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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics
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This, in combination, made Charles come across as an arrogant king that believed in his own ?dignity of kinship? (Smith). Religion, on it?s own, also caused and sparked a great deal of uncertainty when it came to Charles? religious intentions. One of the main contributing reasons for this was his siding with Montagu, as he showed his support of Armianism and not only was Montagu an Armian, but he was also backed by Lord Buckingham, Charles? favourite- giving the pair a close relationship with the king.
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Of course some faults are to be expected as Henry VIII was never trained to become the next monarch, as his elder brother was expected to succeed the throne, but the fact that his father gave him no responsibility is worrying ? I wonder if he was not trusted?
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National efficiency was another reason to the development of reforms. Britain had to be ?efficient? both to keep her empire and to cope with German and American industrial competition. Some thought town living was leading to the decline of the British race; others saw it more as a question of poor environment. The most important contribution to the heart of national well being was healthy children, good food, public health and welfare measures. The empire required modernisation to improve the strength of the army and the health care of ill children.
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Explain why Edward IVs death opened up such a bitter family feud in the weeks from 9th April to 26th June 1483
On his death a bitter family feud was started. Edward IV youngest brother, Richard, duke of Gloucester was powerful by himself due to Edward giving him lands in the north; this gave him power, men and was far away from court and London. Richard?s wife Anne Neville?s family owned large amounts of land and power in the north this passed on to Richard, making him stronger and wealthier. Richard could raise an army from his lands this threatened the Woodville family because Richard had the support of the north.
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Britain went through a period of major political, social and economic change in years 1815-1885 Assess the accuracy of this statement.
By the 1870?s, Britain had the most extensive railway system in the world to make transportation of raw materials easier, meaning more trade could occur, and English businessmen could acquire new markets for their trade. soon was a cause of the economic decline. Although the economy kept growing, the rate of growth wasn?t as much, meaning competition from America and Germany was a threat. This was named the ?Great Depression? and was a major change for the economic state of Britain.
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In 1640, a second trading post was instituted in Madras. In 1668, the Company leased Bombay Island, which used to be a Portuguese colony, as a dowry of the marriage between Catherine of Braganza and Charles II. In 1687, the Company moved its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. Soon, the Company created a settlement in Calcutta, after again requesting permission from the Mughal Emperor. The Company had acquired a political and economic presence upon the subcontinent. Also during this period other companies, most notably the Portuguese, Dutch, French, and Danish, had similar successes in the Indian theatre of trade.
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One reason that Labour won the General Election in 1945 is that they fully expected to win the election just because of Winston Churchill. Churchill was the Prime Minister and Leader of the Conservative/ Labour Coalition during the war. Many believe that if Churchill wasn?t in charge, Britain would be speaking German today. Due to this, the Conservatives fully expected the British public to vote for their war time hero. However, Conservatives announced no plans to sort out the problems that the country was in, such as poverty and unemployment, including the Great Depression.
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To prevent this, the Conservative government passed the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act. This Act limited how much candidates could spend during the election and banned candidates from buying food or drink for potential voters. It also meant that all election costs had to be accounted for and that corruption became illegal. Therefore, it is clear that Britain was much more democratic by 1883 due to the passing of the 1872 Secret Ballot Act and the 1883 Illegal Practices Act, as a fundamental right of a democracy is the right of its citizens to be able to vote in secret without intimidation or bribery.
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Elizabeth?s Religious Settlement of 1559 set aside Mary?s restored Catholicism in favour of a form of moderate Protestantism, and was an honest attempt to rule England at religious peace and compromise whilst bringing as many as possible into the fold. Elizabeth introduced the ?Act of Supremacy? which reduced the pope?s influence and ascertained her as governor of the Church of England, rather than the supreme head ? neither extreme religion would accept a woman as the head of Church. Another aspect of the Religious Settlement was the ?Act of Uniformity?, which was Elizabeth?s attempt to ensure that as many believers as possible could find salvation.
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How far would you agree that government policy towards the mining industry was mainly responsible for the outbreak of the General Strike in 1926?
So the decision to return the mines to state ownership in 1921 created some underlying animosity between the miners and government prior to the strike. On ?Red Friday?, Baldwin introduced a subsidy so that the wages of miners would not fall until the Samuel Commission, which had just been set up to find a solution to the mining crisis, had time to report. This pleased the miners, some of whom thought they had won against the government because their wages were not cut.
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Do you agree that organisation was the main reason for the poor standard of medical care offered to British troops in the Crimea?
Phrases like ?the man who conceived the idea that the hard work of a military hospital could be performed by worn out and ages cripples must have slight knowledge? show that it was the people who were in charge of organisations fault that the medial services offered in the Crimea were of very poor standard. Poor organisation again resulted in far too few medically trained staff coming to the Crimea, this meant that the staff that were out there were constantly ran off their feet and meant that on many occasions patient could not been seen too, this was began Lord Raglan decided against providing enough ship space to take qualified medics out to the Crimea.
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From 1951 until the late 1970?s, there seemed to be an apparent consensus between the Labour and Conservative parties. In terms of social policies this included, the acceptance of increased government intervention, as seen in the Beveridge report and the Welfare state. The economic policies they agreed on were Keynesianism, the idea of full employment and partnerships with trade unions. ?The Economist? coined the term Butskellism to describe this tendency to adopt individual political views, and create a similar consensus. After Churchill, people could see a clear recovery in the economy, although in comparison to Europe and the USA, the revival was moving at a slow pace.
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Hence, finance was a major problem for Charles 1st during his personal rule period of eleven years. Charles disliked parliament involvement of control, in his financial affairs, but needed them for voting subsidies which only parliament could vote for to raise revenue for the monarch. Therefore, Charles decided to find new ways to enable him to stick to his personal rule, and to be able to have financial support. To achieve his personal rule theory, he began with making peace with France and Spain due to the fact he could not afford the war with them, as he needed money to provide an army to fight a war.
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Provoking the people would not have helped her cause, as many Catholics saw her to be the ?pretended Queen of England.?. If she chose a Catholic settlement, she would have to surrender power to Rome, but she would also then become an ally of France and Spain. However, by alienating the protestant Dutch she could potentially lose England?s leading trading partner. On the other hand, if Elizabeth followed her upbringing and returned to Protestantism, she may antagonise the leading power in Europe; Spain.
- Word count: 1846
How important was the failure to achieve annulment of Henry VIIIs marriage to Catherine of Aragon in causing Wolseys fall from power?
he needed was the Pope to declare the papal dispensation invalid, therefore indicating that Henry and Catherine had never been legally man and wife, and the supposed marriage would be annulled, however, it became increasingly obvious that the annulment campaign was failing between July and August 1529, councillors began to line up against Wolsey, those who sided with Anne Boleyn sympathised with her cause for annulment, and those who sided with Catherine sympathised with her cause to block the annulment.
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Unlike the Conservatives, some Liberals were already working out a new form of Liberalism in which the State would play a greater role in ensuring minimum living standards for the most vulnerable, and with the constant growing awareness of this vital need of Social Reforms led to much unpopularity for the Conservatives; with the people wanting change; and now.
- Word count: 493