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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968
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However it soon became apparent with the outbreak of war that the government had little progress in mind. Whilst fighting for their country in Europe the African Americans gained a greater view of racial equality that then became inspiring. During the war the US were supposed to be fighting for democracy against the Nazis but had yet to implement it at home and this hypocrisy opened up some truths for the African Americans who from this began to campaign for equality.
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The aims of Malcolm X, was to improve the lives of black Americans. Malcolm claimed that he put forward the extremist position forward in order to make King's Demands more acceptable to white population. One of Malcolm's greatest achievements was that he drew attention to the horrible conditions in America's ghettos and he brought American blacks more closely in contact with oppressed black people all around the world. Malcolm became an icon for black people and a role model for black youth. Historian Andrew Clegg states that "he made Black Nationalism in its various forms appealing to the angry generation of black youth who came of age as American segregation and European colonial Empires were collapsing".
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Compare the aims, methods and achievements of MLK and Malcolm X. Which man do you think was most successful at achieving civil rights for African Americans in the 1960s?
King's aims were not all this simple, however. First, he had to factor in the point that he would need to reach the greatest number of people possible with his message, and make them receptive to it. I would suggest that this was a battle between the fight for civil rights and the dangers of playing 'Uncle Tom' to Washington politicians. While King did liaise with President Kennedy, I would suggest that this was an accomplishment of King's rather than one of his aims.
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How far did the Supreme Court hinder rather than help the development of African American civil rights in the period 1865-1980 By James Lawson
This obstructing precedence was furthered with the Court essentially recognising the rights of states to exclude blacks from voting. The Grandfather clauses, which excluded all who did not have two generations of voting family, was supported by the ruling on 'USA V. Reece', which allowed states to place voting qualifications. Thus, the Supreme Court prevented Blacks from voting on two grounds, and directly undermined the right to vote with long lasting impacts. This systematic abuse of African Americans through the legal system, was only worsened by the Courts rejection of the 1875 Civil rights act and the ruling on Plessey V Fergusson.
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Lee was vastly outnumbered in many different ways. For instance, the North's iron production beat the South's by 15 to 1, and their Naval ships tonnage was just 1 25th of the North's. The common view is that the Civil War was a "Lost Cause" and that no General, no matter how amazing could possibly have won the War. The only thing that could be expected from a general in this position is that he won as many battles as possible, and Lee did this very well, winning battles against overwhelming forces and resources.
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Ho Chi Minh, the communist leader of North Vietnam was confident that he could take all of Vietnam. The United States were not present at Geneva and did not accept the terms presented, though there was little they could do except give support to the South and ignore the issue of the elections. The USA was aware that Bao Dai, the Vietnamese Emperor ruling the South, would be incapable of presenting a valid alternative to Ho Chi Minh, because of his unpopularity. It is for this reason that they brought in Ngo Dinh Diem to lead the South.
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The aim was simple, to win a victory on northern soil, however this would prove more difficult than first thought, when Lee left to go north he was being pursued by the union general Hooker who had little idea of where he was going. Hooker was soon replaced by General Meade, and it was by sheer luck that rebel soldiers looking for shoes stumbled on union troops at Gettysburg, which resulted in this being the ground on which the greatest battle ever fort on American soil, would be set.
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These pressures were tolerable as long as the British were not too strict. However, in the decade before the war there was a new level of interest in making money from the American colonies. This started with an attempt to limit further expansion by the colonies; in 1763 it was decided to draw a border behind the existing colonies. The land to the west was to be left to the Indians to stop further conflicts. Further tension came in 1765 with the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act. It was the Stamp Act that caused the most unease.
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"In its intervention in South East Asia in the years 1950-1964, the USA was more concerned with defending its economic, than its ideological, interests"
It seems then that the intervention was ideologically motivated. However, interest in the region was not only due to the desire to protect 'freedom', it was also an economically important region. Japan has been described as the 'corner stone' of American involvement in South East Asia and thus it was important to protect it. The Vietnam War was based on assumptions by the U.S.A. The initial and most cited reason America was concerned with the region of South East Asia was the inherent fear of communism in public opinion.
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The war gave African American soldiers, as well as White soldiers the chance to see how the rest of the world lived, to see the differences between the societies and also was America's chance to prove they were a good country and gain a good reputation. Socially there was an extreme change during the war years, as a result of agricultural machinery many African Americans moved north in search of work, they found the north much more tolerating than the southern states such as Alabama and Texas.
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He headed the Montgomery Improvement Association, an organisation that first oversaw the running of the bus boycott. It was during the bus boycott that King emerged as a leader, he had the qualities necessary in the fight for equality; through MIA he united many church groups allowing the boycott to work efficiently and effectively, following on from the success of MIA, King was a key figure in the setting up of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957, he advocated the idea of boycotts and non violence, in line with his strong Christian beliefs.
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Thus the boycott was implemented. The boycott was different previous attempts at gaining civil rights, Civil rights leaders and groups such as NAACP had tried court action with moderate success and not enough progress. The boycott had a huge impact on the way people saw the African American community of Montgomery. Instead of a lower class, violent, unorganised extreme revolutionaries they saw a group of dignified, ordinary people, who had organised themselves efficiently, banded together, were passive, using non violence and still getting peoples attention.
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In what ways did the social, political and economic status of black Americans vary across the United States at the end of the Second World War?
