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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968

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  1. The Eisenhower years saw significant improvement for the African Americans

    Improvement in the political and legal system can be seen throughout the Eisenhower years. Firstly the Brown ruling of 1956 saw Oliver Brown supported by the NAACP appeal to the Supreme Court over the issue of his daughter who was being forced to go to a "blacks only" school 20 blocks away instead of the local "whites only" school just 5 blocks away. The appeal was a success; the Supreme Court ruled that it was against the 14th amendment to segregate people and therefore schools should be integrated. This was a landmark ruling, it was the first time the Supreme Court had ruled in favour of African Americans and it paved the way for further rulings.

    • Word count: 1644
  2. Was Wilson an Idealist or Realist?

    In order to do this all of the nations involved in the war must agree that there will be no winner, which, unfortunately, would have been near impossible to accomplish. France and Britain were reluctant to accept no winner to the war. When the War Guilt Clause was made to blame Germany for the war, it was clear that peace without victory was not going to happen.

    • Word count: 449
  3. Politics of 1850

    The party leadership consisted of former anti-slavery members of the Whig Party and the Democratic Party. Its main purpose was opposing the expansion of slavery into the western territories, arguing that free men on free soil comprised a morally and economically superior system to slavery. They opposed slavery in the new territories and worked to remove existing laws discriminating against freed blacks in states such as Ohio. 3. Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 - October 8, 1869) was the 14th President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857, an American politician and lawyer. To date, he is the only President from New Hampshire.

    • Word count: 874
  4. Sectionalism. Throughout the early 1800s many events took place that divided the still embryonic and developing United States into different sections with their own specific interests and priorities.

    Its natural and human resources made the North ideal for businesses, industry and trade. Most of America's factories were in the North and mass production and the use of machines to produce goods was common. Many immigrants from Europe came across the Atlantic to work in the factories of the North. This made the cities highly populated and powerful. The North wanted a strong central government to protect industry and allow it to grow. Economics is the major contributing factor to sectionalism. Consequently, well before the great expansion of the United States, the Constitution's framers were familiar with sectional differences.

    • Word count: 985
  5. Did the Mexican War poison the United States?

    Also as a result of the Mexican War, America gained two of the finest natural harbours in San Diego and San Francisco, which would eventually host major naval facilities as well as provide an outlet for propitious trade to the eastern countries. These outcomes show that the Mexican War provided many advantages for the Americans and proves that the accuracy of the prediction can be debated. The short and long-term economic benefits show that there were certainly positive effects of the war.

    • Word count: 892
  6. The Holocaust

    r****m, slavery, terrorism, and other tragic events facing the world show man's inhumanity to man. When we look at these events and how they destroy the world, we only wonder how we can prevent these tragedies from happening again. One of the biggest and most cruel treatments encountered in history is the Holocaust. It affected the lives of millions because of the hate inside one certain group of people, the Nazis. In fact, along with the cruel and unequal treatment, it was a tragedy never to be forgotten. In 1933, Adolf Hitler was named chancellor, the most powerful position in the German government, by President Hindenburg who hoped Hitler could lead the nation out of its grave political and economic crisis.

    • Word count: 1310
  7. civil war

    • Word count: 520
  8. To what extent do you agree with Abraham Lincoln that slavery was 'somehow the cause of the Civil War'

    Jefferson Davis the confederate president said that 'The Confederates fought for the defence of an inherent right... to withdraw from a Union which they had, as sovereign communities, voluntarily entered... The existence of African servitudes was in no wise the cause of the conflict but only an incident.'1 This source certainly suggests that it was state rights and not slavery that was she cause of the Civil War. However we also must ask how reliable this is. As this was written by the Confederate president he was the person who must have known the main reason why the South had seceded.

