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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
  • Peer Reviewed essays 12
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  1. Peer reviewed

    How far do you agree with the view that Hoover simply extended the agonies of the Depression?

    4 star(s)

    The emphasis on "more public works schemes" suggests that Hoover was not reluctant to help, and he wanted to ease America during times of hardship. Furthermore, Hoover secures an additional $500 million from Congress in 1931, to help agencies around the USA to provide relief. In hindsight, it is clear that Hoover did much to try and ease America through the depression, but whether his aid was in time or consistent is arguable. However, it can also be suggested that Hoover's interventions did not do a sufficient amount during the depression, hence the depression merely stood at a halt.

    • Word count: 785
  2. Peer reviewed

    Andrew Jackson was an effective and vigorous president, who acted upon a few key convictions,

    3 star(s)

    He also passed a few protective tariffs in an attempt to help the American economy. Even with these few accomplishments I few that President Jackson was not a very effective president. President Jackson made many choices based upon his political goals, not for the American people. He also, fought against the second back of the United States causing more problems for the nation. Jackson may have felt that he knew what was best for the nation's future, but he made many poor choices.

    • Word count: 404
  3. Peer reviewed

    Was Roosevelt's foreign policy a success or failure

    3 star(s)

    The gentlemen's agreement between Roosevelt and the Japanese government halted the influx of Japanese immigrants. "Yellow Peril" is another situation which Roosevelt demonstrated his ability to protect foreign relations and at the same time get what he wanted in terms of what was best for America and himself. However even though Roosevelt dealt with the problem it was still an extremely unsuccessful aspect of foreign policy. One success of Roosevelt's was the 'Spanish - American' war. America defeated a weakening Spanish army fairly easily after 10 undefeated battles and this gave them a strong reputation.

    • Word count: 966
  4. Why was Theodore Roosevelt was essential to the progressive movement?How far do you agree?

    Roosevelt believed that 'combination and concentration should not be prohibited but suspended and within reasonable limits controlled'. Theodore invited William Howard Taft; Roosevelt made him the secretary of war, and then later on won the 1908 presidential election. William Taft preferred Law to Politics as he was appointed a federal court judge at 34, but his wife did not like the idea of this therefore forced him into politics. We can understand that Taft increased the number of anti trust suits against companies in fact doubling them in comparison to Roosevelt.

    • Word count: 505
  5. Why African Americans Rioted in the 1960's

    They suffered from poverty, high unemployment, lack of health services and high crime rates. Riots were caused in mostly ghetto areas by acts or rumours of police brutality. The most serious riots where in New York, Detroit and The Watts area of Los Angeles. The assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968 lead to riots in 125 American cities. There were shootings, arson and looting in and around black American ghettos. Buildings were set on fire and burned down during these riots, and hundreds of people were injured and killed. Many black American neighbourhoods were burnt out and abandoned by their families and thousands of blacks were arrested.

    • Word count: 838
  6. Douglass policy of applying the principle of popular sovereignty to the Kansas-Nebraska issue was not entirely reasonable.

    Likewise, the Democrats believed every person deserved freedom as it was given by God. Source B suggests that there were other reasons for Douglas's bill. One of the reasons was to construct a transcontinental railroad based in Chicago as its eastern terminus. Douglas owned the Chicago site thus made it easier. Besides, he also made the bill to gain support from the Southerners for his Presidential Election. The Southern Senators first rejected the bill because the territory was located in the northern half of the Louisiana Purchase, which prohibited slavery, but Douglas decided to declare the Missouri Compromise void and integrated the principle of popular sovereignty.

    • Word count: 599
  7. Lincoln's Election. Sources A, C and E support the assertion which says Lincolns election meant that armed conflict between North and South became unavoidable.

    Same goes to source B, that armed conflict nor secession was mentioned. Source C challenges the statement because just like source A, it also accuses the North. It also states that the South did not agree with Lincoln being the president and claimed that they shouldn't submit themselves to Lincoln's policy and only those who voted for him do so. Furthermore, it was prompted that the government who should've protected them became the one who would destroy them. The source also affirmed that Georgia was a free and independent state who could secede whenever she wanted to, this shows that the South did feel as though they would want secession soon.

    • Word count: 870
  8. Does Nixon deserve to be remembered as a criminal failure?

    Did Nixon even deserve to be brought down by his failures? The Watergate scandal, probably the most crushing event for Nixon's campaign, immensely humiliated Nixon personally. The scandal was devastating for Nixon, at first no-one suspected Nixon's involvement but slowly, more and more evidence revealed its self to the people, pointing slowly and centrally at Nixon. It revealed CREEP to the people- the dirty tricks squad- the link was quickly made to Nixon showing his attempts to sabotage any opponents. At this point he still denied any involvement with this - stating 'there will be no white-wash at the White House'.

    • Word count: 976
  9. What do you regard as the most important reasons for FDRs win in the 1932 Presidential election?

    who believed in laissez-faire economics, in which the government would not intervene in business. During the Great Depression, whereby the nation succumbed to one of the fiercest events in history, the people of America turned to the government to solve the problem but not much was done under Hoovers rule. This made the people feel that Roosevelt was the only alternative if any form of state welfare was to be provided.

