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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics
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One area in which Wolsey is seen as having a great impact on is legal reform. Wolsey was keen to make it clear that no one was above the law and that the law as applicable to all so the wealthy/powerful could not escape. In 1516 Wolsey put forward a scheme to improve the whole legal system, the power of the court of the Star Chamber was to be increased and ordinary subject were to file their own cases in Chancery and Star Chamber. This certainly seemed to have been successful, in Chancery the number of cases went up slightly from the time of Henry VII, but in Star Chamber the increase was dramatic up form 12 cases per annum to 120 per annum.
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The greatest obstacle to solving the Irish question in the years 1874 - 1886 was the issue of land: assess the validity of this view.5 star(s)
rent for their land and were subsequently evicted by the landowners resulted in similar 'knife and fork' issues and caused great Irish unrest. This unrest manifested itself in violence, most notably in Connaught and in Phoenix Park in 1882, as the immediate threat to Irish people's wellbeing sparked 'direct action' in such a way that issues such as a religion could. The violence resulted as a result of land issues, which is indicative of the fact that it was this issue which the Irish people felt most strongly about: this is evidence for the land issue being the greatest obstacle to the resolution of the Irish Question.
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This idea of Thatcher as a strong leader was evident throughout the conflict and was a powerful tool for ensuring election victory. She was shown to be a strong leader by sending in the task force to retake the Islands without waiting for approval from either the UN or the USA, and before full negotiations for a peaceful settlement took place. This increased the idea of Britain as a great power once more, that it did not need help from other powers to get what needed to be done done.
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It could also be looked at as one of the starting points of the demand for home rule as it gave confidence to the moderate Irish. Overall, I fell that this act was a success as many people were happy with this and as about �25 million of assets were now put into education which would have increased the happiness in for most of the people in Ireland, but would have also made the Roman Catholics unhappy as they wanted this money but this was step too far for parliament so wasn't accepted.
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Using all the sources, and your own knowledge, assess the extent to which Henry VIII was committed to Protestantism.4 star(s)
By 1533 Anne was pregnant and Henry had to pass even more Acts to break with Rome, in order to grant his own divorce and make the child legitimate. The Act of Supremacy, Succession and Annates all brought the power originally belonging to the Pope to Henry. The Ten Articles and Bishop's Book further enforced some Protestant doctrine, and the dissolution of monasteries in 1536 removed the centre of Catholicism in England. It can be noted that the main trigger to these changes seem to the Royal divorce, and not Henry's personal beliefs.
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sugar), and reduced import duties, in order to boost the economy and stabilise a discontented society. His aim was to make Britain a cheaper place to live, thereby silencing the discontent. The success of these measures can be seen in the fact that the aforementioned deficit which Peel inherited was into a �5 million surplus by 1845, and the fact that after Peel was forced to resign, there was a mid-Victorian boom, a golden age of prosperity, which can attributed to these measures among others.
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Do you agree with the view that the main reason for the emergence of the Chartist movement was disappointment among the working-classes with the Outcome of the 1832 Reform Act?3 star(s)
However the idea if parliamentary debates is trying to set people to vote. Some may argue that it's not true and if it is what the government wants to hear, it can be argued if this is useful. The source agrees with the question to an extent as it states that the working class was disappointed with the lack of change. However it says 'Ministers have no intention of severing the existing ties between the middle classes and the aristocracy. This sets the idea that there main focus was set on the middle class rather than the working class.
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To what extent were humanitarian and missionary motives the most important reason for British expansion into Africa between 1868 and 1902?3 star(s)
An example of a well known missionary was Mary Slessor who went to carry out her mission in Africa. Particularly concerned with tribal customs viewed as 'un-Christian', she set out to end human sacrifice, slavery and other forms of brutality. However, in reality humanitarian motives were of very limited significance in motivating British expansion into Africa; Britain was not simply guided by altruism and a quest to help the native populations, but instead was largely led by the economic and strategic interests the continent represented for it.
- Word count: 1414
Margaret Thatchers Foreign Policy 1979-1990 enhanced Britains position in the world. Assess the validity of this view.
