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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
  • Peer Reviewed essays 12
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Why was Progress for Racial Equality so slow in the years 1945-1955?

    4 star(s)

    of racial equality but it was clearly not enough for the cause and attitudes like this of top politicians slowed down any progress in the development overall. Any additional help that could come through Government needed the placement of politicians willing to help racial equality, especially in the Deep South, but a lack of black voters in these states left clearly r****t politicians with no intention of changing the r****t laws that governed their state. The increase in voters during this period was not enough to sway the vote away from r****t politicians and any progress in this way was clearly going to be a slow process.

    • Word count: 1232
  2. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent did the US president hinder rather than help the development of African American civil rights in the period from 1865-1992?

    3 star(s)

    Although most hindered the development and were passive, by 1992 presidents had created Civil Rights for African Americans. In this essay I will be discussing the both side of the argument in which I will include the Presidents who helped the development of African American and those who hinder the development. Presidents hindered the development of African Americans Civil Rights because at the start of the time period they frequently held White Supremacist views. For example, Johnson at the start of the period can be seen as actively hindering the development of African American Civil Rights. Johnson clearly opposed civil right legislation as the civil war was his priority.

    • Word count: 1235
  3. Peer reviewed

    To what extent was the 1920s a major turning point in the development of labour and trade union rights in the USA from 1865-1992?

    4 star(s)

    For example, workers saw a rise in real wages and employers taking actions to improve working conditions by reducing working hours and introducing insurance benefits and pension plans. Henry Ford was an example of the "welfare capitalism" which characterised the 1920s, Ford Motor Company was the first big business to double the daily wage and introduce the 8 hour working day. Representatives were even able to meet with employers to discuss grievances over production and plant safety. These developments were clearly significant for labour rights as the fundamental right of working in a safe environment and negotiating conditions were established.

    • Word count: 1243
  4. Peer reviewed

    Use sources A, B and C and your own knowledge. How far was the outbreak of the war of American Independence due to the lack of willingness of the American colonies to compromise in the years 1770 to 1775?

    4 star(s)

    Because of this, by 1770 relations between British authorities and the leaders of the colonial legislatures had broken down. Moreover, events such as the Gaspee incident worsened relations between the American colonies and the British and it showed that the Colonists had no respect for the British policies and were not willing to compromise with the British' ideas to improve relations. In addition, source A suggests that due to the American colonies not abiding to the British policies throughout the 1760's the British felt that they couldn't trust the colonies to obey various regulations and restrictions that were needed for the colonists to have more freedom.

    • Word count: 1062
  5. Free essay

    How successful was Prohibition?

    4 star(s)

    As alcohol became a luxury item increasing its appeal and demand to young people. Non-drinkers were also targeted as a means of improving sales due to the obvious profits to be made. This meant that by 1922 consumption began to rise steadily reaching the amount of 1.2 gallons of alcohol per capita 1923, a huge leap compared to the 0.8 gallons consumed in 1919 before prohibition. Driven by the opportunity to satisfy demand and make a profit a network of illegal bootleggers and speakeasies emerged.

    • Word count: 1330
  6. Peer reviewed

    The New Deal USA

    4 star(s)

    The increase in federal power supported people through the recession and restored the national morale and avoided the feeling of isolation particularly for farmers. Increasing the confidence and hope in the American people was crucial in order for quick and successful economical restoration in the U.S and it is therefore possible to view the New Deal as success. However, Source C challenges this idea by presenting Roosevelt's New Deal policies as tyranny and a ploy through use of the classical mythology of the Trojan Horse.

    • Word count: 1648
  7. Peer reviewed

    How effective was the early civil rights movement in advancing Black Civil Rights in the period 1880-1945?

    3 star(s)

    In reaction to the Black Codes the 14th amendment was passed in 1868. This stated that all free men shall be protected and enjoy equal treatment under the law. The idea was to protect the African American population, making them citizens thus forcing the federal Government to be responsible for them. If rights were denied by any States, the State in question would lose all representation in Congress. Yet to many Southern States this threat carried little purpose and no real threat. The States were prepared to accept the loss of representation in order to continue discriminating against the black population.

