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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968
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Black people were not treated the same even though the enlistment for blacks was much higher. The problem blacks realised was that America joined a war initially to solve Nazi racism but soon blacks and whites both caught on to that fact that America are fighting a war where the problem was occurring in their same country. Truman in 1948 issued an order that desegregated the military. Truman issuing this order proved a big win socially for Black people, and this shows that to a fairly large extent that black people?s position was improved, because now that Blacks and whites could mix in the military, peoples opinion can change on them, as they will be fighting
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Furthermore, American citizens could take the government to court in cases where it appeared they had acted in a way to infringe any constitutional right. The NAACP to support the cases where citizens took the authorities to court used experienced civil rights lawyers, such as Thurgood Marshall,, two such successful cases were Morgan v.
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In Stephen Ambrose's book "Citizen Soldier" he speaks of the American soldiers who fought in Europe from D-Day, June 7, 1944 to May 7, 1945
They could be Americans, Germans or even women, but the attribute they all have in common is fear. They are fighting for their people, and if they die, they die. They didn't live their days like they used to, they lived the military lifestyle, just trying to survive everyday. They were in it together and fought for each other. Instead of believing in their country, they believed in the man standing next to them. (60) Ambrose cared a lot about the people he writes about, particularly those in the front lines of the battle.
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To what extent was opposition from politicians responsible for the failures of the civil rights campaigns between 1945 -1955?
Despite this, Truman still won the election. This suggests that political opposition wasn?t necessarily the most significant reason for the civil rights campaigns failures as Truman showed that a candidate could support the civil rights movement and still be elected, regardless of southern opposition. However despite the south not being able to stop Black Americans gaining Civil rights they were able to significantly slow down the process. After the 1954 Brown V Board of education case southern middle class citizens set up the White Citizens Councils which showed that the south would not accept desegregation.
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Hammurabi, however, wanted people to know the legal principles his government would follow. So he had artisans carve 300 laws on a stone pillar for all to see. On it he proclaimed his goals ?To cause justice to prevail in land, to destroy the wicked and evil, that the strong may not oppress the weak.? (Elizabeth Ellis Gaynor; Anthony Esler; Burton F. Beers et al N.J: Prentice hall, 2001. Print.) ?From the code, it is evident that the Babylonians did not believe all people were equal. The code treated slaves, commoners, and nobles differently. Women had a number of rights, including the ability to buy and sell property and to obtain a divorce.
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To what extent was opposition from politicians responsible for the failures of the civil rights campaigns between 1945-55?
When the African Americans won the brown v. board they had been proud of the victory, but in hindsight the victory was only de jure meaning what they won wasn?t put into practice. The lack of picketing shows that the civil rights campaigners were subject to limited protest so they never did much towards helping. The NAACP closing in the south was because of the huge segregation and all the southern leaders of the states believed in segregation and therefore wanted it to be closed down. In the south there was an extreme nature of discrimination, as if its been in peoples families for many generations, they feel discrimination is the only correct way to live.
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this policy was laissez-faire but the government intervened to support business in 4 ways: High tariffs: Fordney-McCumber Act 1922 ï raised tariffs to cover difference between domestic and foreign production costs Cheaper to buy goods from USA than abroad Tariff level ï foreign goods more expensive than USA even though produced cheaper in USA Foreign trade reduced = domestic demand for goods high Tax reductions: Government reduced federal taxes – 1924, 1926 and 1928 (benefited wealthy) Mellon ï handed out tax reductions Coolidge ï operated on surplus Aim ï reduced national debt, federal tax cuts = meant little to poor
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After 1865, the power was back into the hands of the whites and they felt that freedom for black people was a threat to whites. This led the White Americans in the Southern states to introduce a chain of unfair laws called ?Jim Crow Laws?. These laws brought back racism and segregation which derived from slavery. In 1896, a law was passed which made the return of segregation legal as long as the education of blacks and whites was kept equal by having the same opportunities and facilities.
