History Notes on the American Civil War

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APUSH                                     Chapter 21


Bull Run Ends the “90 Day War”

  • Lincoln thought that a defeat of the Confederate forces at Bull Run (Manassas Junction, VA) would not only be successful, but quickly put an end to the South’s secession from the Union WITHOUT damage to the economic and social system of the South –but he was wrong – Stonewall Jackson’s regiment held
  • Victory was worse for the South b/c now the South was even more confident that they could win AND volunteers fell off b/c it didn’t look as if they were needed
  • Defeat was better than victory  for the North b/c  it dispelled all notions that this was going to be a quick, easy war and caused the North to hunker down and gear up for the task at hand

“Tardy George” McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign

  • George McClellan, the commander of the Army of the Potomac
  • Brilliant and experienced,  “Little Mac” was also a perfectionist who learned the hard way that winning wars requires risk  - He was overcautious and was arrogant to Lincoln
  • Lincoln had to issue orders to advance his army and thus began the Peninsula campaign in which the North lost as well
  • Result of this battle:  Lincoln was willing to leave slavery alone where it already existed, but now declares that the rebels cannot try to destroy the gov’t and just rejoin unhurt if unsuccessful – Lincoln now begins to draft an emancipation proclamation
  • Union strategy now turns to TOTAL WAR:   1) Blockade the southern coasts  2) Liberate the slaves 3)  Seize Mississippi River  4)  Chop South in pieces  5)  Capture Richmond, the capital  6) Grind the South into submission
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The War at Sea

  • The Union’s attempt to blockade southern ports was shaky at first and blockade-running was very profitable for a time
  • Biggest Confederate threat was the Merrimack that was renamed the Virginia – which sunk Union ships
  • The Monitor, a Union ironclad, battled with the Merrimack to a standstill
  • Iron ships would now take the place of wooden warships

The Pivotal Point:  Antietam

  • Lee defeats Pope at the 2nd Battle of Bull Run
  • Now Lee pushes into Maryland – he now wants to encourage foreign intervention ...

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