    • Word count: 1123
  8. Peer reviewed

    Essay on civil rights

    3 star(s)

    Moreover, the latter was upheld by a radical groups known as the Ku Klux Klan made up of different individuals some possessing a great deal of power such as governors and police officers. They felt that segregation of Black and White Americans was correct and used violent means such as 'lynching' to enforce the same. It is ironic then that Black Americans played a huge part in providing the financial support for some of the Southern states, yet only 5% registered were allowed to vote.

    • Word count: 1535
  9. How far do you agree with the view that the Wall Street crash was responsible for the depression of the early 1930s?

    I believe that the main contributing factor, which was responsible for the Great Depression, is the Bull Market itself and the acts of Speculation. The Bull Market is considered as being a risky investment because once you invest, the stock exchange prices could either flourish which would be beneficial, or there is a risk of the stock exchange prices for your investment to fail. However with the apparent prosperity and Boom in the 1920s, risks of the Bull Market were invisible, and success was sought to be the outcome of each investment.

    • Word count: 1402
  10. Free essay

    The Missouri Compromise. Since the bulk of the settlers in the territory of Missouri were southerners, it was implied that if Missouri were to be welcomed to the Union as a state it would have to be a slave state.

    Soon after, the Missouri compromise of 1820 was the agreement that politicians made to evenly balance slave states and free states. Additionally, it was established that slavery would not be permissible to prolong in the territories north of the 36? 30' latitude line (Jordan 247). The predicament with the Missouri Compromise was that the compromise was going to boost sectional division by outlining what the free states are in the North and what the slave states are in the South (Jordan 247).

    • Word count: 1106
  11. How far is it accurate to suggest that in 1945 the chances of improving the situation for black Americans were minimal?

    For example, on buses black people had to sit on one side while white people sat on the other. This segregation and sense of social hierarchy meant that in the southern states many whites' saw themselves above the blacks. White children learnt to talk down to blacks and black people were never invited into a white person's home. On top of segregation, southern states also found ways to override the voting rights given to black people, due to the fifteenth amendment. These methods included unfair literacy tests and the right to vote if one's grandfather had been able to do so.

    • Word count: 1391
  12. How far is it accurate to say that significant progress had been made in segregation from 1955 to 1963?

    After being arrested and fined, Martin Luther King proposed a boycott by all blacks of the city bus transit system, relying instead on carpools to get around, or taxis driven by blacks who modified their fares to be equal to that of a bus journey. The protest lasted over a year, during which protesters were attacked, and buildings firebombed by white supremacists. However, once nationwide attention was brought to the cause, the tide turned in the boycott's favour; in June 1956 the supreme court ruled that public transport segregation in Alabama was unconstitutional, a ruling Alabama finally accepted in December.

    • Word count: 1522
  13. History Notes on the American Civil War

    now declares that the rebels cannot try to destroy the gov't and just rejoin unhurt if unsuccessful - Lincoln now begins to draft an emancipation proclamation * Union strategy now turns to TOTAL WAR: 1) Blockade the southern coasts 2) Liberate the slaves 3) Seize Mississippi River 4) Chop South in pieces 5) Capture Richmond, the capital 6) Grind the South into submission The War at Sea * The Union's attempt to blockade southern ports was shaky at first and blockade-running was very profitable for a time * Biggest Confederate threat was the Merrimack that was renamed the Virginia -

    • Word count: 1304
  14. History Notes on the aftermath of the American Civil War

    the agency - it expired in 1872 Johnson: The Tailor President * Johnson became president by the assassin's bullet * Humble beginnings from Tennessee * He left the South once it seceded - yet didn't understand or agree with the North and distrusted by South * Described a man with out a true place in his own country * Champion of states' rights and the Constitution Presidential Reconstruction * Lincoln favored a smooth transition of the South back into the Union and favored a 10% plan - (10% of voters of the 1860 election had to pledge allegiance to the Union)

    • Word count: 1494
  15. The main events of the Civil Rights movement happened between 1945 and 1968. However black Americans did not suddenly start campaigning for better rights in 1945, organisations and campaigns had existed before then.

