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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics
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The information in Wikipedia was written by volunteers that were not paid. The name Wikipedia was coined by Larry Sanger it is a portmanteau from wiki (a technology for creating collaborative websites, from the Hawaiian word wiki, meaning "quick") and encyclopedia. The Wikipedia was launched in 2001 by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. The name Wikipedia was coined by Larry Sanger it is a portmanteau from wiki (a technology for creating collaborative websites, from the Hawaiian word wiki, meaning "quick")
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The conservatives did have some good ideas but many of them did not fall through because the people either did not understand them or believed there was a better way. The Liberals were able to use the mistakes made by the conservatives as part of their campaign in the general elections 1906, therefore people may not have been voting for the Liberals because of their party ideas but because they did not want the Conservatives to win. The impact of many of the recent events also had an effect on political developments not just the party campaigns themselves, for example the Boer war.
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Perhaps the most important factors were the social and economic reasons. One instance was the American Civil War 1861-65. The war was over the slave trade; the Tories were divided between support for the slave trade (in the south, who owned most of the slaves) and the Tories for the abolishment of the slave trade (northern states). This was very important because abolishing slavery had a huge effect on the British cotton industry, as it was imported from America, so when the Northern states blocked their ports (caused by the war), British supplies of cotton were interrupted and therefore people would lose their jobs due to the decline in the industry.
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This triangular trade was a three point voyage in which Britain gained prosperity and wealth in return. The triangular slave trade supplied the Atlantic colonies with African people, which then were forced to work on the specific plantations. Slaves were transported across the Atlantic; they were bought and sold, and ended up working on plantations growing the crops that the Europeans craved.1 The empire believed that it was all about their dominance in trade and it was known as being 'Americanised'2. Being 'Americanised', meant that Britain being increasingly centred on the America's therefore meant being increasingly centred on slavery.
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Slave labour was seen as the best form of labour in those days and their demand was very high. It turned out that this type of trade was highly profitable and the RAC transported a great deal of these slaves around. The RAC didn't think it was suitable to settle in Africa so forts were built all down the west coastline where they used that as their trading ports. The RAC became a monopoly and its profits and fortunes rose immensly from the other goods (like sugar) they imported too. It wasn't until twenty six years later, which the RAC realised they had come to the end of their trading ideas.
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Previous schemes such as National Insurance provided very limited cover and basic medical care, doctors bills became a heavy burden on families and led to many parents neglecting their own health. The NHS provided a relief from the burden of the financial debt, this lead to a significant increase in the percentage of people seeking medical aid each year. Immunisation programmes protected infants from disease such as polio and measles, this lead a vast drop in infant mortality rate, children were now protected from diseases that had wiped out generations before them.
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How important were the policies of the National Government in bringing about economic recovery in Britain in 1931 to 1939?
Prices had already been in decline before due to a lack of consumer demand. However, if it hadn't been for the lowered rates it may have taken several more months or years before there was growth in consumerism, which would revitalise industry. A further policy put in place by the National Government was leaving the Gold Standard. The Government had originally gone back to the Gold Standard in 1925 after the First World War, as it had been used during a period of prosperity in Britain so it was seen as a successful method to relieve economic problems within Britain.
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The king responded that he would give them a prince who spoke no English. However, this was no large grant because the Plantagenet spoke Norman French instead of English. Even though Edward II was the fourth son, he became heir apparent at just a few months old, following the death of his older brother, Alphonso. Edward I had high hopes for Edward II. Edward I, a qualified and notable military leader, trained this heir in warfare and statecraft starting from a very young age. However, Edward I would face disappointments as Edward II showed interest in boating and craftwork, activities that were at the time recognized as being below the king.
