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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics
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How far do you agree with the view that Elizabeth remained single because her councillors could not agree on a suitable husband for her?
Therefore, politically, Elizabeth was unable to marry. Doren argues that if the council had united in support of one particular suitor then Elizabeth would not have been able to refuse the marriage, and the council's inability to agree on a suitor was the reason Elizabeth remained single. Henry VIII had also stated that Elizabeth must have the Privy Council's support before she married, which left the council with huge power over Elizabeth's decision. However, the Privy Council had put huge pressure on Elizabeth to marry and urged her to take a husband in late 1559, which suggests that the Privy
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In Northampton for example, householders who paid local taxes were eligible to vote and this rule is automatically excluding people who didn't own a house and also people who were quite poor. But people who lived in places like Liverpool and Coventry could only vote if they had been given freedom of the town or had gained it through inheritance or purchase2. So from this, it is quite easy to see that you could easily lose your right to vote if you moved for example and because there was no universal voting qualification it was extremely hard to maintain a well ordered political system whilst under these complex voting variations.
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Being the only Christian alternative to Catholicism, some argue that the clear divide between Rome and England, along with the sympathies that Henry shared with Protestantism, show that even if England could not be fully identified as Protestant in 1547, they were certainly moving away from being Catholic to becoming Protestant. The abolition of the Monasteries can be used as another important argument when analysing the extent to which England was a Protestant country by 1547. These actions can be used as evidence to counteract the argument that England had become a Catholic country minus the Pope.
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However, to have been successful, he needed to have achieved these aims. Labours first 18 moths of office appeared to run smoothly enough, and they managed to nationalise the Bank of England and the coal industry. This nationalisation didn't effect operations within the bank, however it showed Labours commitment to controlling the economy and not allowing private investments to dominate and so therefore steady the economy. The nationalisation of coal was also proving Labours determination to stick to policy as during the war this industry was inefficient due to its private enterprise.
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The political scene during the 1930s also meant that people were satisfied- National Government policies were accepted, and most left-wing supporters were content with the Labour party. People accepted democracy and capitalism, and did not need alternatives. British culture, which tended to focus around moderation and democracy, meant that foreign regimes seemed alien to the country. The working-class culture, discouraged extremist expansion as the unemployed tended to be apolitical. Internal problems such as financing and leadership issues also hindered the growth of the BUF/CPGB.
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This sector suits Richard Branson, knowing what products to market, who to sign and appealing in new and unorthodox ways. Many people know the Virgin brand better than the names of the individual companies within the group, Virgin is involved in planes, trains, finance, soft drinks, music, mobile phones, holidays, wines, publishing, space tourism, cosmetics and stores. Richard Branson keeps the business together with the value of his brands and workers. Most entrepreneurs have had a troubled childhood or something to give them the kick start they needed, for Sir Richard Nicholas Branson he need to achieve independence at the
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The reformation of 1529-36 was a political development to bring the church fully under Royal control. Assess the validity of this statement.
Perhaps there were even economic factors playing a part in the break from Rome? Henry knew that a male heir was vital to secure an undisputed succession, something Catherine of Aragon had been unable to deliver. This, coupled with the arrival of Anne Boleyn, seems to be a clear political motivation for Henrys desire to annul his marriage. It is debated whether Henry first grew tired of Catherine before perceiving Anne as potential wife- a view held by historian Eric Ives - or whether the appearance of this earthly temptation, united with Catherine only producing a female heir, was the catalyst of Henry's dissatisfaction with his current wife, an argument favoured by J.J Scarisbrick.
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CHAPTER FIVE: James Herriot affronts his first job as assistant in Yorkshire Dales without Siegfried watching him. His job was with a horse that had a terrible intestinal contortion with no cure at all. The only way that Herriot finds to take the horse out of his pain was putting the horse to sleep forever. But the owner of the horse was no so confident about Herriot's decision and decides to wait until Siegfried returns to ask his opinion, Siegfried agrees with Herriot's opinion and they put the horse to sleep. CHAPTER SIX: Tristan, Siegfried's brother arrives to Yorkshire Dales.