While Britain's position in the world wasn't enhanced, Margaret Thatcher's foreign policy certainly raised the profile of Britain. Before she became Prime Minister, Britain's status was in decline because of the process of decolonisation, defence cuts and the relationship with America. Margaret Thatcher's aim was to reverse the process of decline in which she did successfully. Her strong relationship with President Reagan raised the profile of Britain as she was seen with the strongest nation in the world, as a result, Britain became a key player in the fall of Communism, becoming the negotiator between the reformist Mikhail Gorbachev and President Reagan.
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Throughout the 1950's the Conservative's promoted consumer spending to maintain high living standards, but this consumer boom excluded the working class, they felt alienated living in inner cities in poor conditions while the rest of society prospered. Due to their lack of social mobility they began to concentrate their anger at the immigrants, as highlighted by the 1958 Notting Hill Riots, 161,000 immigrants entered Britain in 1961, a figure seen as an 'invasion' by an extreme minority of the alienated working class, one they saw should be repressed to save their jobs.
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How far do these three sources support the proposition that the British dealt brutally with the Boer population in trying to defeat Boer guerrilla fighters?
with them violently it may not have actually been like that as the British solider is saying he didn't treat the Boers brutally although his was told to set fire to their farms. Source P clearly gives the impression that the British dealt brutally with the Boer population in trying to defeat the Boer guerrilla fighters. However, as this source was written by a historian and writer that fought on the Boer side of the war, it means that this source is most likely very bias towards their side and is of course going to say things that put the Boer army in a better light than the British.
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Most of the lower ranking soldiers would have feared hospitals (as they would associate it with death) and with them being more at ease with 'Mother Seacole' it meant that their wounds would actually be treated. This relationship between Seacole and the soldiers made her a lot more popular amongst the ranks than Nightingale was, the people who mattered held her in high esteem and this fits with the idea that Seacole was the real angel of mercy, even if it was only to the soldiers.
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The efforts of the British government to join the EEC in the years 1961 to 1973 were mainly a result of Britains decline as a world power Assess the validity of this view.
By the end of WW2, Britain's international prestige was high; the pound sterling was the leading international currency, with more than half the world's trade conducted in sterling. Moreover, Britain had the biggest economy of Europe and living standards were very high. With such economic prosperity, the advantages of a commonwealth and the relationship with America, Britain wasn't interested in joining the ECSC as Churchill outlined in his 1949 Zurich speech, "We are with Europe, but not of it". The 1956 Suez crisis was to shatter all aspects of sovereignty built up, and consequently cause the decline of Britain as a world power and cause the downturn of the economy.
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Nonetheless, the second Coercion Act, the Prevention of Crimes Act sparked from the Phoenix Park Murders where a special tribunal of 3 judges try cases without injury was more successful as the figures from the previous violence of around 2500 outrages in 1880 were smaller as the new focus turned towards Home Rule after this. Overall this shows the main reason as to why Gladstone's reaction to the Land War was unsuccessful as he initially was reluctant to accept coercion, but also heightened the status of Parnell and the Home Rule Party also.
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The Jacobites that they never had adept leaders. Jacobite officers were normally of Scottish brethren, with little experience of warfare. Furthermore, as they were Scottish, they did not know the territory when they entered England. This is considered by Monod as one of the reasons for their failure to sustain themselves upon exit of Scotland. The best attempts at Stuart restoration were the rebellions of 1715 and 1745. However, both of these are characterised by poor leadership. In the '15 the commander of the Jacobite army was the Earl of Mar.
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How important was James Is attempt to obtain a union between England and Scotland in causing difficulties with his first parliament in the years 1604 to 1611
Opposition to the union was so strong that it was effectively abandoned in 1607 with parliament making only relatively minor concessions to James, including an agreement that all those born in either kingdom after 1603 should hold dual nationality. For such an important proposition to James to cause such adverse reactions from parliament so early in James' rule meant that the foundations for the relationship between the king and his parliament had been damaged. However, its importance should not be exaggerated, as it is overshadowed in comparison to other factors.
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It certainly can be argued that James, in calling a conference (Hampton Court Conference) between the bishops and Puritans, which he would preside, demonstrated his willingness to satisfy their demands. However, the actual outcome of this conference achieved very little, Puritans were unsuccessful in getting any of their demands for changes in ceremonies, although James did agree to minor reforms - most importantly, a new translation of Bible (King James Bible). The whole ordeal showed James had little interest in satisfying their demands.