    The main events of the Civil Rights movement happened between 1945 and 1968. However black Americans did not suddenly start campaigning for better rights in 1945, organisations and campaigns had existed before then. And also the Second World War encouraged black Americans to campaign more vigorously.They had fought alongside whites and also fought against the r****m of Hitler. The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) took a number of cases to the Supreme Court to challenge educational segregation.

    • Word count: 1111
  16. To what extent did the political, economic and social status of black Americans vary across the USA at the end of the Second World War?

    As always, political change came first. Prior to the war in the southern states, only 2 percent of the black population could vote, yet by the end of the war in 1945, 15 percent had this right. Although this number was still small, it did show the first signs of an America that was on the way to racial equality. In the southern states where racial oppression was more present than the northern states, Civil rights groups began to appear, as they had begun to do all across America.

    • Word count: 1067
  17. Rosa Parks and her significance to the Civil Rights movement.

    and she was a very significant within the Civil Rights movement. In December 1943, Rosa joined the Montgomery group, and was elected for volunteer secretary. She worked with the organization's state president, Edgar Daniel Nixon. The NAACP played a significant role in the African- American community. The NAACP challenged the right of local school board to segregate. On 17 May 1954, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in education was illegal under the constitution. However, many Southern States openly resisted the ruling. By the end of 1956, in some Southern States not a black child attended a mixed school.

    • Word count: 1304
  18. Assess the significance of the influence of internal migration on social and political tensions within the USA in the period 1815-1917.

    However, the Compromise went against everything the Union had been constructed upon and all sense of unity between the North and South was soon lost. "But this momentous question (the Missouri Compromise), like a firebell in the night awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it the knell of the Union."1 There is no doubting that the Missouri Compromise can be comprehended as the beginning of the end of the Union. It is clear to see that internal migration was a major influence upon politics from looking at the admission of California and Texas to the Union.

    • Word count: 1967
  19. Personal Motives during the Civil War

    His military life is destroying his personal life. When he arrives home, he is informed that his father in law had died, and left him in charge of the family house. Lee is heartbroken at this reality. So much has changed since he left for war that he takes the death, which hurt his beloved wife, upon himself. "He felt a sudden wave of guilt, as though if he'd been here... it would all be different" (P. 12). Lee feels he is at fault for Mary's illness, and ultimately all the dismay within his family.

    • Word count: 1959
  20. The Underground Railroad

    Often times, the runaway would be led to this station, or safe place, by a conductor, people black and white who were sympathetic to the runaways and knew the routes to freedom ("Secret Language" par.3). Sometimes a slave would attend five or six stations before walking on free soil. A famous conductor was Harriet Tubman. To slaves she was known as Moses because she led so many out of bondage and into the promise land. Tubman made nineteen trips to Maryland bringing a total of three-hundred slaves to freedom ("Underground Railroad" par.18).

    • Word count: 1115
  21. John Browns Reign of Terrorism John Brown was an American Abolitionist who promoted and supported armed conflict in order to end all slavery.

    His Calvinist parents taught him and his 7 siblings that people were all created equal. From the beginning, him and his family loathed slavery. When John Brown was just twelve-years-old he witnessed the brutal beating of a young slave boy, just his age, which scarred him forever. This event led to his lifelong battle to end slavery. At age sixteen Brown left his family and began his lifelong endeavors as a terrorist fighting for a good cause, yet in an immoral way. On the evening of May 24, 1856, John Brown conducted the event known as the "The Pottawatomie Creek Massacre," viciously slaying five pro-slavery white men, assuming they owned slaves.

    • Word count: 1265
  22. History of Alaska. The Purchase of Alaska shows an example of Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny was based on the idea of moving towards and dominating the West.

