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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968
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Assess the value of these three sources to a historian studying the issue of civil rights under the Eisenhower presidency. Speeches by Senator Eastland, MLK and Governor Faubus.
The Source also reflects the views of the more radical Dixiecrats in Congress that opposed civil rights and shows the foundations of which the Southern Manifesto of 1956 was built upon. Eastland emphasises the law of the land, the â€œConstitutionâ€ but then decides to eviscerate the Supreme Court for enforcing and interpreting such, showing that his allegiance is not to the Constitution as interpreted by the Courts but the Constitution as fits his segregationist narrative, therefore impacting the reliability of the source.
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Businesses were developing rapidly and became an important part of American society. Taking this into account, the stock market had significant interconnections with people?s daily life, even those who did not own any shares. Moreover, regardless of the fact that by 1929 some regulations and restrictions had been implemented, the U.S.A was still one of the most economically free countries. It was outstanding because of its very little control over the private sector, its independent central bank system and self-regulated stock market, which had no effective control over its actives (Clements, p.
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President L. B. Johnson himself proclaimed the importance of Martin Luther King?s march on Washington in bringing about the civil rights act of ?64. When talking to MLK about his march and the civil rights bill, Johnson says, ??I think the greatest achievement in foreign policy ? I said to a group yesterday ? was the passing of the 1964 civil rights act.?? Johnson said this directly to MLK in order to make him recognise how much of an effect his march had upon changing employment law in the US.
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How far do you agree that the impact of WW2 was the main reason why the position of African-Americans improved in the years 1945-1955?
was outlawed at the time. This was particularly embarrassing to the American government. The way black veterans were treated when they came home from the war also changed some white people?s minds. They saw them being treated in the same way they had been before, being attacked on the streets, while white soldiers were being treated like heroes. One person who was particularly affected by this was Truman, who had just become president during the last few months of war.
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How far is it accurate to say that the Black Power movements of the 1960s achieved nothing for Black Americans?
?Freedom Cities? were set up in an attempt to prove that black people could govern themselves. For example, in Washington D.C black people were able to elect their own school board and took control of a black school in Harlem, and improved conditions there. Other ways that the black power movement provided practical help and improved the lives of children was through an initiative set up by the Black Panther Party, called Free Breakfast For Children, which was extremely popular and fed up to 10,000 children a day. The government were suspicious of the black power movement and believed that it was linked to communism, due to the Black Panther Party having Marxist beliefs.
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I believe this factor largely caused him to win by a landslide in 1984. Although Ronald Reagan was seen as being an attractive personality; some could argue that the Republicans? advantage over the Democrats was mainly due to the poor leadership of Walter Mondale. Mondale, who lacked media presence, was seen as being less attractive than Reagan. His Equal Rights Amendment proposition was deemed unpopular for Middle America, as many believed that Civil Rights had taken up a lot of focus in past presidential terms. Furthermore, Mondale?s female Vice President received negative press after Reagan criticized her with ?what if she is supposed to push the button to fire the missiles and she can?t
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How far do you agree that the years 1945-55 saw only limited progress in improving the status of African Americans?
Truman highlighted the dilemma of segregation in the army in the bill ?To Secure These Rights?. Furthermore it was suggested that only 1 in 70 African American soldiers were able to obtain the position of officer. Truman believed that the inequality in the armed forces had to be combated. By desegregating the armed forces, Truman was able to promote equality of employment in the civil service. From this I can suggest that the desegregation of armed forces was highly significant as it helped improve the status of African Americans. Overall I believe that the desegregation of armed forced overpowered the limited impact of the ?Fair Deal? programme, as it gave people addressed a larger amount of people, and made more difference in the long-term.
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Assess the view that the Supreme Court was the most important branch of the federal government in assisting African Americans achieve their civil rights in the period 1865-1992?
For example, Garvey suggested that the African Americans should go out and live in Africa. Therefore it is questionable whether the Supreme Court?s ruling was a hindrance to the blacks? social rights at the same time since the popular leaders supported it. This indicates that African Americans? perceptions of social rights were slightly ?blurred? on whether they wanted integration or segregation. However, when it became clear that blacks wanted integration in the 1950s, the Supreme Court did help them in the Linda Brown case where it ruled that admissions of all children to state schools were on equal terms.
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