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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics
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For example, the number of voters in Glasgow increased from 18,000 to 47,000. However, the majority of men were still unable to vote as few could afford to rent a property of this value. The Third Reform Act 1884 gave working class men in the countryside the same voting rights as those living in towns. Prime Minister William Gladstone, who proposed this reform, felt that the countrymen were "capable citizens, qualified for the vote and able to make good use of their power as a voter".
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Blairism won power with a smile and platitude but in the end, he left the voter dissatisfied Assess the validity of this view.
In regards to political factors, it can be argued that voters were not dissatisfied and were in fact satisfied as many saw Blair as being a political celebrity due to his image and youthful approach and style of leadership he brought with him to the government. He abandoned clause IV which was the commitment to nationalisation which gained access to middle class voters which arguably appealed to them, leaving them satisfied. He furthermore avoided using terms such as 'socialist' to moreover implement his 'new' image and emphasise needed change.
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Most of our people have never had it so good (Macmillan) To what extent is this true for the years 1951-1964?
In his speech he told supporters " Go around the country, go to industrial towns, go to the farms and you will see a state of prosperity such as we have never had before". This could be true in regards to things such as social, economic and political factors especially considering things such as rationing had ended and there was full employment during one period which in turn increased the purchase of consumer goods such as TV's, refrigerators and cars which were being produced in the UK.
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This unionist abandonment showed how the Liberal government mishandled Irish issues. The mismanage of the Liberal government was further illustrated by the rise in sectarian tension at the time. Evidence of the sectarian tension was shown by the formation of the Irish Volunteers (later known as the IRA) in 1913, joined by members of the Gaelic League, Sinn Fein and secretly the Irish Republic Brotherhood (IRB). This, alongside the Expansion of support for the Gaelic League was all part of an attempt to revive and increase Irish Nationalism. This revival of cultural Nationalism was on top of John Synge's play which causes "Play boy" riots in 1907, and the 1908 Catholic
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The Hundred Years' War, fought between two royal houses for the French throne, the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet, started in 1337 and ended in 1453.
Background A main reason for the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War, besides the already heated relationship between England and France, was the conflict about the possession of South-france Gascogne, a part of the Acquitainian area belonging to Henry II's estate. Even though Edward III. was rendering homage to the new french king Philipp VI. in 1329 in accepting him as the feudal landowner of the Gascogne, he clearly wasn't when he deprived Philipp his right of the French crown in 1337. The background of Edward's act was that Philipp wanted to confiscate the Gascogne for the French crown.
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How successfully did the Labour government of 1945-1951 deal with the social problems identified in the Beveridge Report of 1942?
The Minister of Health, Bevan, proposed a policy which would help those most in need - the working class. It was decided that "stop gap" houses, "Prefabs", were to be built as a quick solution to the problem of housing shortages. These were quick to build, cheap, factory-built houses. Between 1945 and 1947, 157,000 prefabs were assembled. The scale of housing problems, as well as increasing marriages and birth rate ("baby boom") meant that many houses were needed very quickly. Labour attempted to deal with this problem through building prefabs, but many problems were yet to be solved. There was still a serious housing shortage - many desperate families squatted in disused army camps.
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He knew these decisions were important to Warwick and the wrong ones were going to upset him, but Edward wanted to be independent from him. The fact that Edward married Elizabeth Woodville in secrecy tells us that he was well aware that this marriage was a political miscalculation and that Warwick was not going to approve. In the meantime, Warwick was negotiating with the French for a bride for Edward (Bona of Savoy) only to find that Edward was already married.
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Margaret of Burgundy and John de la Pole were the 2 main instigators of the rebellion. Margaret recognised Simnel as her nephew, her brother's son. Nonetheless, the real Earl of Warwick was held captive by Henry VII at the beginning of his reign so he wouldn't cause a threat later on like Henry VI had in Edward IV's reign. The Yorkists were claiming that Simnel was the real Warwick and Henry's Warwick was an imposter. Furthermore, Richard III had appointed Warwick as his successor. Margaret was determined to overthrow Henry VII; she was desperate to see her family return to power.
