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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics
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Her youth when she became queen was also a strength as it gave her more time in which to rule (45 years overall) unlike her sister Mary who was a much older queen and only ruled for 5 years. Elizabeth's largest decision involving marriage would have been who to marry and how this would affect the country. Of the four men advised for her to marry, each would cause further problems or strongly effect other decisions which simultaneously needed to be made.
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In local government this would include groups such as the Justices of the Peace (JP's), Lord Lieutenants, sheriffs and local officers, who were unpaid and were working more for the improved status in society than for financial reward. Therefore for this co-operation to work effectively, they must be at least in broad agreement with the queen's policies. Also, being seen as close to the queen would also have been very important for them, and especially for the Privy Council, which was made up predominantly of the queen's favourites and they therefore had an element of power over the way the country was run.
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He had proceeded to gain support from several powerful European leaders and at the time seriously threatened Henry VII's stability on the throne. Warbeck, Henry would have seen him to be a more powerful opponent to face due to his knowledge gained through age. The kind of support that Simnel received seemed dangerous for Henry, as he had gained a lot of support from abroad. This could have increase the worry of being attacked from other countries and the risk of possible foreign policy breaches with England.
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Throughout the reign of Elizabeth I, the Puritan movement involved both a political and a social component. Politically, the movement attempted, mostly unsuccessfully, to have Parliament pass legislation to replace the hierarchical Church of England with a Presbyterian system, and to alter the 1559 Book of Common Prayer to remove elements considered odious by the Puritans. Socially, the Puritan movement called for a greater commitment to Jesus Christ for greater levels of personal holiness. Elizabeth looked upon all Puritans, including the majority of them who were moderate, with suspicion.
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The line of succession was not always secure or consistent and it has been argued that Tudor monarchs were not always well suited to their role as Edward was just nine years old when he became a king in 1547 and Mary was female, and so considered at that time to be less capable of ruling the country. Furthermore Mary I had been declared illegitimate at some point by her father as Henry VIII married three times before he had a male heir, moreover none of his children had children of their own.
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Charles was also successful in managing to become financially independent, without the use of subsidies (previously raised by parliament). This was done in a number of ways, some of the most successful being ship money (which raised about �190,000 a year) and the distraint from knighthood taxes (those who had refused knighthoods or failed to present themselves at the coronation were fined heavily) which raised �170,000 by the end of the 1630's. Although some of the methods were unpopular, they were certainly effective and allowed the King to fund the years between 1629 and 1637 proficiently to the extent that there was some reduction in royal debt.
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In 1491, Perkin Warbeck emerged as a threat, 'pretending' to be Richard, Duke of York - whose assumed murder in the tower had never been proved. The threat from Warbeck was possibly the greatest that the King faced during his reign, as it lasted for 8 years, and drew much international recognition from areas of Ireland, Scotland and France. This situation, combined with the Cornish Rebellion of 1497, set Henry in a particularly troubled position. Warbeck was under the care of James IV of Scotland; whilst at the same time was under threat from the grieved Cornish - who managed to march to London unopposed.
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Unfortunately for Lovell and the Stafford brothers, the plan failed terribly. The Stafford brothers were caught and Humphrey was executed. All was not lost though, as Lovell escaped to the court of Margaret or Burgundy, who, over the years of Henry's reign proves to be extremely helpful to the Yorkists, providing them with a safe haven, money and support for decades. In terms of how serious this threat was to Henry VII, this conspiracy was not very serious at all. It was very badly planned out, poorly executed and there is no evidence of support for it from either abroad or in England.
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the female population of Britain quickly came to envelop almost all aspects of British life and society, from farming to police work. Many believe that the enfranchisement of women over 30 solely as a result of their work during the war, and it was merely a expression of gratitude. That the actions of women during the war caused men to change their attitude towards women as their eyes were opened to the capabilities of women. Historians such as Paul Bartley oppose the traditional view, Bartley said "It would be naive to believe that women received the right to vote solely for services rendered in the First Word War."
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This was made worse by the presence of bacteria which lodged in clothing and caused infection through fragments entering the wound. Conflict surgeons did their best to help the wounded but their aseptic methods, which worked well in a clean operating theatre, were not so effective on a dirty battlefield. By trial and error on the massive number of casualties, surgeons arrived at the answer to this problem. They cut away infected tissue and soaked the wound with a saline solution.
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"It was not so much that Labour won the General Election of 1945, but that Churchill and the Conservatives lost it." Assess the validity of this view.
The experience of war, not only in terms of the social and economic changes and interference from the state, but also in terms of the public's experience of Labour ministers in government, had been enormously favourable to the Labour party. Wartime policies such as rationing (which actually was of benefit to the diets of a large number of the population) and evacuation had a great effect on perceptions of class and the ability of the state to direct production and distribution effectively.
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Part of it was due to individual qualities and bad decisions by individuals, especially Ramsay MacDonals himself. However, there was also the special nature of Labour party politics. The 1931 crisis did not on its own cause the bitter party divisions - the pressures of the crisis revealed the deep divisions that already existed. When Ramsay MacDonald became PM for the second time in 1929, the prospects for his Labour government seemed very favourable. Although Labour was once again dependent on Liberal support for its overall majority in parliament, MacDonald was the electoral success of 1929 and the opportunity for the Labour Party to put its long-cherished beliefs and ideas into action.
