• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Civil Rights background to 1950. Marcus garvey, A. Philip Randolph and "the Great Migration".

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Do Thi Nguyen Background to 1950: 1. Highlight the significance of Du Bois?s editorship of the ?Crisis? and of Marcus Garvey. 2. Assess the historical contribution of A. Phillip Randolph. 3. Explain ?the Great Migration?. 4. Write a mini account of ?African American in 1945?. 1. In 1905, Du Bois was a founder and general secretary of the Niagara movement, an African American protest group of scholars and professionals. Du Bois founded and edited the ?Moon? (1906) and the ?Horizon? (1907-1910) as organs for the Niagara movement. In 1909 Du Bois was among the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and from 1910 to 1934 served it as director of publicity and research, a member of the board of directors, and editor of the ?Crisis?, its monthly magazine. In the ?Crisis?, Du Bois directed a constant stream of agitation--often bitter and sarcastic--at white Americans while serving as a source of information and pride to African Americans. The magazine always published young African American writers. Racial protest during the decade following World War I focused on securing anti-lynching legislation. During this period the NAACP was the leading protest organization and Du Bois its leading figure. In 1934 Du Bois resigned from the NAACP board and from the Crisis because of his new advocacy of an African American nationalist strategy: African American controlled institutions, schools, and economic cooperatives. ...read more.


President Harry S. Truman abolished racial segregation in the armed forces through Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948. Randolph was also notable in his support for restrictions on immigration. In 1950, along with Roy Wilkins, Executive Secretary of the NAACP, and, Arnold Aronson a leader of the National Jewish Community Relations Advisory Council, Randolph founded the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR). LCCR has since become the nation's premier civil rights coalition, and has coordinated the national legislative campaign on behalf of every major civil rights law since 1957. 3. The Great Migration was the movement of 7 million African-Americans out of the Southern United States to the North, Midwest and West from 1910 to 1970. Precise estimates of the number of migrants depend on the time frame. African Americans migrated to escape r****m and seek employment opportunities in industrial cities. When World War I halted immigration from Europe while stimulating orders for Chicago's manufactured goods, employers needed a new source of labor for jobs assumed to be ?men's work.? Factories opened the doors to black workers, providing opportunities to black southerners eager to stake their claims to full citizenship through their role in the industrial economy. For black women the doors opened only slightly and temporarily, but even domestic work in Chicago offered higher wages and more personal autonomy than in the South. ...read more.


Discrimination in politics was normal in America in 1940 as only two percent of black Americans were allowed to vote. However by 1947, as a result of the Supreme Court decision that outlawed the white primary in Texas, twelve percent of black Americans were allowed to vote. A few black people actually managed to get elected as state legislatures and in New York Adam Clayton Powell went further and was elected to the federal House of Representatives. However, this was still unfair and until discrimination in politics ended blacks could not seriously expect to gain equal rights. So, it is clear that in 1945 blacks faced all kinds of discrimination in their everyday life. However, after the war there was an increase in black consciousness as blacks came together and discussed possible solutions to r****m. A number of black newspapers were set up and the 'double V' campaign was launched. The NAACP grew from having 50,000 members to having 450,000 members and finally now blacks were starting to make them heard. In conclusion blacks faced social, economic and political discrimination in 1945 that was arguably worse than when they were slaves. Many black men had fought in the Second World War for America and they were still not considered as equals when they returned home. However, blacks wanted equality now more than ever and although progress was limited they were still, at least, making progress. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level History of the USA, 1840-1968 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level History of the USA, 1840-1968 essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Assess the view that the Supreme Court was the most important branch of federal ...

    4 star(s)

    held r****t attitudes continued to be elected - and so during this time frame, the Presidents of the US were of very little help to African Americans struggling to achieve equal civil rights. In many areas, Franklin D. Roosevelt is considered a "breath of fresh air" to the presidency - and civil rights is no exception.

  2. Peer reviewed

    To what extent were Malcolm X and the subsequent Black Power Movement the 'Evil ...

    4 star(s)

    because indifferent or hostile to black demands."47 Some historians such as Sitkoff (1993) believed that Black Power did indeed cause a white backlash towards the movement whereas others, such as Cook (1998), argued that whites were already reacting to the CRM before Black Power had been established.

  1. Why, despite the victory of the Unionin the Civil War, did former slaves fail ...

    Secondly, states began to impose "black codes," which were laws intended to supervise the lives of the freedmen. Although no longer slaves, they were being treated almost as such. In the South this was widely accepted. An editorial in a Georgia paper said, "There is such a radical difference in

  2. How did anti-rights groups hinder the progress of Civil Rights for African Americans from ...

    However there were a number of individuals who hindered the movement. An example is police chief Eugene "Bull" Connor, who was involved with controlling the protests in Birmingham, Alabama in 1963. Many teenagers and children took part in the march organised by the SCLC, but Connor decided to counter the protesters with fire hoses and police dogs.

  1. Assess the view that Booker T. Washington was the most important leader in the ...

    Washington was not the most important leader because he was not radical enough, but he was more important than Malcolm X, who was too radical. Martin Luther King was the most important leader in black civil rights; although he did benefit from Du Bois? successful court cases, Washington?s initiation of the importance of education and the factors of Lyndon B.

  2. To what extent did Marcus Garvey improve the situation of African-Americans 1916 1924?

    He would later cause controversy by meeting with white supremacists and claiming that Ku Klux Klan are better friends than African Americans like Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois. All these evidence point to Garvey?s disconnection with the rest of the black community in America.

  1. To what extent was Marcus Garvey the most significant African-American civil rights leader in ...

    Du Bois gained support from his involvement in the Niagara movement which he founded in 1905 and consequently the NAACP. The NAACP is considered as one of the most influential and well organised group within the civil rights movement and at its peak had over 90,000 members.

  2. Research on the major Civil rights events between 1963 to 1968

    raised $237,000 in bail money ($1,800,000 in 2012) to free the demonstrators. Commissioner Connor and the outgoing mayor condemned the resolution. On May 11, a b**b destroyed the Gaston Motel where King had been staying?and had left only hours before?and another damaged the house of A. D. King, Martin Luther King's brother.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work