  9. Consider the main methods that were used in the rise of the National Prohibition Campaign

    In Kansas drinking was seen as the 8th deadliest sin, with women being the victims of the drunken abuse. This spurred one such women to start a protest march down to the local saloon, here Elizabeth Thompson prayed for hours and hours along with loads of other women all picketing for the closure of the 13 drinking houses. This was a victory for the women in the end with all but one closing. This was to be seen as the start to women's campaigning throughout America, with the first groups being viewed as 'Custodians of culture'. Next came the WCTU, the Women's Christian Temperance Union in 1874, made up mainly of middle class women who fought to make the country realise the link between abuse on women by men and alcohol consumption.

    • Word count: 773
  10. prohibtion and why it failed?

    over 2 gallon per person per year to over 7 gallons, And thus been given the name from one historian, 'the alcoholic republic'. - The main prominent groups with in the prohibition were the Women's Christian Temperance Union and the Anti-saloon League. The WCTU founded in 1874 started petitioning congress for a federal prohibition act.

    • Word count: 358
  11. Causes and Consequences Watergate

    He also used the power of impounding funds from programmes more frequently than any of his forebears. This is exemplified best by his impounding half the funding in the Clean Water Act of 1972 after Congress had overturned his veto on the legislation. Nixon was clearly willing to take strong action with Congress but it was his use of dirty tricks against his perceived enemies that led to his fall. The leaking of information on Vietnam to the New York Times in 1971 by an administration official had led to the formation of a team of `plumbers' to fix such leaks.

    • Word count: 1383
  12. To What Extent Were Achievements In Civil Rights Mainly Due To The Efforts Of Civil Rights Leaders?

    He helped fund many challenges to the Jim Crow laws and also many black newspapers. Washington also became an advisor to Theodore Roosevelt on any racial issues he encountered. Washington was a very important figure in the Civil Rights movement because he helped black people realise they didn't have to depend on the white people to live. He also showed the USA what black people could really achieve, and their potential as political powers. Washington, however, was not as hero to everyone. Many African Americans, including William Dubois, another Civil Rights leader, were very critical of his accomadationist philosophy.

    • Word count: 1229
  13. Reasons for the Wall Street Crash of 1929.

    The bottom forty percent of the US population only received twelve and a half percent of the nation's wealth, in comparison to the top five percent of the population whom received thirty three percent of the nation's wealth. This led to a disequilibrium of supply and demand, and resulted in falling prices, generating deflationary pressures, thereby affecting output. This also caused lower profit expectations and this lower investments. Moreover, it also caused many people to lose confidence in the values of shares due to overproduction, as when people began to pull out of shares, prices began to sharply drop.

    • Word count: 809
  14. Immigrants Turn the United States into a mixture of ethnicity

    Immigrants had an enormous impact on the culture in the areas to which they moved. The immigrants who settled on the island of Manhattan created a city that overflows with different ethnic foods and lifestyles which influenced established US citizens. For example, most immigrants from Italy settled in New York City, which then created Staten Island, known for its Italian food and its citizens' accents (American). Different areas of the US appealed to different immigrants because of the climate, the land, and the amount of space available. Since some immigrants came from very hot climates they preferred to settle in southern portions of the US (e.g., Texas)

    • Word count: 924
  15. To what extent was the failure of prohibition due to the involvement of organized crime?

    The rising number of gangs was not just preoccupied with the sale of alcohol, but also other illegal trade in drugs, prostitution and firearms. Murphy argues that gangsterism in cities contributed largely to failure of Prohibition. The number of bars known as "speakeasies" in towns like Chicago and New York was much greater after the 18th Amendment has been introduced. Large gangs started to form in big cities providing American citizens with the opportunity to drink alcohol and therefore break the law.

    • Word count: 1774
  16. Evaluate the view that overproduction of goods was the most important reason for the collapse in US economy from October 1929

    Nevertheless it was the lack of governmental control of the situation and the steps taken to prevent the crash were too limited. Overproduction of goods was the most serious issue which was failed to be addressed, and as a result contributed to the collapse of the economy. During the begging of the decade the market was filled with wide variety of new products such as cars, radios and vacuum cleaners. However by late 20s the production was outstripping demand, and as result the market offered too many products which could not be sold.