    • Word count: 442
  10. How far had racial equality been achieved in the USA by 1968?

    Clearly, a great deal of progress had been made towards achieving racial equality in political rights by 1968 because, for the first time, the government had passed a definitive Act to ensure the rights of black people. However, there were still ways in which blacks and whites were politically unequal. This inequality was particularly pronounced in the southern states. For example, by 1965, while 71% of southern whites were registered to vote, only 62% of blacks in the south were on the electoral register.

    • Word count: 775
  11. How the novel "Jubilee" shows the changes in southern society caused by the American Civil War. Essay

    Referring to the novel Jubilee, on pages 268-269 it shows how after the war there was much damage done to houses and factories. When reconstruction began in 1865, the economy went up immediately when some of the lands where plantation took place were good enough to plant and agriculture was reborn. As cotton being the king and being sold higher than before, money was big in the South during this time. In Jubilee, it's demonstrated throughout reconstruction how Vyry and her family finally find a good home and have a good place for planting and they work very well throughout.

    • Word count: 974
  12. Why Did Americans Fear Mass Immigration between 1890 & 1920?

    Although nearly all Americans at that time had only recently immigrated themselves, Anglo-Saxon Superiority was prevalent. White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs), especially those of British or German descent were looked upon as elite. Many WASPs did not drink at all; this made many immigrants - especially the in coming Catholics from Southern Europe Italy, who practiced drinking wine at church - to be considered heavy drinkers or drunks. Another fear of immigrants was the idea that the newly migrated citizens would be left -wing and socialists.

    • Word count: 725
  13. Containment, the basic idea surrounding most of the United States post-war foreign policies, was proposed by George Kennan in 1947.

    This new rising tension between the US and the USSR was the cause of most of the world's tension for the rest of the century, and also the reasoning behind the policy of the US, including containment, after the war. Containment, the basic idea surrounding most of the United States' post-war foreign policies, was proposed by George Kennan in 1947.

    • Word count: 405
  14. How far do you agree with the view that the Wall Street crash was responsible for the depression of the early 1930s?

    The lenders, often including large banks, which had been fuelling the boom, called in their money and the market collapsed. When people weren't able to repay loans to fragile banks, which lacked sufficient reserves, 'bankruptcies and bank failures multiplied'. However, as the accredited Historian David Reynolds states; 'In itself the stock market crash of October 1929 was not decisive, in any case only about 1% of the population owned securities in 1929'. The importance of the stock market crash was that it showed an economic future which was uncertain.

    • Word count: 971
  15. Scottsboro Rape Trials. In the 1930s it was not uncommon for the young and unemployed to hitch rides on passing freight trains. Such was the case on March 25 1931 when nine young, boys of African American descent ages 13-21 hopped aboard a train in Tennes

    Angry and seeking revenge, some of the white youth made false reports to authorities that the blacks had assaulted the white women that were still aboard the train. When the train arrived in Paint Rock, the young teens were greeted by the police, everyone was taken into custody including all nine black boys and two teenage girls, Victoria Price and Ruby Bates. Upon arrest Victoria Price and Ruby Bates confessed to the police all nine boys Olen Montgomery (age 17), Clarence Norris (age 19), Haywood Patterson (age 18), Ozie Powell (age 16), Willie Roberson (age 16), Charlie Weems (age 16), Eugene Williams (age 13), and brothers Andy (age 19)

    • Word count: 563
  16. Prohibition Laws in the United States. n the 1800s, the dry movement began in the United States. The dry movement was the first step in the process of Prohibition.

    Kansas was the first state to put the ban of alcohol in effect. Protestant Christians made sure that the ban's strength was getting stronger. Gluttony, one of the seven deadly sins was their main motivation in their stand for the ban of alcohol. An amendment was introduced in 1917 to prohibit alcohol nationwide. This amendment became ratified in thirty eight states. The amendment states that: "After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited."

    • Word count: 847
  17. In this essay I will be demonstrating how government policies were the main reason why the Indians lost control of the Great Plains. However I will also show how other factors also contributed

    So it was inevitable that the Americans and Indians would clash and a conflict between the two was unavoidable. The government also promoted the destruction of the buffalo so that they could force the Indians to live on the reservations therefore controlling them. In 1874, Congress passed a bill protecting the buffalo, but president Ulysses S. Grant did not pass it as law. This shows how the government wanted to exterminate so that the Indians would have no food supply and have to live on the reservations.

    • Word count: 824
  18. Reasons for the Missouri Compromise

    Those within Missouri wanted more slaves to be allowed in so that they could capitalise on the economic advantage which the other agricultural states in the south had been able to gain from. However, James Tallmadge (a Republican) believed that for moral issues, the introduction of new slaves should be prohibited and that the children of slaves already in Missouri should be freed when they turned 25. The proposed motion divided Congress; however, the House of Representatives managed to pass the motion due to the support of the northern congressmen where they had the majority, although in the senate where the North did not have a majority, the bill was not passed and therefore didn't succeed.