Black Americans and white Americans did not receive equal pay or anywhere near it. Black Americans were seen as inferior workers and people and did not deserve the same amount of money as the superior whites. In 1941 A. Philip Randolph suggested a march on Washington by thousands of black people to challenge employment policies of the Federal Government. Only 10% of contractors employed black people in 1940. Roosevelt did not want the march on Washington so he agreed to set up the FECP (Fair Employment Practices Commission)
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The first was the march in Washington. This march was organised due to the reaction of the shooting of NAACP member, Medgar Evers outside his home. The march occurred in August of 1963. Over 200, 000 people took part in the march. One of the most famous civil right advocates, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in front of the Lincoln Memorial Dr. King gave his well known speech, entitled 'I Have a Dream'. The massive media attention to this event had a strong affect on public opinion, especially those who felt treatment towards with the blacks was unfair and unjust.
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Germany had war guilt, which caused them a great deal of humiliation. Due to this, they had to make reparations to other countries for the losses that the war had caused. Germany did not have enough money to pay their allies, and so could not pay them. This caused tension between Germany and France, who with the support of Belgium took it upon them to get the reparations. In order to do this, they invaded the heart of Germany's industries, the Ruhr.
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However the court decision had empowered the black community and so Brown II was brought before the courts in 1955, again however this did not result in a definite result. President Eisenhower was also a significant reason for the slow progress of civil rights. When he took over from President Truman, he inherited the beginnings of a strong civil rights campaign, however Eisenhower did not share this same drive. He failed to take substantial leadership towards enforcing the verdict, as he was afraid of stirring up opposition, resentment and disorder in the South.
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Women of the 19th century worked hard on their tasks at hand. The photos from the website show how dedicated women were to their work. One of the pictures showed two women, one of them had a magnifying glass, and was examining a specimen, while the other woman was writing the observations down in a book. From the way the women were both intensely looking down, it is easy to tell they are concentrating hard on their work. Also, in the picture, there are many papers, books, maps, filing cabinets, etc that filled the tables, and desk tops of the whole room.
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7th May 1954, delegations representing France, Bao Dai, the Vietminh, Cambodia, Laos, the Unisted States, the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China and Great Britain assembled in Geneva in attempt to resolve the war in Indochina. Like Korea, Vietnam was divided into two separate states, the north governed by communists and the south in which Bao Dai and his prime Minister Diem took charge. The French were supposedly to stay in south of Vietnam to enforce the cease-fire until the nationwide elections in 1956.
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At the Yalta conference, Stalin agreed to sign the Declaration of Liberated Europe agreeing to set up self-governing states. Through this, the 'Open Door' policy could be implemented which would allow America to import goods into the Polish state. After Yalta, Stalin proved to be untrustworthy as he denied free elections and any kind of democracy in Poland despite agreeing to do so. He was more interested in the security of his nation rather than America's economics interest. Through eastern Poland, Stalin would regain back its 1914 boundaries which act as a buffer against Germany.
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It was at the forefront of all the major events that helped shape the progression of the black Civil Rights movement right up to the current day. But to the extent of the events significance in the Civil Rights movement is what this essay will explore. The Brown VS the Board of Education case in 1954 was a key step to aid black rights as it reversed the rulings during the case Plessy VS Ferguson. Segregated schools was ruled unconstitutional which resulted in some educational facilities beginning to integrate.
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But around this time, the Northern cities, such as Chicago, were expanding and industrialising so many blacks were moving northwards to take advantage of new employment opportunities. This was called the Great Migration, however, due to the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the subsequent plunge into Depression, African-Americans found it difficult to begin a new life under the racial tensions and discrimination. It wasn't until the Second World War, which began in 1941, that black Americans finally had an opportunity to see a better way of life.
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Sustaining the energy that water gave off was difficult because the cities did not want to use all their water sources as energy for factories, so new concepts arouse about what other energy sources were available, thus the discovery of coal came to surface. Industrialization was profiting from coal because it was replacing valuable water and wood that was needed for other needs, while at the same time it permitted industry to expand more widely. Among the most important advances in technology were the inventions of interchangeable parts and other machine tools such as the turret lathe.
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These bills would become what we know today to be the Social Security Act of 1935. However, the bill was not passed immediately. It was not until August 15, 1935, more than 6 months after the introduction of bills in January 17, 1935, that the bills were passed and signed by the president. The main reason for the delay in the passing of these bills was the widespread disagreement with the idea that the government should intervene in that had always been handled at a state, local or private level. In addition, many sought a loophole that could enable employers to be exempt from payroll taxes if the employers adopted a government approved pension plan.
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Kennedy was highly concerned about the rise in unemployment and pursued many policies to combat it and create jobs. The 1962 Trade Expansion Act cut tariffs to encourage trade and encourage trade. It did not cut personal taxes but was able to reduce taxes for businesses under the Revenue Act, which gave $1 billion in tax credits for new equipment and investment. Kennedy also encouraged economic growth through federal spending. He encouraged individual stated to apply for and spend federal grants on housing, education and restoration of community areas. Kennedy believed that his improvements in the economy would help the living standards of the poor.
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This accusation can be tangible to a point, for the speeches were more emphatic towards certain ideas in the north, than in the south and vice versa, but the main principles of Lincoln's ideas tend to show his point of view as aligned with that of the Abolitionists, in quite a particular way. Taking into account certain confusing ambivalence in Lincoln's speech, although he proposed equality when he invited Americans to "...unite as one people throughout this land until we shall once more stand up declaring that all men are created equal."
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