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However, the evidence suggests that it was more internal factors, i.e. Northern strength and resources that won the war for the Union, but the defeat of the Confederacy was not inevitable. The industrial and financial might of the Union won the Civil War for the Union. The fact that the Union had far greater and better resources and greater industrial capabilities meant that the Confederacy was unable to compete and therefore the Union defeated them.
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However in practice Johnson failed to enforce this requirement. In addition to this Black Codes were introduced by state legislature which intended to limit or avoid the extension of voting rights to freed slaves. The codes also withheld African Americans the right serve on a jury, give evidence against a white person, carry arms and marry a white person, all of which demonstrate the denial of equality to African American?s by the southern states. The Republicans in congress counteracted the Black Codes with the 14th Amendment to the constitution which granted all citizens protection of the law without discrimination (however only one southern state ratified this amendment ? Tennessee).
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Do you agree that the wartime alliance between the USA and the Soviet Union during WW2 was bound to fail once the war ended?
With ideologies that were poles apart, the main powers of the alliance were quite an incompatible combination. The west particularly despised communism and prior to the war during the 1930?s growth of Germany liked the idea of a strong Germany to act as a buffer to the Soviets and their communist influence. Similarly throughout the war the west was reluctant to send western troops to help the Russians, wanting them to be weakened by their war effort and would therefore be less likely to attempt to spread communism.
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To what extent was the impact of WW1 a key factor in the US decision to restrict immigration 1917-29?
Perhaps it was just a form of passive racism that reflected the mood of the country at the time. Others plead more patriotic reasons; the idea that foreigners were distrusted in times of crisis and weakened the US war efforts. As patriotism grows to strengthen morale during war time, so too does resentment of foreigners who begin to be seen increasingly as ?outsiders?. This feeling was particularly strong in the US as it was primarily Italian-Americans protesting against the fighting which was viewed as disloyal.
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How far was the growth of the American economy in the years 1890-1914 due to the rise of big business?
This meant that more work was being done and less money was being paid out for the work. The American economy grew in the years 1890-1914 because after the Civil War America hit an industrial revolution due the rise of big business. America was rich in natural resources that were now there and ready to be used as and when they were needed. These new industrial companies such as, John D. Rockerfeller?s Standard Oil Company and Bethlehem Steel needed to use the railroad and shipping services.
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This would therefore be seen as a way for America to get their answers to succeeding in defending democracy. However, it is hard to argue that the Americans were going to Korea to defend democracy when they were intent in re-instating the government of Rhee. The two main problems with Rhee?s presidency were both and still are great controversial issues. The first was the initial creation of Rhee?s government not really being democratic. The definition of democracy is as follows ?A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives?,
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How accurate is it to say that the status of black people in the United States changed very little in the years 1945
However there was one problem with the ruling, and that was that they didn?t actually set a time by which all the schools had to stop segregation. This is an example of de jure but not de facto, a change in the law but the change wasn?t really put into practice. After the first year, the NAACP realised that there was very little change in the desegregation of schools in the South, so they went to the Supreme Court again who produced the Brown II ruling.
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This law resulted in over 12 states issuing laws of prohibition. However, all laws were repealed except for laws within Maine. A large reason for this being was the threat of the Civil War and money was needed to support a growing war effort. Therefore the Internal Revenue Act was passed 1862. This Act placed a fee on all liquor sold in the United States. Some historians believe that this act gave governmental approval to drink alcohol because it provided a plentiful source of revenue (Nishi 14).
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Immigration in the 19th century resulted in political, economic, and social shifts in the U.S. Immigration in the 19th century resulted in political shifts in the U.S. For example,?Nativism?. It impacted politics in the mid-19th century because of the large inflows of immigrants from cultures that were somewhat different from the existing American culture. Nativists objected primarily to Irish Roman Catholics .Nativist movements included the Know Nothing or American Party of the 1850s, the Immigration Restriction League of the 1890s, the anti-Asian movements in the West, resulting in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.The peak year for admission of new immigrants was 1907, when approximately 1.3 million people entered the country legally.