    • Word count: 735
  19. Robert F. Kennedy

    At the time, it was the highest mountain in Canada that had not yet been climbed. It was named in honor of his brother John F. Kennedy after his assassination. Robert F. Kennedy later graduated from the University of Virginia School of Law. Robert F. Kennedy was a great deal of help to his brother John during his presidential campaign. In 1961, after the election, he was appointed U.S. Attorney General. He fought crime in the United States and stood up for African American civil rights, helping them exercise their right to vote, attend integrated schools and use all public facilities.

    • Word count: 505
  20. How far did the methods used by the civil rights campaigners change in the period 1954- 1964?

    Although there is a well-built argument that there was little change in the methods of civil rights campaigners in the period 1954 to 1964 it is a less significant argument to the contrary argument that there was a drastic change in the years 1954 to 1964. Education is a very important issue this give black people the opportunity to not work in agricultural jobs. The methods of protest changed in education because some of the education protest worked therefore black protester are educated and they self-esteem radically increased thus can fight for civil rights more efficiently and demand more equal rights.

    • Word count: 676
  21. First and Second Great Awakening

    In addition, many moved farther away from the churches, which decreased church membership. The religious fervor decreased to the extent that the Puritan ministers relied on the Half-Way Covenant in order to attract people to the churches, and many, such as the Arminians, preached that individual free will and good works determined salvation, and challenged the Puritan idea of predestination. Similarly, before the Second Great Awakening, religion became more liberal: many people, such as Jefferson and Franklin supported Deism, which embraced rationalism, and thus supported science over the Bible and reason over revelation.

    • Word count: 851
  22. Free essay
  23. Why was progress towards racial equality slow in the period 1945?

    Evidently, this opposition was the most important reason; without it, Truman would've had much greater chance to pursue the changes which he recommended. Another factor contributing to slow progress towards racial equality was the opposition among the general public. Truman's ideas were simply not comprehensive enough to deal with the amount of racism which existed in the country. Specifically in the south, where still many people, mainly Dixiecrats refused to support Truman and his policies.

    • Word count: 573
  24. To what extent was the separate but equal decision of the Supreme Court the main obstacle facing black Americans in achieving civil rights before 1941?

    Also, it can be argued that the lack of unity between the black Americans meant a further obstacle as their opposite views created a number of different ideas for the community, however there is also evidence of the strong bond between Blacks in America through the use of newspapers and civil rights groups, suggesting this obstacle is decreased in importance. These obstacles are incredibly important when understanding the problems Blacks faced when achieving civil rights before 1941 and suggest that the 'separate but equal' decision may not have been the main barrier.

  25. To what extent does a fear of Communism explain the changes in American policy towards immigration in the 1920s?

    Due to a fear of Communism in America in the 1920s, American policy on immigration grew increasingly more hostile. After the Russian Revolution in 1917, in which the first Communist state was established, many Americans believed that 'new' immigrants, mainly from Eastern Europe, were trying to provoke a similar revolution in America. This fear increased the hostility towards immigrants as Communism was seen as a great threat to the politics of America. An example of this hostility is Mitchell Palmer, America's anti-Communist/-Anarchist Attorney General.

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was the attack on Pearl Harbor a Surprise to President Roosevelt?

    "E. Conclusion Based on the evidence presented in my analysis the attack on Pearl Harbor was not a surprise to President Roosevelt. Many officials including the President knew about that the attack on Pearl Harbor would happen before December 7th. This is because of direct and indirect warning signs that were presented to United States officials only to be disregarded and ignored. Indirect warnings came from Japan through the press and military changes, while direct warnings came from leaders such as Churchill and United States navy officials. The warnings were disregarded. The fourteen part message was fully decoded two days after interception because it was done at a leisurely pace. It was done at a leisurely pace because no officials were on alert and searching for when and if an attack would take place against the United States. All because all the warning signs were overlooked by major officials an attack on Pearl Harbor took place but if the warnings were properly assessed then Pearl Harbor may have had a chance to defend itself from Japanese advances. F."

  • To what extent was WW2 the most significant turning point for civil rights

    "In conclusion we can see that WW2 was certainly not the most successful period for the civil rights movement as that mantle can probably be taken up by the events of the 1960's but it did mark a momentous turning point in the social acceptance of African Americans and even though by matter of convenience forced integration of blacks into the everyday life of America. It turned the movement in the right direction it needed to go in order for the events of the 1960's to take place. However, my personal feeling is actually that the most significant turning point overall was the Reconstruction period of 1965 to 1877. This period was by no means a massive success in reality as we have learnt that little actually changed, but if it was not for slaves being granted their freedom after the end of the civil war then none of the following advancements could even have been possible. It was this somewhat rather unassuming nudge than ignited the eventual movement that would bring about the practical changes of racial equality in the USA."

  • Evaluate The Presidency Of Theodore Roosevelt.

    "In conclusion, although Roosevelt did not deal with some of the issues which arose during his presidency, and did make a major political mistake, I think that his presidency can still be viewed as effective and successful. The great achievements Roosevelt made in the areas he did deal effectively deal with, I think, far out-weigh the negative aspects of his presidency. 2,192 words"

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