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However, this is a newly formed moral character as the characteristic of his youth was "wildness". According to the bishops, "Consideration like an angel came" after the death of his father, persuading Henry to suddenly mature into a compelling figure upon the death of his father. While Henry is preparing for the meeting with the French Ambassador in Act 1.2, we first notice about the king his precaution and lack of impulsiveness as he wishes to discuss through "some things of weight" before greeting the Ambassador. By asking Canterbury questions whether they actually do have a right to claim the Salic law, thus land, conveys that Henry is actively involved in decisions and makes thoroughly thought choices.
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Henry VIIs main reason for negotiating with other countries was to increase the wealth of the crown. His foreign policy by the end of his reign had completely achieved his aims. Discuss how far you agree with these statements.
France had interests in expanding into Italy and Brittany. England, although being in a weakened state still posed the threat of attacking if France began campaigns in Italy. England itself also had the possibility of an invasion from France and its allies Scotland, in the form of an attack from both North and South. Due to this threat Henry quickly made a truce with France which was passed on 12th of October 1485 in the early months of Henry's reign.
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To what extent was the Break with Rome in 1532-4 the result of personal and political rather than religious factors?
However it shows that there were financial reasons for the break, as later on the charges were dropped for a fine of �119,000 from the Church. In 1531, Henry became known as 'the Supreme Head of the Church in England and Wales', but this was limited when the words 'so far as the law of Christ allows' were added, meaning that Henry could not compete against the Bible. The Supplication of the Ordinaries in 1532 meant that the Church had no right to enforce its own laws, and that only Henrys laws counted, forcing the clergy to accept him as their lawmaker.
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Charles was heir to the throne, and was crowned at the age of 25, in 1625. England was protestant in this time. He was a very greedy king, but also strong-willed and determined, who longed for power, wealth and money. The trouble was, the power of parliament was growing, and the king wanted and needed money. Charles I made many mistakes, which made him very unpopular with citizens and parliament, therefore the civil war broke out and had very destructive consequences. The war between parliament and royalty broke out in 1642 and ended in 1646, a total of 4 years. During the sixteenth century, the power of parliament was very high, and had gradually been growing.
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I hurried to see her. I ran into her arms and repeatedly, very worriedly asked Auntie Mary "Aunt, Aunt what is happening, why are you crying?" I squealed out twice. She told us to go inside and take a seat. I was feeling so suspicious, my guts were about to fall out. I was walking step to step toward my house with very weird people gorging at me. I had a million possible things going through my mind, our new house having to be taken away, our shop burnt down, well?
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He asks Canterbury if he deserves it, when he says "Justly and retigiously unfold, why the salic law .... or should or should not bar us in our claim"/ Henry feels he has the right but must be absolutely sure not to make a false claim. He doesn't want men's lives on his conscience. Then another reason is people expect him to. An illustration of this is when Exeter says, "your brothers kings and monarchs of the earth do all expect that you should rouse yourself".
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Explore and Evaluate the ways in which M.R. James constructs a sense of fear and terror in 'Oh, Whistle, and I'll Come to You, My Lad', 'The Ash Tree', 'Mr Humphreys and His Inheritance' and 'Number 13'
This shows that Parkins is trying to hide his fear. M.R. James uses mystery, giving clues and at times withholds the information to build up feelings of suspense in his book - 'a patch of the turf was gone-removed by some boy or other creature ferae naturae'. He creates the use of imagery of darkness by making Parkins find this metal tube in the fading light near the beach which gives us the thought of unearthing ancient relics and the idea of awakening things.
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One of Wolsey's main aims in foreign policy was to try and avoid war especially with France, as England at this time was no match for the French. In the early years of Wolsey's foreign Policy Wolsey had mixed success. One of Wolsey's first acts of foreign affairs was to end to the War with France in 1514 in the treaty of St. Germaine. Henry's pension was renewed and his younger sister Mary was married of to King Louis XII, this was very beneficial in England's case, as they needed to avoid the disastrous war with France from continuing for too long.
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How far did the achievements of Elizabeth Garrett Anderson constitute a turning point in the history of medicine?
She sought the help of her father so that she could enter the profession as it was her ambition. She also wished to earn more money, as nursing wages were much lower than an average doctors annual pay! So, she started to attend the lectures held at the Middlesex hospital, much to the disgust of the protesting male students. However, they couldn't stop her, as she continued to persevere. This is an example of the attitude barriers that Garrett Anderson had to overcome in order to achieve her goal, as women were often held back due to the arrangement of the patriarchal society at the time.
