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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics
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How far do you agree that the Personal Rule in England (1629-1640) was a success in finance but a failure in religion?
Some, but limited, comment for the most part, be unsupported and generalist 1 (1-5) question has not been properly understood limited organisational and communication skills irrelevant or extremely limited unsupported, vague or generalist comment Start your answer here: Whilst government debt was reduced by Â£1 million during this period, the reliance on unsustainable short-term methods of revenue collection which failed to provide a long-term solution to the financial weaknesses of the Crown meant that in regard to finance the Personal Rule was a partial failure. The religious policy pursued during the Personal Rule not only failed to establish conformity in religious belief among his subjects, which was Charlesâ€™ intention, but induced such hatred from large swathes of the Charlesâ€™ subject that by 1640 radical puritanism entered mainstream thought of the political nation.
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The handling of the Finances was King Henry VII's most successful domestic achievement. How far do you agree?
An important inducement depicting this is Feudal Dues. This is where the King keen to emphasise his value as King asserted his Feudal rights upon the Nobility and set out commissions of inquiry to re-establish his Feudal rights which included Ward ship where the estates of the minors were placed under royal control of the crown until the minors came of age and during the meantime, the estates would be exploited to the maximum extent to increase the profits made by the crown.
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Gladstone faced the Irish question with this same conviction during his first government. Thus it was not for lack of effort that his Irish policy failed. Rather it was the way in which he went about reforming the three main areas of concern: land, religion and education. In certain areas he misunderstood the issues at the heart of the Irish question. In others, by the time his bills had past both houses, they were so diluted by amendments that little of his policy remained. It may have been a combination of these factors, fundamental misunderstanding, poor implementation and lack of party unity, that doomed his Irish policy to failure.
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Developments in local government were certainly an important factor for Henry?s problems after 1258, as many resented these developments, particularly the gentry. Their rise in power and influence in the twelfth and early thirteenth century led them to resent the changes that Henry had brought about during his personal rule which threatened their influence in the localities. They resented the appointment of foreigners and men from outside the county as sheriffs who ?abused their special privileges and enjoyed unfair economic advantages over their English-born neighbours and co-workers? through the increments they collected, which I agree with as at this point
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Peel also saw no good economic reason as to why the Corn Laws should not be repealed and it was this strategic thinking that got many on-side and enabled the repealing of the Corn Laws. Another significant reason can be traced back to the success of the 1842 budget.
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The Jails Act meant that the government had reformed the conditions under which prisoners were kept ? conditions which had previously been unregulated and inhumane. These are but a few pieces of evidence that prove that Lord Liverpool?s government was a reforming one. Nevertheless, the government refused to reform several aspects of life regarding the middle and lower class. The poor lived in squalor, in polluted cities with very poor public health. Nothing was done about this. Therefore, it can be argued that many of the reforms that took place served the interests of the rich rather than the poor.
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Thus Elizabeth I needs to have only one main religion in England that will unify Protestants and Catholics. An example of Government having the pressure for uniformity is when religious changes caused rebellions in the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI. Hence, the most important cause of the Elizabethan Settlement is the Government pressure for uniformity to avoid foreign wars and rebellions. Another vital long term and political cause of the Elizabethan Settlement was the pressure from foreign powers because England was at war with Catholic France. Making England too Protestant could provoke an invasion by the French Army in Scotland.
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Explain the role played by the Duke of Northumberland in the Edwardian religious reforms of 1550-1553
In 1550 Bishop Ridley of London carried out a campaign to move altars away from the east end of churches and into the nave where they were used as communion tables. This was designed to stress that Christ was not actually present under the forms of bread and wine in the Eucharist ceremony, in line with the teachings of the Calvinists and other reformed churches. In January 1552, to enforce doctrinal uniformity, a new Treason Act was passed which made it an offence to question any of the articles of faith of the Church of England.
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Furthermore, it was said that Henry had a positive duty to regain the control over church and state that was written of in the Collectania. Henry?s own notes on the document prove that he was aware of its existence and that he was intelligent enough to know what it implied. It became apparent that the only way to get a divorce would be through statute law through king in parliament.
- Word count: 573
England was returned to the religion of the last year of Henry VIII?s reign, including transubstantiation and the Act of Six Articles In November 1554 Cardinal Reginald Pole returned to England and was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. In the same month the Second Act of Repeal recreated the Church settlement of 1547 as well as removing all anti-Papal legislation including the removal of the Act of Supremacy, thus restoring papal supremacy. In 1554 all the heresy laws were re-enacted and from 1555 were used to track down and execute those Protestants who refused to give up their faith.
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Using these three sources in their historical context, assess how far they support the view that Churchill was out of touch with mainstream politics in 1929-40?
Appeasement was highly popular in Britain because a lot British people didn?t desire another World War. They didn?t want a repeat of a total war that had affected everyone finically, physically, socialising and emotionally. Baldwin losing the election to a Labour candidate can be point to show that Churchill is out of touch with mainstream politics because Baldwin and Churchill had the same views on rearmament. The British public voting for Labour and not the Conservative, who were campaigning for rearmament, is an indication that people had favoured appeasement over rearmament.
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Churchills attitudes towards empire was the main reason why he was out of office 1929-40. How far do you agree?
