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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics
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However the army was associated with radicalism by the propertied and gentry, again causing more compromises for Cromwell. Foreign Policy and the unity of Great Britain were also important in Cromwell's eyes. All these objectives will be looked at and assessed as to whether they were a failure or success in both Cromwell's and others eyes. Many have described Cromwell's idea of 'Liberty of Conscience', the idea of religious tolerance, to be well ahead of its time. Cromwell believed people should find their own route to God, and as humans the government had no right to determine what route people should take, as long as it was not disruptive to society, if "the most mistaken Christian, shall desire to live peaceably and quietly under you....
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In what ways and to what extent does the concept of Spain's Golden Age apply more specifically to the reign of Philip II than to the whole period 1474 - 1598?5 star(s)
The soldiers, bred in a country with a very harsh climate 'nine months winter, three months hell,'1 were physically the fittest in Europe. The period of stability provided by Ferdinand and Isabella had generated enough wealth to keep the army well supplied, and their battles were fought with a high level of organisation and good tactics. These features are exhibited with the large number of successful battles fought in this period. The army began to decline as its commitments rose.
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Henry joined the Holy League in the November of 1511, and in early 1512 he sent around 12,000 troops to invade southern France, led by the Marques of Dorset. However, Henry had not been aware that the Spanish had already defeated the French and made peace, and the soldiers that did not die of illness were sent home. This was a failure in that Henry felt humiliated in the eyes of the rest of the world, and felt let down by both the other members of the Holy League.
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The Education (Provision of Meals) Act became law in December 1906, which allowed authorities to "take such steps as they think fit for the provision of meals". Parents were to be charged only if they could afford it or else the local authority could put a halfpenny on the rates. As a result of the Act being introduced, the number of school meals provided rose from 3 million in 1906 to 9 million in 1910 and 14 million in 1914.
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Wolsey did not take this opportunity. This challenges whether Wolsey's plans for reform in the church were serious or not. Wolsey's initial plans for reform were mainly repetitions of previous constitutions. One of these was the 'Benedictine' constitution; Wolsey simply reproduced this document with slight alterations as one of his reform plans. The 'York Provinciale' was another of his reforms which again was a set of constitutions selected from canons of his predecessors. Wolsey's reform proposals were false and superficial, this view is supported by Guy. Who also thought that Wolsey used his reforms in the church as a smokescreen.
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It could also be looked at as one of the starting points of the demand for home rule as it gave confidence to the moderate Irish. Overall, I fell that this act was a success as many people were happy with this and as about �25 million of assets were now put into education which would have increased the happiness in for most of the people in Ireland, but would have also made the Roman Catholics unhappy as they wanted this money but this was step too far for parliament so wasn't accepted.
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Tenants leaving farms were to be compensated for improvements made and for disturbance. This act was also accompanied by a "Bright clause" which lent one third of the purchase price of the land to those who wished to but it. Concurrently, the act only had symbolic significance. It had little practical effect. Landlords could easily escape payments to tenants as the Ulster Custom was difficult to define in law. Landlords also had the ability to raise rents, thus forcing tenants into arrears, making them ineligible to benefit from the act.
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Explain why a series of Acts changing the position of the clergy was passed in the years 1529 1534. (12 marks)
Backing up this act was Thomas Cranmer, the appointed new chief minister after Wolsey's failure in the 'Great Matter', he stated that the marriage between Henry and Anne was valid, as said in the act, the pope should have never granted an already consummated marriage, this resulted in the declaration that the marriage to Catherine was both null and void. It is clear that the reason for this act being passed is to grant Henry VIII the annulment he desired, however it additionally links with religion, as it was against gods will to marry someone, after having already consummated with someone else, however this is unlikely to be the reason Henry wanted to pass the act.