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There is another example of such discrimination against African Americans, even after the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments put in place to improve the rights of American citizens, the south still found ways to prevent African Americans from having such rights. An example would be the Jim Crow laws which segregated blacks from whites stopping blacks from entering restaurants, cinema?s toilets, bus stations and drinking fountains used by whites. Or the particular characteristics that made blacks different from whites just from the way they sat, stood, ate or walked.
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The main question here was, should the government (a decidedly federal one by this stage) be representative of the states, or of their populations themselves? The state delegates were identifiably divided on this issue ? the ?big? state delegate?s like those from Virginia and the Carolina?s presented arguments to form a legislature based on the population of states, where the states with the larger populations were granted more representation in the legislature than the smaller ones. The ?small? state delegates like those from New Jersey declared that the legislature should represent the states themselves, with each state being given equal representation.
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The US economic boom of the 1920s was primarily due to the motor manufacturing industry How far do you agree with this view?
This shows that confidence was crucial as this was the factor which enhanced everyone?s trust in products which were being produced enabling demands for consumer goods to increase causing more money to be brought into the economy. The republican government believed that the government should have little interference in the lives of American people which became known as Laissez-faire. In their view, they thought that the president, in this case Calvin Coolidge to leave businesses alone and allow them to do what they wanted.
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For instance, test cases in 1883 resulted in a Supreme Court decision that the civil rights act of 1875 was unconstitutional. The basis, on which the act was deemed unconstitutional, was the fact that state governments and not federal governments should decide on their own internal affairs. The act had provided some protection for African Americans against discrimination and segregation; in particular it asserted their right to equality before the law. The fact that state governments could now decide their own internal affairs does not seem fair to African Americans, as southern states and indeed their politicians were frequently racist and often took on political responsibilities to ensure white supremacy, which does not bode well for black civil rights.
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All who purchased shares at a cost of £12 10s shared in the success or failure of the venture. The Virginia Company was formed both to bring profit to its shareholders and to establish an English colony in the ‘New World’, America. Early industries such as glass manufacture, pitch and tar production, beer and wine making took advantage of natural resources. However, the settlers could not devote as much time to trade as they were too busy trying to survive. The problems they faced were attacks by Native Americans, poor food and water supplies and arguments amongst the settlers.
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Connor Ward 8th grade, Jackson Middle School Acknowledgments - Many thanks to historian Mary Gallagher from the Benton County Historical Society for her time and outstanding knowledge of the area. ?Yoke those oxen! There are over 100 of them! It?s a good day, we should be able to cover at least 20 miles today!? shouted the Reverend. After the train had gone about three miles, it came to a fork in the road, a new road that skirted the lake on its far side, and the original road.
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The emergence of the black power movement in the early 1960's corresponded with the success for the civil rights campaigns. The focus on the campaigns meant that the practical issues relating to social and economic factors didnt improve.
The nation of Islam also indulged in vicious feuding within their own organisation for example the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965, this could have been an effect of the statement Malcolm X made about John Kennedy when he said that ?chickens were coming home to roost? implying that Kennedy got what he deserved, the result being criticism towards the NOI as the whites seen Kennedy as an icon. Incidents of violence, such as attacks on white people in the race riots of watts in 1965, were blacks burnt down businesses owned by whites and verbally abused white police officers,
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Assess the view that the introduction of National Prohibition in the USA was inspired mainly by Protestant Religious Idealism
Influenced by the Protestant idealism many states chose to go ?dry? and fight against the manufacture, sale and transportation of alcohol. Protestant America believed strongly that alcohol was work of ?the devil? and to protect the American nation and its next generation, the Prohibition movement must continue and succeed. The Protestant religion had many connections in the Progressive Era, such as the WCTU, the WASPs, and the Anti-Saloon League which all provided support such as mass of factions, financial power and a political presence. Interpretation A fully supports this view, suggesting that those ?wet? citizens would be grouped as ?unregenerate?.
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