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Initially, the Royal Lancastrian family, Henry VI, Margaret of Anjou and Prince Edward had escaped but were not killed. They had castles in the north of England so they still had some power. Margaret of Anjou landed in the north at Bamburgh in 1462, with a small force of 800, but was easily defeated. She and her son then had to leave for exile in France, depriving the Lancastrians of their real leader. By 1464, Edward had the north of England fully under his control, after victories at Hedgeley, Moor and Hexham.
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How far do you agree that the Irish Rebellion was the most serious problems that faced Elizabeth after 1588?
Elizabeth also had a hard time dealing with Ireland because it was expensive to maintain because of its vast amounts of resources and its large population. However, one serious problem that Elizabeth had to face after 1588 was the spread of the Black Death. The Black Death or the plague caused many people to be ill and eventually die because medicine wasn't not as advance in the past. Another serious problem that Elizabeth I had to face after 1588 was the fluctuations of population.
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However Britain soon had many worries about other great powers. At the start of the 1900's Britain was not on friendly terms with Russia, France or Germany. She had growing apprehensions about an increasing Russian influence in the Far East. Towards the end of 1900 Russian troops occupied the northern part of China called Manchuria.
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However after growing concerns Britain signed an alliance with Japan in 1902 which played a part in Britain gaining her second ally. This alliance was signed with France in April of 1904. It was seen as a highly unlikely development as for years relations had been strained over colonial matters; during the Boer War the French press had been violently anti-British and extremely rude about Queen Victoria and Edward VII.
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The contraceptive pill instantly changed women's lives. It gave women the freedom to choose a career over starting a family, the independence to have a full relationship without the risk of pregnancy outside marriage but most of all it gave a significant change in societies' viewpoint over promiscuity. The overall male view of the pill was that it was inappropriate, and many doctors which was at the time a mostly all male profession advised not to take the pill. An extract from an interview in 1961 with Sir Charles Dodd's, Britain's leading expert on the drugs contained in the Pill and who headed a research institute at Middlesex Hospital, had said that the pills could have long-term side-effects.
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Do you agree with the view that, in terms of employment opportunities, women did not gain any significant advantage from their wartime experience (Source 16, lines 36-37)?
As well as this, a statistic which shows evidence in support of Lloyd George's statement is that once the First World War had come to an end, within 2 weeks 100,000 women had come out of their work and returned back to their domestic responsibilities. This shows that even though women worked during wartime, once the war ended they had returned to their domestic roles which may have been because those women had become encouraged by the government's policies to do so.
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Do you agree with the view that, by 1914, the changes to the law governing married life represented a formidable record of improvement.
This shows that Josephine Butler had a strong belief that there should be no inequality between men and women and that the differences which were still in place should be changed. As well as Josephine Butler, the Contagious Diseases Act was an act which tied in with this agreement of change in law as because this act was to reduce venereal disease. It was known that venereal disease was spread through contact with prostitutes infected by this disease. This meant that if a woman had refused internal examinations they would be locked up and after trial they had to prove that they were virtuous.
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This can be clearly seen from the state of law and order in Singapore in the 1800s. Originally, the police force was small and largely ineffective, resulting in its inability to fight against rampant crime happening in Singapore. The policies suggested to improve the police force were slow to take effect. For example, the first police commissioner was only appointed in 1857, 38 years after Singapore came under British rule. During this period of time, the police force lacked a capable leader that could bring significant improvement to it. Therefore, the policemen were often unskilled and not trained to handle crimes happening in Singapore.
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Trade was the most important reason why the western countries came to Southeast Asia in the 18th and 19th centuries. How far do you agree with the above claim? Explain your answer, citing evidences from British expansionism.