    • Word count: 2160
  17. Why did the US get involved in Vietnam in 1965?

    This made Johnson want to invade North Vietnam as this was a perfect opportunity for him to make a name for himself and step out of Kennedy's shadow and become a famous president in his right, instead of just being Kennedy's replacement. Johnson wanted to invade North Vietnam as his ignorance led him to believe that the war would be an easy win. Johnson had a view, like many other Americans, that Vietnam was a poor third world country who would not be able to protect their country against the all powerful Americans.

    • Word count: 1579
  18. How far was the decision to rollback past the 38th parallel a military and political blunder by the USA?

    Although pushing forward is actually not considered protecting, in this case it was. It is stated that in some terms the best form of defence is offense, this is correct in this instance. This is because if the Chinese and N.Korean's are defending the USA attacks they will not be able to attack S.Korea, also if the USA takes N.Korea they would have a bigger military and more land. This made the decision to rollback first-rate as if they attacked it would be harder for the N.Koreans/China to attack S.Korea. Another reason why the decision to rollback made logical sense was because the USA was already prepared.

    • Word count: 2011
  19. Tonkin

    If there was no visual evidence how would they know if they damaged or sunk an enemy boat? Source B doesn't actually say that any of the US destroyers returned fire. Source A says that they were ordered to return fire but source B ignores this fact. I know that the Turner joy did return fire as they were ordered. Source B also does not mention the destroyers damaging or sinking any enemy boats. Source A says they were 2 damaged 1 sunk but source B does not mention an enemy patrol boat.

    • Word count: 1064
  20. Compare and contrast different fortunes of native, hispanic and asian americans

    The majorities of Hispanics became Labourers in Ghettos and like Native Americans, were deprived of their land. Asian Americans migrated through choice into the USA, to work in the gold mines and do the jobs, which no one else wanted to do. They were resented because of their alternative appearance and actions, for example males choosing a bride through pictures. In 1865, Chinese felt welcome into the USA for work purposes, however exploitation wasn't far off. Japanese Americans were denied citizenship on first migration and were met with hostility and seen as taking all the jobs. It is clear the all of the above groups received hostility with the white population, but this essay will compare and contrast the fortunes of the groups from 1865 to 1929.

    • Word count: 1750
  21. Wilson's Peace Conquest

    Before the United States joined WW1, President Wilson's policies leaned toward peace. He did everything in his power to try and prevent the United States from entering the First World War. Wilson did not support Germans interference with the right of American merchants to sell goods not intended for warfare, but only chastised the Germans. Had he the desire, Wilson could have declared war because of this intrusion, but he kept his cool and did not. When the Germans torpedoed ships, the Lusitania in particular, causing the deaths of innocent Americans, Wilson sent a notice to Germany saying that he was unhappy.

    • Word count: 1233
  22. Presidents and their Successors

    President Franklin D. Roosevelt was successful as president from the very beginning. When he entered office during the Great Depression, he got to work immediately on achieving the three R's of recovery, relief, and reform. He showed that even though he did not have a detailed plan to help alleviate the Great Depression, he was committed to "action and willing to experiment with political solutions to economic problems" (AP Prep Book 499). As it ended up, his New Deal program was a success; Congress supported him and passed nearly all of the laws for which he asked.

    • Word count: 1554
  23. U.S. Reaction to the Two World Wars

    In 1914, the American public was shocked when Europe erupted in war. Stunned, the United States decide to hold with their tradition of "not allying the nation with any European power or becoming involved in a war on the other side of the Atlantic" (AP Prep Book 447). Nevertheless, despite attempting to remain neutral in both actions and thoughts, the American citizens unintentionally favored Great Britain. The newspapers were partially to blame for the one-sided view of the "ruthless" Germans, and the sinking of the Lusitania only helped to reinforce the American public's bias standpoint.

    • Word count: 1026

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