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However, it was ironic that John "Lackland" would eventually inherit his father's empire. Henry and Eleanor had drifted apart upon the birth of John, so John ended up residing mostly with his older brother Henry Jr. The rift between his parents created a rift in the relationship between him and his father. John, a born cynic had a puckish sense of humor, with a carefree and deceitful personality. John obtained some of distinctive qualities of his father, such as Henry's high energy and extreme anger. However, unlike Henry, John consisted of a very unstable, cruel, and selfish character.
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Evacuees in the Second World War had shown the problems in the urban areas of Britain. Children from big industrial towns and cities suffered from ill health due to the high levels of pollutants and lack of medical provisions. For some children it was the first time they saw trees and wild animals, being brought up in the busy urban areas they never got to escape the towns on holidays. Not only did the evacuees show the high levels of ill health amongst urban areas it also highlighted the high levels of poor education.
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From the start of his reign in 1509 up until 1514, Henry had succeeded in gaining glory in battle with France, but not fully to the extent he wanted. Henry VIII sought similar victory to that of his forefather, Henry V, who had great victory in defeating France almost one hundred years previously. Henry VIII's attempts were also overall victorious as he secured an alliance with Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Pope forming 'The Holy League' against France.
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According to a Norman source by William of Jumieg�s, "Edward... according to the dispensation of God, without an heir, sent Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury, to the duke as heir to the kingdom which God had entrusted to him." This could be evidence of an offer from Edward to William; a source that could confirm this is the Peterborough version (E) of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which also states that, 'King Edward appointed Robert.., Archbishop of Canterbury; and in the same spring he went to Rome for his pallium.' Although there is no direct evidence of an offer, it is highly likely that Edward sent Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury with a message for William which most probably contained an offer.
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This lead to the Board of Education giving grants to local authorities for treatment and school clinics were set up for the first time. This meant that children were finally receiving treatment that they otherwise could not afford, therefore meeting some of their social needs. When further targeting this problem of unhealthy children the Education (Scotland) Act of 1908 was passed. This gave school boards power to take action against parents who allow their children to go to school in a filthy or verminous condition.
Do you agree with the view that the industrial chaos of the winter of 1978-9 primarily accounts for Mrs Thatchers election victory in 1979?
These strikes lead to industrial chaos which in turn made Callaghan's government lose support which gave Thatcher an advantage. Another result from the industrial chaos was a rapid increase in unemployment. Unemployment rose to more than 1.6 million by 1978. Source 2, a conservative campaign poster displays the mass unemployment. As Conservative is the opposing the party, the source would be biased and therefore would make out that the Labour government is not working, 'Labour isn't working' and give the message that Britain would be in a better state under the Conservative party.
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This proved to men that women were just as capable of undertaking manual and responsible jobs as they were. This challenged the idea of the separate spheres that men and women were different both mentally and physically and so had different roles to fill in life. However, the idea that WW1 broke down the idea of the separate spheres can be challenged as Harrison argues "although many women serving in the Armed Forces were extremely brave, they did not experience the horrors of the front line. The separation of role was also reinforced by...many men across the channel while most women stayed at home."
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Severe economic crisis can lead to political extremism and the 1930s did see the triumph of political extremism and of dictatorship in several European countries, notable Germany. Other countries witnessed violent conflict between the political extremes of communist and fascist parties yet in Britain, though extreme political parties developed, they never got close to power nor did they seriously disrupt national life. Founded in 1920, the CPGB lasted until the 1990s. Although always small numerically, it had influence beyond its numbers.
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However, these cuts of �38 million were substantially less than the May Committee had proposed. By 19 August, the Cabinet had agreed to cuts amounting to �56 million - but the leaders of the other parties rejected these as too small. The next day, MacDonald and Snowden met with TUC leaders, who rejected any cuts at all that would affect the unemployed. They rejected the May Committee's proposals entirely. This put considerable pressure on the Labour Cabinet. The Bank of England desperately needed to arrange new loans from New York and Paris but the American bankers would only agree if substantial cuts to unemployment benefits were made.