This meant that Churchill viewed people that are not white to be uncivilised and not able to govern themselves. The government of India Act allowed more Indians the right to vote and have a federal government, which would be governed internal. Churchill viewed this as the British status and control in her empire decreasing. Other minor factors would be the abdication of the King Edward VIII, rearmament, Randolph Churchill and the tension of the Second World War. Churchill's views and attitudes of India clashed with those of the government and his own party. Churchill's behaviour to the reforms into India led to a serious of problems with Baldwin and the Conservative leadership.
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Anne Boleyn was the most important person in bringing about the Kings divorce in the years 1529 - 33. Discuss. (24 marks)
Boleyn introduces Henry to these ideas by giving him a book titled ?obedience of christian men? written by W.Tyndale. Once Henry has read this book it gives him the idea of wanting to gain him own power in being able to run his own country, so leads him gaining power over law and giving his the authority divorce Catherine and marry Boleyn. So if it wasn't for Boleyn Henry may not of had the idea in the first place to challenge the authority of the Pope over the King.
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Rebellions can be seen as the greatest challenge facing Henry VIIs rule 1485-1509 Explain why you agree or disagree (25 marks).
therefore Henry knew that important people were trying to get a Yorkist on the thrown. However this rebellion may not be classed as the biggest challenge because Simnel?s army was made up of mercenaries (paid men) who could eventually leave or swap onto the King?s side, so they were not entirely faithful. Also there was poor leadership and organisation therefore Henry may not have found this rebellion challenging. Henry overcame Simnel?s rebellion by defeating him, during this process Henry became worried that his men would betray him like the Stanley brothers had done in the Battle of Bosworth.
- Word count: 960
How far does the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3 suggest that the early sixteenth-century Church exploited peoples religious faith to increase its own wealth?
Both sources have implications that religious houses served the needs of the realms to gain currency. Furthermore, the descriptive irony of the word ?thieves? in contrast with ?holy? from source one mirrors the idea that the Church pretended to create a religious atmosphere through faith and good works when it fact it used people?s money to generate ecclesiastical wealth. Source three is also similar to source one as they both suggest that religious doctrine was largely driven by financial motives.
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The popularity of the Beveridge report was evident to intelligent Clement Atlee, with the report itself selling 750,000 copies in its first months of publishing across the nation and even the USA. This important document was used as the basis for the mass change implemented between 1945-1951. The reports main focus was to deal with 5 main factors that needed to be targets for change; these factors were called ?The Five Giants?, Want, Disease, Squalor, Ignorance and Idleness. ?Want? was the term for overarching poverty in order for Labour to tackle this several acts needed to be passed.
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How successful were the Liberal government in the years 1906-1914 in bringing about political and institutional reform (24)
This agrivated the Liberals, in particular Lloyd George who (in 1906[b]) needed to gain a substainstial amount of money to go towards the welfare reforms and to form the ?Peoples budget?, which was to present unprecedented tax upon the rich. He believed this would gain support from the working classes. Opposition and disgreement also arose from the liberals success in passing the trades[c] ' Bill in the trade unions dispute of 1906, conservatives and argued against it inside the Cabinet but the outcome of the Committee dealing with the Bill in August was to favour the trade unions' alternative.
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Why and with what degree of success did Cromwell attempt to expand English interests in Ireland and the West Indies?
Firstly it is important to assess the reasons for why Oliver Cromwell attempted to expand English interests in Ireland. Cromwell was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1649 and led the New Model Army in the English Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland between 1649 and 1651. There has been much debate between historians as to what Cromwell's motives were in Ireland. Historian John Morrill states that Cromwell's principle objective was to eliminate the threat of military support for Charles II. It is clear that parliament and Cromwell held security concerns over the threat of the Old English who remained loyal to the monarchy and it was feared that Ireland could be used as a 'backdoor' to launch an invasion of England.
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* Before the Act was passed divorces had to happen through a private Act of Parliament, which was a slow and expensive process. * After the act, divorces could happen through the law courts. However, the grounds for divorcee were on a unequal basis. If a husband wanted to divorcee his wife he had to prove adultery. However, if a wife wanted to divorce her husband she had to prove not only his adultery, but either bigamy, rape, sodomy, bestiality, cruelty or long term desertion.
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Yet, despite trade union/government attempts to improve wages and working conditions, working class women remained at the bottom of the economic scale. Middle class ? single or married, women should remain at home, look after children and engage in charitable work. IF they were forced to work, then they worked as a governess. Opening up the world of work to women: 1901-1930 Domestic service was looked upon favourably for working class women as it prepared them to lead lives as wives/mothers.
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Henry VII?s like the fact that Wolsey was from a humble background, as he wanted to control the nobility and so not give them much power. He appointed him Royal Chaplain. Everyone who encountered Wolsey remarked upon his intelligence and hardworking attitude. This is the main reason why he was able to rise to power. Henry VII trusted him to carry out very important tasks, such as negotiations with the King of Scotland. When Henry VII died and Henry VII inherited the throne, he also inherited his father?s staff, including Wolsey.
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to form a government, Grey becomes Prime Minister 1831-32 ? Cholera epidemic hits Britain ? Roughly 32,000 people die 1831 ? First Reform Bill ? Passed Commons by one vote. Parliament dissolved and general election held General election ? Whigs return with majority of 130 Second Reform Bill ? Passed Commons easily; but thrown out of Lords, country erupts in violence Third Reform Bill ? Passes easily; but Lords employ delaying tactics, Grey asks King to create pro-reform peers; King refuses, Grey resigns, country erupts in violence, Wellington fails to form a government, Grey back as PM and King agrees
- Word count: 1969