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The radical groups that Lord Liverpool faced were varied in their aims and seriousness. Peterloo Massacre, Luddities, Cato Street and Spa Fields were by far the most serious for a number of reasons. In 1811 - 1812, there was a series of incidents where armed protestors stormed factories and broke up machinery. These incidents happened mainly in the North, and were called Luddities. It was explained as an economic and political phenomenon with radical and violent tendencies stemming from unemployment, wage cuts and price rises.
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How far was Germany the greatest threat to Britains position as a world power in the years 1886-1901?
One factor which must be taken under consideration here is the economic rivalry which developed between the two nations. Britain was dependent on it export trade to maintain its position of economic supremacy in the world markets, and had enjoyed almost a monopoly of the production and export of coal, iron and steel (which were the key industrial commodities) during its mid-Victorian boom. However, by the time of the Depression, there was rapid German industrialisation, helped in no small part by an abundance of iron ore and coal: indeed, the Ruhr Valley in Westphalia had been known 'Miniature England' for some time before Germany's Industrial Revolution because of its similarities to industrial regions of Britain, and it was instrumental in the Revolution.
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This line, known as the Beauforts, was legitimized in 1397, but was banned from the succession. Although Henry managed to get around this problem, this threat wasn't as a result of his usurpation at all; the threat had existed all along since the Act of Legitimization that if anyone from this line took the throne they'd be challenged due to a very weak legitimate claim. Another threat to Henry was that he had no powerbase in England. Unlike previous monarchs, Henry had been raised in Brittany in relative poverty and knew few of the nobility that made up his agents for managing the localities and advising him.
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Critically review the development of the strategy of the Thatcher government toward the trade unions and assess their effectiveness
For example, Heath's government tried unsuccessfully to pass through the limitations on legitimate strikes that the Thatcher government passed through slowly in three separate acts, rather than one big declaration. The effect was the same but with the disillusionment of the unions because of the loss of the NUM against Thatcher no real opposition to the final act took place. Also the use of civil injunctions on the unions was passed through by the dint of packing the law with other more moderate control laws in the 1982 act such as on closed shop which made justifiably appealing the laws more difficult.
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Along with this, the gain had a damaging effect on German morale which could have had detrimental damage to their performance and overall faith in a victory. However, the allied forces morale was not in a much more desirable state, the conditions within the trenches and the constant ascending death toll was not what the inexperienced soldiers had predicted when they came forward to the front line. Their damning day to day life was to spark off a wave of war poetry and criticizing comments from those involved in the battle and those who had been emotionally affected by it, which included most of the British population.
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Carrying on, Mary's rule shunned strict methods used by other countries to get rid of opposition, e.g. the Jesuits (dedicated Catholic priests who were determined to reverse the Protestant Reformation with papal approval) weren't called to England to help with the restoration, even though they offered to help. There was some opposition, as there was growing persecution of heretics, especially in the south-east, but most of this was destroyed. Mary couldn't be expected to wipe out all Protestantism as this was unachievable.
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The English Church was popular and effective on the eve of the Henrician Reformation (1529)How far do you agree with this view?
He argued that they were starved wolves who abused their positions to help them further their own interests, which was to gain power and wealth. Also complaining about clergy were a number of scholars who lived their lives without the need for religious beliefs, they were known as humanists. Many humanists had studied the Bible in Latin, Greek and Hebrew and were appalled at how clergy weren't following Jesus Christ and how he wanted them to live. Some humanists believed that if clergy were more educated and less wealthy then there would have been a possible improvement.
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The conservatives did have some good ideas but many of them did not fall through because the people either did not understand them or believed there was a better way. The Liberals were able to use the mistakes made by the conservatives as part of their campaign in the general elections 1906, therefore people may not have been voting for the Liberals because of their party ideas but because they did not want the Conservatives to win. The impact of many of the recent events also had an effect on political developments not just the party campaigns themselves, for example the Boer war.
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This proved to men that women were just as capable of undertaking manual and responsible jobs as they were. This challenged the idea of the separate spheres that men and women were different both mentally and physically and so had different roles to fill in life. However, the idea that WW1 broke down the idea of the separate spheres can be challenged as Harrison argues "although many women serving in the Armed Forces were extremely brave, they did not experience the horrors of the front line. The separation of role was also reinforced by...many men across the channel while most women stayed at home."