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few years after the NHS was launched, it is difficult to assess how much of this improvement was specifically down to the NHS. For decades before 1948, the occurrence of infant mortality, TB and other diseases had already been falling steadily. Many outside factors affected health standards, such as housing, diet and employment. It is clear that the NHS made a significant contribution but it is important to make a balanced assessment of its impact. Doctors were self-employed, earning fees from their patients or their patents' insurance companies, friendly societies or trade unions.
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This coalition proved durable and effective, both in military strategy and in domestic affairs. Many of its key personalities established their political reputations during the war and then went on to have great influence in post-war Britain. Britain was a long way from any thoughts of victory celebrations in May 1940, as the nation faced the treat of invasion and seemed to stand alone in its fight against Nazism. Two interconnected crises were looming. The first was military - following the disastrous failure of the Norway Campaign and the rapid advances of German forced through France.
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Assess the impact of the period from 1969-1982 on the IRA/Sinn Fein and their development into a significant political force in Northern Ireland
The Split over the treaty led to the Irish Civil War from 1922-3. Many of the opposing leaders had been close friends and comrades during the Irish War of Independence. The civil war split the IRA and this rift would continue to haunt Irish politics for many years to come. In the 1960's the IRA was further marginalised as it came under the influence of left wing thinkers. This caused a split between the factions of the IRA based in Dublin and Belfast.2 In 1969 the wounds of old were once stirred again when Northern Ireland was rocked by bloody sectarian rioting.
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An honourable soldier and statesman. Assess this view of Cromwell in his dealings with enemies of the Commonwealth.
Furthermore, Cromwell may have wanted to use Drogheda as an example to other Irish towns, "to prevent the effusion of blood in the future", which suggests that he was honourable in that he tried to use as little force as possible. These victories meant that Cromwell had prevented an invasion of England by the Irish and a massacre of Irish Protestants, thus implying that Cromwell was honourable in defending the Republic. However, his military victories were not as great as previously thought when closely scrutinised.
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These measures ensured effective funds for the parliament's army. As the army was well-provided for, its soldiers pillaged less from local people and eventually helped parliament to conquer the problem of neutralism in their favour. This was a huge advantage as it gave parliament more men. Parliament also set up county committees to levy these taxes. In terms military reform, Parliament ended the reliance on volunteers by introducing the Impressment Ordinance which allowed it to conscript 20,000 men. The size of Parliament's army increased further when John Pym negotiated the Solemn League and Convenant with the Scots, which bestowed Parliament with 20,000 Scottish soldiers.
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During the eleven years Charles also used new forms of taxation, e.g. ship money, which further angered the gentry. The gentry felt that Charles had violated the unwritten contract between the Crown and Parliament. The financial policies also scared the gentry in another way: if the king was becoming financially independent, he wouldn't need another parliament since the king only required parliament for money. Similarly, the religious policies adopted by Charles also caused anger. However, whereas the financial policies mainly affected the gentry, the religious policies touched upon everybody since religion was at the heart of everyone's life in the 17th century.
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Since 1964 the numbers of people who belong to a religion and attend services have decreased significantly. In 2008 1000 people were asked if they believe there is a god, only 40% answered yes, compared to 80% in USA. Since Britain has been a Christian society for hundreds of years, the religion has become a natural part of many British people's lives. Despite of the fact that they do not practice any religion, many people see themselves as Christian and claim to belong to this religion.
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Disraelis Handling of the Balkan Crisis represented the triumph of style over substance How far do you agree?
He forced Russia to back down and allow the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire's troops to be stationed in Southern Bulgaria, even though Russia initially rejected this, Disraeli's style forced them to agree. This moment was thought of as the peak of the success of Disraeli's time in office, especially considering his ill health at the age of 73. He was renamed the 'Lion of Congress' and Bismarck stated 'The old Jew, that is the man'. However in the other ways Disraeli's handling was a failure for style. One examples of this was the way he dithered through the crisis.
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