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Cecil and Walsingham's influence was much more of a working one, using their position of power and knowledge, rather than their dancing skills to persuade Elizabeth. From the beginning, rivalry was established amongst Elizabeth's closest councillors. When Elizabeth appointed loyal William Cecil as the Principal Secretary of State, she began what would be an inseparable partnership, which would collide repeatedly with Dudley's attempts to impose his views of government and foreign policy. Elizabeth's words to Cecil have become justly famous: 'I give you this charge that you shall be of my Privy Council and content to take pains for me and my realm.
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How far would you agree that fear of popular hostility was the main reason why governments enacted parliamentary reforms in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
There were also calls for reform from more moderate radicals and members of the Whigs that called for measures for more limited reform such as disfranchising the worst of the rotten boroughs and giving representation to larger towns. The lack of reform prior to the 1832 Act can be explained by the lack of unity of the reformers and their less that significant support in the country but more importantly the Tories' anti-reform majority in parliament and the small number of pro-reform Whigs and radicals.
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Living in Plymouth, Every was never far away from the docks and became accustomed to seafaring from an early age. The first records of Every's employment show him to be midshipman aboard the Royal Navy battleship 'Rupert'2. Promotion was to follow swiftly when in the summer of 1689, 'Rupert' overpowered a large French convoy preventing vital supplies reaching Ireland. Every was swiftly promoted to 'mate', suggesting he demonstrated considerable ability in his duties. Records of such success early in his career are of great significance portraying as they do an extremely able seaman with considerable experience.
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"Conflict and Contest" or "Cooperation and consent," which phrase best sums up Elizabeth I's relationship with her parliaments
Religion, succession, free speech, and the monopolies parliaments. Firstly, take religion, which was discussed at the session in 1559. It can be argued that at this individual parliament, the relationship between parliament and the queen was one of "conflict and contest". The contemporary view is that the "parliament was obedient, even subservient to Tudor despotism"1. Therefore they argue that the relationship was one of "cooperation and consent". This was backed up by the fact that within this parliament, Elizabeth eventually got what she had wanted. The orthodox view is that there was Puritan parliamentary opposition to the bill that was introduced to restore royal supremacy over the Church of England, and that this 'puritan choir' deliberately planned confrontations in order to force the issue of parliamentary privilege.
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In order to patch relations up between the two houses Henry cleverly decided to unite the house's together, and with this Henry hopefully thought he may be able to avoid another war of the roses which could lead to his usurpation so in January 1486 he married Elizabeth of York, Edward VI's daughter to unite the houses of York and Lancaster. This seemed to patch relationships up between the houses although some bore a grudge all through his reign like the De la pole family. Therefore he did try to reduce the threat from the Yorkists, but sparks still remained.
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To what extent, does the concept of Spain's 'Golden Age' apply more specifically to the reign of Philip II than to the whole period 1474 - 1598? Justify your answer by reference to
In Aragon the royal authority diminished, and it was run by viceroys, as Ferdinand spent very little time there. There was also no permanent place of government, as Ferdinand and Isabella travelled most of their life, so the administration was wherever they were. Charles I of Spain had many problems even before he arrived in Spain; the idea of uniting Spain was under threat. He could not pay officials properly, so administration was corrupt, as bribery was often used. However, Charles did make reforms in the administration of Spain; a new Council of State was set-up in 1522, and others soon followed, giving the impression of centralisation.
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exposure of the forgery of Chatterton's papers to bring Philip to realize that "The important thing is what Charles imagined, and we can keep hold of that. That isn't an illusion. The imagination never dies." Even more important is Philip's insistence that he must tell the story in his own way. "'And you know,'" he adds, "'I might discover that I had a style of my own, after all'" Style, the creative use of language, is ultimately the writer's principal contribution to the world.
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Was it the weaknesses of the Royalists or the strength of their opponents which best explains the outcome of the first Civil War by 1646
for example, was a strategic challenge. Each of these battles would decide , who had the upper hand, logistic wise and ideologically, Moral blows would shape the battlefield. Parliaments victory wasn't full proof, it wasn't one sided, yes parliaments leadership did triumph but was it won by this? Or was it Charles generals poor capability to organise , their logistic failure, lack of food and fuel, or was it the lack of men? Or the way they moved them , lack of obedience. The war was lost, Leadership utter failure and Parliaments reform of genius which was the new model army.
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