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Severe economic crisis can lead to political extremism and the 1930s did see the triumph of political extremism and of dictatorship in several European countries, notable Germany. Other countries witnessed violent conflict between the political extremes of communist and fascist parties yet in Britain, though extreme political parties developed, they never got close to power nor did they seriously disrupt national life. Founded in 1920, the CPGB lasted until the 1990s. Although always small numerically, it had influence beyond its numbers.
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However, these cuts of �38 million were substantially less than the May Committee had proposed. By 19 August, the Cabinet had agreed to cuts amounting to �56 million - but the leaders of the other parties rejected these as too small. The next day, MacDonald and Snowden met with TUC leaders, who rejected any cuts at all that would affect the unemployed. They rejected the May Committee's proposals entirely. This put considerable pressure on the Labour Cabinet. The Bank of England desperately needed to arrange new loans from New York and Paris but the American bankers would only agree if substantial cuts to unemployment benefits were made.
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few years after the NHS was launched, it is difficult to assess how much of this improvement was specifically down to the NHS. For decades before 1948, the occurrence of infant mortality, TB and other diseases had already been falling steadily. Many outside factors affected health standards, such as housing, diet and employment. It is clear that the NHS made a significant contribution but it is important to make a balanced assessment of its impact. Doctors were self-employed, earning fees from their patients or their patents' insurance companies, friendly societies or trade unions.
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Assess the significance of Indian nationalism in the period 1845-1947 in changing Britains relationship with its empire in India.
They accepted British Raj as they had accepted Mogul Raj - because it was there1. Some Indians who received western education was actually grateful to the Empire, acknowledging how the British Empire had emancipated their minds2. However, as the British Empire entered the 20th century, nationalism grew and it became harder for the British to control India. After the Amritsar Massacre, the Congress, under Gandhi's leadership, led all-India nationalist movements, such as the non-co-operation movement in 1920, the Salt Satyagraha in 1930 and the Quit India movement in 1942.
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The letter is filled with flattering and obsequious language such as descriptions of Burghley being an "especial patron to see", and that he "now pleased God and Her Majesty" with the "extraordinary furtherance". Such a use of language suggests some degree of corruption as the Dean of Durham only got the position because of his pleasing attitude to Lord Burghley and that he isn't the best man for the job. There is also potential for inefficiency as Dean of Durham might not be a good bishop but only one which "sucks up" to Lord Burghley.
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Children suffered at school as they had very poor diets and were extremely unclean some didn't even attend school. The first act was the Education Provision of Meals Act of 1906. This act saw the government providing hundreds of British school's with free school meals to try and improve children's diets and ensure they got at least one hot meal a day. A big supporter in the introduction of this act was Margaret Bradford who one stated 'feed the stomach, then the mind.' Studies showed that children who ate properly and had good diets, learned better and achieved a higher success rate, than those who suffered from poor hygiene and poor diets.
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In addition the Whigs had left a deficit of over �2 million. Peel aimed to encourage free trade and to help the problems of the workers. The work on free trade had already been started by Huskisson during the reign of Lord Liverpool when many tariffs were removed, yet the Whigs had not taken Huskisson work any further. With the help of the Manchester School (a group of northern industrialists) Peel came to believe that tariffs were bringing down the British Economy.2 He saw that import duties made raw materials (such as cotton and iron ore)
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To what extent were the changes in the size of the electorate the key factor in determining the nature of state provisions for the poor in the period c. 1830 - 1839?
to pay higher wages to their workers, to prevent them having to rely on means of relief in the first place. With any luck, this would also discourage people from having as many children for the sake of money, hence controlling the rate of population growth and consumption of resources. Bentham wanted to see the poor cared for by the National Charity Organisation. He also proposed 'industry houses', which would be the only means by which people could access poor relief.
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