History Notes on the aftermath of the American Civil War

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APUSH                               Ch. 22       NOTES

The Problems of Peace

  • What to do with freed blacks
  • How to reunite the South into the Union
  • Who would control Reconstruction  - executive or legislature
  • Southern way of life was abolished although Southerners remained very resistant  - really defiant

Freedmen Define Freedom

  • Slaves’ freedom came gradually
  • Slaves took the roads, changed their names, wanted to be addressed with respect which angered whites
  • Church became important in blacks’ lives and created their own denomination(s) – attendance was very high
  • Reading and writing became highly important  - teachers were scarce until the gov’t provided some teachers

Freedmen’s Bureau

  • Created by Congress – March 1865
  • Meaning of agency was intended to be a primitive welfare agency (food, clothes, med. Care and education) – not just for freedmen but for white refugees too
  • Oliver O Howard – head of the bureau (founder Howard University)
  • Greatest success was in education
  • Its accomplishments were meager -  even corrupt -  land was not distributed to freed blacks and many were tricked into signing labor contracts to work for former masters
  • Southerners cried federal oppression
  • President Johnson shared white supremacist views and tried to kill the agency – it expired in 1872

Johnson:  The Tailor President

  • Johnson became president by the assassin’s bullet
  • Humble beginnings from Tennessee
  • He left the South once it seceded – yet didn’t understand or agree with the North and distrusted by South
  • Described a man with out a true place in his own country
  • Champion of states’ rights and the Constitution

Presidential Reconstruction

  • Lincoln favored a smooth transition of the South back into the Union and favored a 10% plan -   (10% of voters of the 1860 election had to pledge allegiance to the Union)
  • This upset Congress and so Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill -  required 50% of voters had to pledge allegiance to the Union before re-entering the Union
  • Lincoln would not sign – veto the bill – AFTER Congress adjourned (pocket veto)
  • Moderate Repubs agreed with Lincoln – more Radical Repubs wanted stauncher punishment
  • AJ supported the Radical Repub – later agreed with Lincoln and passed his own Reconstruction proclamation  - which said – states had to hold state conventions to repeal ordinances of the secession , pay off Confed. Debt and Ratify the 13th Amendment – BEFORE reentering the Union
  • AJ pardoned many southern aristocrats and further upset Repubs
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The Baleful of Black Codes

  • Series of laws passed in former slave states that regulated the lives of freedmen
  • Mississippi had the harshest codes
  • Former slaves were used as sharecropper farmers that resembled slavery
  • Freedmen were allowed to marry, but NOT allowed on jurys OR to vote
  • Repubs opposed to these codes – the question arose  - What was the war for?

Congressional Reconstruction

  • South wanted congressional members in 1865, but most were former Confed. Leaders which caused much anger w/ Repubs and not allowed in
  • Repubs had enjoyed a 4 years of ...

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