    In 1861, the American Civil War began. The Lincoln administration couldn't deal with the Russian Foreign Office during that period so the Russians wanted until the war was over. The Russian Foreign minister began negotiations with William Seward, Secretary of State of America, without authorization from President Johnson. Johnson left the decision to his Cabinet, which agreed, to the idea of purchasing Russian America. Seward and the Foreign minister agreed on 7 million dollars but later added $200,000 to make up for the loss in exchange. This transaction was roughly 2.3 � an acre.

    • Word count: 1316
  23. The History of the Confederate Flag and why it is Controversial Today

    In July of 1861, two stars, making a total of 11 stars total, were added with the addition of Tennessee and North Carolina as part of the Confederate union. In November of 1861, two stars, making a total of 13 stars total, "were added in claims of the addition of Kentucky and Missouri as part of the Confederate union".2 "The "Stars and Bars" often caused confusion in battle amongst the Confederate and Union soldiers because of their similarity and a new flag to represent the Confederate states had to be used".3 The "Battle Flag" was used as substitution of the

    • Word count: 1756
  24. Compare the contributions of Martin Luther King and Lyndon B Johnson to the gaining of black civil rights in 1964/5.

    King through his career as a Baptist minister was able to use religion to create a moral legitimacy for the movement. He also used religion to attack the white clergy, he highlighted the hypocrisy of them teaching the Christian ethics of equality and "love they neighbour". King was an advocate of non violent protest, something which he learnt from the teaching of Gandhi. He argued through the course of his life that true progress could only be made when the cycle of violence and hate was broken.

    • Word count: 1445
  25. Gender Roles in Combat Duty: Are Women Strong Enough for Combat?

    The differences between the policies of the Army and the department of Defense are examined (DoD). Varying opinions about the impact of women on military readiness are tackled (Angelia 15). Also explored is the influence of cultural norms on the way women were given assignments in the military based on history. In reports and various statistical studies on women's assignments and combat from RAND Cooperation states that "the integration of women had no major effect on readiness, single mothers were compared to single fathers regarding the impact each had on the unit." The study found that numerically, single fathers were more common in the military and that "single parents regardless of the gender placed a burden on the unit and impacted readiness" (Harrell and Miller 1997).

    • Word count: 1369

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was the attack on Pearl Harbor a Surprise to President Roosevelt?

    "E. Conclusion Based on the evidence presented in my analysis the attack on Pearl Harbor was not a surprise to President Roosevelt. Many officials including the President knew about that the attack on Pearl Harbor would happen before December 7th. This is because of direct and indirect warning signs that were presented to United States officials only to be disregarded and ignored. Indirect warnings came from Japan through the press and military changes, while direct warnings came from leaders such as Churchill and United States navy officials. The warnings were disregarded. The fourteen part message was fully decoded two days after interception because it was done at a leisurely pace. It was done at a leisurely pace because no officials were on alert and searching for when and if an attack would take place against the United States. All because all the warning signs were overlooked by major officials an attack on Pearl Harbor took place but if the warnings were properly assessed then Pearl Harbor may have had a chance to defend itself from Japanese advances. F."

  • To what extent was WW2 the most significant turning point for civil rights

    "In conclusion we can see that WW2 was certainly not the most successful period for the civil rights movement as that mantle can probably be taken up by the events of the 1960's but it did mark a momentous turning point in the social acceptance of African Americans and even though by matter of convenience forced integration of blacks into the everyday life of America. It turned the movement in the right direction it needed to go in order for the events of the 1960's to take place. However, my personal feeling is actually that the most significant turning point overall was the Reconstruction period of 1965 to 1877. This period was by no means a massive success in reality as we have learnt that little actually changed, but if it was not for slaves being granted their freedom after the end of the civil war then none of the following advancements could even have been possible. It was this somewhat rather unassuming nudge than ignited the eventual movement that would bring about the practical changes of racial equality in the USA."

  • Evaluate The Presidency Of Theodore Roosevelt.

    "In conclusion, although Roosevelt did not deal with some of the issues which arose during his presidency, and did make a major political mistake, I think that his presidency can still be viewed as effective and successful. The great achievements Roosevelt made in the areas he did deal effectively deal with, I think, far out-weigh the negative aspects of his presidency. 2,192 words"

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