Firstly, the British original intention was to come down to SEA to look for a port in order to secure its trade route with the lucrative market in China. The British main motivation was to make sure that it was able to carry out trade with China smoothly and safely by setting up a port in between its colony, India, and China. This would mean that the British needed to establish a port that can secure the trade route between India and China and thus, the mid-point between India and China lies in the SEA region.
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Were the policies of the British colonial government 1826-1942 driven by humanitarian concerns or self-interest? Explain your answer.
Firstly, there was only intervention by the British when their economic interests were threatened. They only came up with policies to improve the welfare of the people when the welfare of the people directly affected their economic gains. In the area of healthcare, the British only implemented health policies and set up different health facilities after it realized that the spread of diseases among the locals will decrease its trade profits. For example, the governor raised the problem of other countries imposing quarantine law against Singapore due to the prevalent spread of diseases in Singapore.
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In 1882, British government sent a fleet of ships to the coast of Alexandria in Egypt. The invasion is thought to be in response to nationalist riots lead by and Egyptian army officer, Colonel Arabi as well as to protect British control over the Suez Canal. Britain also had significant financial investments in Egypt that needed to be protected as trade with Egypt was vital for the British economy. An example of trade goods was Egypt's high quality cotton; this was much sought after by the British textile manufacturers. Egypt was also a potentially huge market for the importation of British technology, particularly railway transport technology.
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In the first half of the 19th century Britain and France dominated Europe, but by the 1850's they were quite concerned with Russia and Prussia's developing power. The concert of Europe was the balance of power in existing in Europe from the end of the Napoleonic wars to the outbreak of war in 1914. Britain aimed to make sure it was the third power of the five major powers if a crisis broke out on European continent. In doing this, Britain would hope to preserve the concept of the balance of power.
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with the exception of paraphernalia (clothes, jewels, bedlinen and plate). He had a life interest in any real estate. A woman who killed her husband was guilty not of murder, but of petty treason and was condemned to the same punishment as if she had killed the king. This was because such crimes threatened the established social order. Her sentence was to be drawn and burnt alive. For all other murders, including a husband killing his wife, the punishment was hanging.1 Furthermore the law also stated that young girls could be married to men of any age from only seven years old.
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Also, Vergil mentions how Wolsey "aroused himself the hatred of the whole country" which can be evidenced by the failure of the Amicable Grant. The Amicable Grant caused a huge rebellion as the people refused to pay for another loan on top of existing taxation. The Grant isolated many groups of society such as the Church and the poor and the fact that people were left with feelings of resentment showed that Wolsey's domestic policy was a disappointment to not only the people, but also to the King as Wolsey was his chief advisor.
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Edward became more aware of the events happening around him so that he could be able to use it for the crown's own advantage and restore his finance policy. For example he did not attaint the Duke of Warwick and the Duke of Montagu so that his brothers; Richard Duke of Gloucester and George Duke of Clarence married the Warwick's and Montagu's daughters. This enabled them to inherit their lands, not only did this increase the crown's powers and respect but also their income as they had more domains.
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the laws of the country and ''rule'' by his own views and manners by simply suggesting what he wanted to Henry and because Henry was almost never interested in paperwork tasks, Wolsey was easily able to use him as a ''puppet'' to obtain more political power, he was so powerful that he was able to hold a peace treaty between England and several other countries. Elton wrote that the only reason why Wolsey lasted so long was because despite his terrible finance skills, Wolsey was able to make himself appealing and showed that he was a loyal servant to Henry but also maintained Henry quiet by creating military events such as The Field Of The Cloth Of Gold in 1520.
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the battle of Omdurman on the 2nd September 1989 and British opinion was in favour of avenging the death and taking control over the Sudan, when this was done it created great upsurge in popularity towards imperialism. This great popularity did not last long and the British public's fickle opinion varied when in 1899 the second war unveiled the ruthless British policy in the Boer republics, when Emily Hobhouse showed the British public the truth behind the concentration camps in the Boer republics.
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