monarchy. By doing this Wolsey did manage to keep Henry's throne secure. Wolsey succeeded Warham and became Lord Chancellor in 1515. He ruled over two courts of law, the Court of Chancery and the Court of Star Chamber. The Court of Chancery was Wolsey's personal court and was based on equality. Unlike common law courts, the Chancery was prepared to recognize that a man owning his own land had legal rights.

    • Word count: 1787
  19. Marked by a teacher

    "Parliament was of little importance in the government of England" - How valid is this view in the years 1525 to 1566?

    3 star(s)

    Previously the clergy had owed allegiance only to the pope. By these acts Henry gained the power to appoint his own bishops; he used it to appoint one of Anne Boleyn's friends, Thomas Cranmer, as archbishop of Canterbury. The first session of seven occurred November to December 1529 dealt with the petitions to Henry for action against Cardinal Wolsey. A committee of peers, with two commons members, drew up a list of forty-four articles attacking Wolsey and his policies. The summoning of parliament was suggested as partly down to Henry's previous unsuccessful attempt with the divorce of Catherine and that parliament would be used against her.

    • Word count: 1916
  20. Marked by a teacher

    Do you agree with the view that the 1832 reform act was a conservative measure with limited effects?

    Also it becomes clear to me from Source 4 and 5 that it was again a conservative measure with limited effect. Source 4 is from a Whig MP in a speech made to the house of commons a year prior to the reform act becoming law and it states that "I support this plan because it is our best security against a revolution". First of all from the location of the speech in the House of Commons i can deduce that Thomas Babington Macaulay was trying to convince others to vote for the bill.

    • Word count: 1341
  21. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was James I responsible for his financial problems?

    He then had to organize his coronation. James was in no mood to make this a cheap occasion. It was a once in lifetime celebration and it needed to be good. This cost him �20,000. He had inherited these 'problems' but made them more expensive by being extravagant and the fact he had over rated the English throne made him spend even more on them. Although Elizabeth was dead she was still having an effect on the things James had to do. She had starved the nobles of patronage and they did not want to go another monarchs reign without getting patronage.

    • Word count: 1397
  22. Marked by a teacher

    Why did Parliament win the English Civil War?

    Parliament also controlled London- the traditional centre of government, a big source of arms and very significantly a city with trained bands (trained armies). Parliament's other main geographical advantage was their control of most of the major ports including London and Hull, but also Plymouth, Bristol and several others. This, coupled with the allegiance of the navy to Parliament, meant that Parliament could more easily transport troops around the country (via the seas) and tax imports and exports. The contrasting methods by which the respective sides raised funds was highly significant also, even more so as the war went on.

    • Word count: 1032
  23. Peer reviewed

    The greatest obstacle to solving the Irish question in the years 1874 - 1886 was the issue of land: assess the validity of this view.

    5 star(s)

    rent for their land and were subsequently evicted by the landowners resulted in similar 'knife and fork' issues and caused great Irish unrest. This unrest manifested itself in violence, most notably in Connaught and in Phoenix Park in 1882, as the immediate threat to Irish people's wellbeing sparked 'direct action' in such a way that issues such as a religion could. The violence resulted as a result of land issues, which is indicative of the fact that it was this issue which the Irish people felt most strongly about: this is evidence for the land issue being the greatest obstacle to the resolution of the Irish Question.

    • Word count: 1053
  24. Peer reviewed

    Using all the sources, and your own knowledge, assess the extent to which Henry VIII was committed to Protestantism.

    4 star(s)

    By 1533 Anne was pregnant and Henry had to pass even more Acts to break with Rome, in order to grant his own divorce and make the child legitimate. The Act of Supremacy, Succession and Annates all brought the power originally belonging to the Pope to Henry. The Ten Articles and Bishop's Book further enforced some Protestant doctrine, and the dissolution of monasteries in 1536 removed the centre of Catholicism in England. It can be noted that the main trigger to these changes seem to the Royal divorce, and not Henry's personal beliefs.

    • Word count: 1146
  25. Peer reviewed

    To what extent were humanitarian and missionary motives the most important reason for British expansion into Africa between 1868 and 1902?

    3 star(s)

    An example of a well known missionary was Mary Slessor who went to carry out her mission in Africa. Particularly concerned with tribal customs viewed as 'un-Christian', she set out to end human sacrifice, slavery and other forms of brutality. However, in reality humanitarian motives were of very limited significance in motivating British expansion into Africa; Britain was not simply guided by altruism and a quest to help the native populations, but instead was largely led by the economic and strategic interests the continent represented for it.

    • Word count: 1414

Conclusion analysis

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How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

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