- Word count: 707
During 1990 to 2007 there was a split between the governments of John Major and Tony Blair over the issue of Europe because of Thatchers legacy as she strongly opposed further integration into Europe.
group were powerful players in the Conservative party which led to the eventual downfall of the party and the revival of Labour, highlighting further integration into Europe was always an ambiguous topic, with the public being sceptical about both pro-European and Euro-sceptic views the real quarrel was about how far Britain would integrate into Europe. Thatcher was a Euro-sceptic who believed integration into Europe was not in the interests of Britain. Controversy over the involvement with the EU was Thatcher's legacy as she heightened the issue and split the party with such speeches as the Bruges speech in 1988 where she highlighted her opposition to European integration.
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Explain the persistence of high unemployment in Britain in the interwar years. Was unemployment in the period 1919-1939 voluntary?
The revolution in bargaining over pay, however, was not simply one of numbers. The strength of unionism in pay bargaining was also enhanced by the development of formal collective bargaining structures, such as Trade Boards, which set minimum wages. Established in four low paid sectors under the Trade Boards Act of 1909, their scope was massively expanded with the Trade Boards Act of 1918 and by 1921 there were 63 Trade Boards covering 3 million workers. It is estimated, in fact, that from 1919 onwards, around of the labour force was covered by collective agreements.
- Word count: 1891
However the cases could take years to conclude and the enclosure policy was abandoned for 18 months in 1523 as Wolsey was trying to raise a subsidy to und the king's foreign policy. This meant that even though it started well it ended badly as it didn't really change things and it was just abandoned, which possibly shows how political concerns override his belief in reforms. The court of the Star Chamber was created by Wolsey to show justice to all.
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Moreover, the House of Lords were also against the abolition of the death penalty and overturned the Bills for the abolition of the death penalty in both 1948 and 1956. The outbreak of World War 2 also meant that politicians had did not have time to abolish the death penalty. Nonetheless, the debate for the abolition of the death penalty continued after the war which can be seen as another factor influencing the abolition in 1969. Clark argues that 'attitudes in Britain had been changed by World War II', as people were horrified at the number of Jewish murders.
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Sir Philip Warwick presents Charles as having a great sense of superiority as he shows another royal etiquette Charles was insistent upon, (" he would discountenance any bold or forward address upon him" ),the fact that no-one was allowed to approach the King directly. It is likely that Charles' need to be treated with great formality was as a result of his stammer and feeble stature, as it allowed him to hide his insecurities. Furthermore, Warwick suggests that Charles was not educated "With any artist or good mechanic, traveller or scholar he would discourse freely, and as he was commonly
- Word count: 744
To What extent were the reforms of the Liberal Government of 1916-1914 the most important change in the lives of people in England and Wales in the period 1880-1929
On the face of it the Liberal Reforms are easily the most important change in Peoples lives during this period because they provided a safety net however basic ,that prevented even the poorest of families of hitting rock bottom they'd have previously hit without the reforms . However critics and neutrals would argue that the reforms were too little too late . Old age pensions for example were limited to those over 70 and paid very little which was rather harsh considering the life expectancy at that time was not 70 yrs .Old Age Pensions were also not available for the elderely who hadn't worked in their lives which meant they still lived in serious poverty .
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Only one question was left on the lips of the Elizabeth - where did she stand with Spain? This was answered by Philip's marriage proposal in 1559 which seemed to be hitting two birds with one stone - two issues being faced - the marriage of the Queen and the alliance with Spain. However, Elizabeth refused which obviously left Spain in a less than happy state with England. Spain was further infuriated by the activities of the Englishman, John Hawkins, who caused trouble by interfering with the Spain's Caribbean Trading Monopoly.
- Word count: 1412
How far does Somerset deserve his reputation as the Good Duke? (Somerset (then known as Earl of Hertford) claimed the title of Lord Protector after the death of Henry VIII
Ruling alone was his style of government, and appeasing his supporters with wealth, offices, land and titles was one of his ways to keep control. Somerset, who had made himself Duke - building a grand estate for himself as if he were the real king - gained much resentment from the Privy Council, who, although offered Somerset advice, could see that he was not interested in their views. Sir William Paget - an advisor to the former king - often criticised Somerset's way of government, noticing that the policies created by the so called council were those only of Somerset, and later he would be one of the forces bringing Somerset down from power.
- Word count: 2728