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One Disraeli's biggest mistakes leading to his election defeat in 1880 was his approach to foreign policy. The Conservatives fought wars in both Afghanistan and South Africa and sustained heavy losses of money and men in both countries. In order to fund these wars the government was forced to raise income tax from two pence to five pence in the pound. This was an especially unpopular move and made the Liberals seem particularly appealing because Gladstone has always been an advocate of low taxation and reduced government spending, especially relating to war.
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However, Gloucester disagreed. Like many others, he resented the power given to the Woodvilles and decided that he would stop them from taking the throne by taking Edward V under his wing. Part of this was due to his opportunistic character. Gloucester was tactical and opportunistic, knowing exactly when and where to strike to gain him more power and harm his enemies; he had learned this under his father's ally-turned-enemy the Earl of Warwick (the "kingmaker") in the 1460s. He was ruthless and determined to seize whatever power he could and guaranteed a legacy for his family.
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This soon had an impact and the mortality rate of London began to improve. Another of the main problems that can be seen is the lack of basic cleanliness on the streets of urban areas. Up until 1858, there was no sewerage system, London and many other cities had no real way of dealing with the public waste. The only system used were the dung heaps and the local businessmen often ran these. The businessmen would sell this to the local farmers for fertilizer. By looking at source B (Tonge and Quincey pg 5-6)
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When Henry seized the crown from Richard III at Bosworth, he knew that his own survival depended upon his dealing with the great noble families. Historians such as J.R Green and A.E Pollard have suggested that 'Henry saw the nobility as a danger, so he set out to control them ruthlessly'. But unlike his predecessors Henry VII did not try to win the loyalty of nobility but the other way round, to obtain royal awards from the king then you would have to show years of loyal service for example the Earl of Oxford were rewarded for their loyalty during Henry's exile.
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This gave Henry the title of 'Fidei defensor' (defender of the faith) which the monarch still has today. Although pope Paul III did try to take this title away in 1530 after Henry being excommunicated from the church, however in 1544 the English parliament declared through an act it to be reinstated. In 1512 Henry was invited in to the Holy league which was a group headed by Pope Julius II. The group was England, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and the pope all against France. However in 1525 the king wanted his marriage to Catherine annulled.
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This meant that Henry was likely to try and repay Brittany how he can which includes through protection. However he also had help from France who financed the battle with troops and ships. So had to also repay the French how he could. He did not want to repay any with money as being a new king with little allies needed the money to build a successful base to start his reign. He had to help in other ways such as security however he did not repay France not even by giving the land back he owned in France.
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Cavendish declares, "Thus the almoner ruled all those that ruled before him". However, Wolsey's desperation to gain Henry's esteem is evidence merely of the need for Henry's approval - as Wolsey clearly appreciated. Henry intervened less in politics before 1529 than he did afterwards, but as Peter Gwyn recognises; this was only due to his sincere satisfaction and comprehension of Wolsey's loyalty. From 1512 Wolsey climbed the political ladder very swiftly; utilising the opportunity of the French invasion to exceed Henry's expectations and impress the king with prizes in Tournai and Therouanne.
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Disraeli's second ministry deserves the title a great reforming ministry Discuss how far you agree with this view in relation to Gladstone first Ministry.
this through radically modernising the Conservative party which was represented in his Tamworth manifesto speech where he proclaimed the aims of the Conservative party were to protect institutions and traditions, strengthen the empire and alleviate the condition of the people. However Disraeli never had a clear agenda of reforms before he came into power instead his main aims were ensuring the continuation of power for the Conservative power, this meant Disraeli aimed not to disrupt his key support base of the middle and upper class and focused on reducing taxes.
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How far was Sir Robert Peel personally responsible for the recovery of the Conservative Party between 1834 - 1841?
The issue of the lack of unity is partly also down to the lack of leadership in the Party, but is also connected to events prior to Peel's time in power. The division within the Tory party came about after many unpopular decisions were made; including Peel giving in to Roman Catholic Emancipation and Wellington's statement that the Parliamentary system did not need reform. After the Reform Act of 1832, the Tories were divided into three sections. The Canningite Tories, the Ultra's and Wellington and Peel supporters.
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Henry had previously been titled "Defender of the Faith" for writing an anti-Lutheran book called the "Assertion of the Seven Sacraments" and so it is made clear that when he does choose to break with Rome it is for more political reasons than religious. Owing to his religious beliefs suggesting his marriage to Catherine of Aragon may be illegitimate-as it is written that a man is prohibited from marrying his brothers widow-Henry tried to gain an annulment on the grounds that God had not blessed the marriage.
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Puritan attempts to change the Church Settlement of 1558-9 were utterly unsuccessful during the following three decades. How far do you agree with this statement?
Yet, in an attempt to change the church from within many Puritans accepted positions in the existing Church, including leading Puritans such as, Richard c*x and John Jewel. In 1559 the Puritans did not pose any immediate threat due to the fact that they saw the settlement as the beginning of a Protestant reformation but by 1563 the Puritan clergy (within the Church) petitioned Convocation to ask if ; holy days could be abolished, ministers could read services whilst facing their congregation and organ music accompanying hymns could be abolished.
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how significant was the catholic threat to elizabeth 1, posed by her roman catholic subjects in the years 1558-1588
Despite Catholic services taking place in private, it seemed that, before 1568 many Catholics were happy to outwardly conform to Elizabeth and her religious settlement. After 1568 however, it would seem the Catholic threat significantly increased upon the arrival of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary, Queen of Scots was thought to be an influential Catholic figurehead within England and was perceived by many as an immediate threat to Elizabeth. Many factors constitute the idea, that Mary posed a significant threat to Elizabeth.
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