Why did a mass Civil Rights movement emerge in the late 1950's? The importance of civil rights for Black Americans was at an all time high within in the late 1950s.Black Americans having been oppressed not only within in their rights of freedom yet also in terms of education and employment felt that it was time for a major change. Thus various civil right movements had to be implemented. However, it is key to understand the reasons why a civil rights movement did not occur earlier on for it allows us to gain an insight into the levels of segregation and lack of opportunities that Black Americans faced. During the inter-war year period of 1920 to 1941, Black Americans amongst other minorities suffered from the racial segregation that had deemed to govern the way in which they would live their lives. During the year known as the 'Roaring Twenties' America was enjoying unprecedented prosperity having become the worlds leading industrial nation. However, this affluence was only shared mainly by the white Americans, whilst conditions for Black individuals only seemed to get worse; arguably discrimination, prejudice and racism reaching a peak during these years. Moreover, the latter was upheld by a radical groups known as the Ku Klux Klan made up of different individuals some possessing a great deal of power such as governors and police officers. They felt that segregation of
To what extent was the 1920s a major turning point in the development of labour and trade union rights in the USA from 1865-1992?
To what extent was the 1920's a major turning point in the development of labour and trade union rights in the USA from 1865-1992? Throughout the period trade union rights, the most basic of which was to exist, and labour rights, which unlike trade union rights were granted by the employer and were individual to the workers, generally failed to develop along the same trajectory. At many points, indeed during the 1920s, the advancement of labour rights appeared to conflict with the development of trade union rights. However, when considering the turning points in the development of trade union and labour rights together during the period, it is evident that the 1920's, far from being a turning point, was an era which saw only superficial advancements in labour rights and limited change for trade unions. In contrast, major turning points can be identified at the very start of the period, which saw the establishment of trade unions, during the 1930's and towards the end of the period between 1980 and 1992, a pivotal time due to the significant regression of union rights. As a decade which enjoyed an unprecedented level of economic prosperity, it is true that during the 1920's workers were indeed granted better conditions and the number of causes of industrial unrest was reduced. For example, workers saw a rise in real wages and employers taking actions to improve working
I feel the statement, "Andrew Jackson was an effective and vigorous president, who acted upon a few key convictions," is a poor description of Andrew Jackson's presidency. While Andrew Jackson confronted a few major issues, such as removing some of the men that had hold been holding office for many years, about 1 in 10 men were removed. He also passed a few protective tariffs in an attempt to help the American economy. Even with these few accomplishments I few that President Jackson was not a very effective president. President Jackson made many choices based upon his political goals, not for the American people. He also, fought against the second back of the United States causing more problems for the nation. Jackson may have felt that he knew what was best for the nation's future, but he made many poor choices. He had promised to fix the corrupt government, but he vetoed twelve bills during his two terms, while the six men before him had only vetoed nine bills, mostly for unconstitutional issues. President Jackson vetoed bills if they conflicted with his agenda. The tariffs he passed also had problems. They favored the North. The South would have to pay more for got with the high taxes on imported goods, and they strongly opposed them. They even attempted to nullify the tariffs. Another problem with the tariffs was that the favored the average people much more than the
TO WHAT EXTENT WAS THE NEW DEAL (1933 - 1937) A SUCCESS? The New Deal was an economic policy issued by F.D Roosevelt in response to the to the crash of the U.S stock market in the early 20th century and subsequent rising number of unemployed American's due. Despite its good intentions, the New Deal received numerous criticisms from writers and politicians after the first 100 days. However, it also gained much praise and was thought to be one of Roosevelt's finest policies by the forgotten man of America. In order to determine whether the New Deal was a success, both contemporary and modern sources need to be analyzed. The New Deal can be considered a success due to Roosevelt's ability to restore confidence in the American people. O'Callaghan states Roosevelt was seen by many as "God in this country"1 which is supported by Zinn who affirms that "Roosevelt [was] a hero to millions" in Source G. Source D shows the forgotten man receiving government attention and help which inevitably presented the everyday man of America with a sense of hope and unity. People trusted Roosevelt and therefore put their faith in the New Deal as it was offering jobs - although generally minor work - which allowed American families to continue with the idea established by their Founding Fathers of rugged individualism. It was this that resulted in Roosevelt's re-election, an election where he
To what extent were Malcolm X and the subsequent Black Power Movement the 'Evil Twin' of the Civil Rights Movement in the late twentieth century in the United States of America?
To what extent were Malcolm X and the subsequent Black Power Movement the 'Evil Twin'1 of the Civil Rights Movement in the late twentieth century in the United States of America? Malcolm X2 and the subsequent Black Power3 Movement (BPM) stemmed from the nationalist African American population and so took a different stance in their fight for Civil Rights than other leaders such as Martin Luther King4 (King). With this distinction, has come a historical debate into whether Malcolm X and the BPM aided or hindered the Civil Rights Movement (CRM); something that has been debated between historians such as Sitkoff and Cook. The purpose of this study is to decide whether Malcolm X and the BPM are indeed the 'evil twin' of the CRM or whether this title is unjust. Malcolm X was a black nationalist5 and a member of the Nation of Islam6. Malcolm X, through his father, garnered the beliefs of Marcus Garvey7 and his 'Back to Africa' campaign. He also believed in militancy as a method to attain black independence through the notion; 'fight violence with violence'. He believed that rather than allowing the continual persecution of African Americans by whites, it was rational for African Americans to defend themselves with as much force as was necessary as advocated in his 'by any means necessary'8 speech. This caused much tension between the two distinct civil rights movements because it
Was Roosevelt's foreign policy a success or failure? Roosevelt did many things in his foreign policy including: the building of the Panama Canal, the Spanish - American war. In this essay I will explain the failures and successes and then come up with a conclusion as to whether or not Roosevelt's foreign policy was a success or failure. After Japan showed its strength against Russia the US became distrusting of them; as they were worried about the threat in which Japan showed to the Philippines. However the distrust was mutual and was widened by racial ammonites on the west coast of America. A San Francisco school board ordered that students of oriental descent were to attend a separate school. This 'yellow peril' as it was known in 1906 caused relations between US and Japan to become sour. Japanese government protested and eventually Roosevelt managed to change the school boards mind. However this was only after ensuring that Japanese would not issue passports for its labourers. The gentlemen's agreement between Roosevelt and the Japanese government halted the influx of Japanese immigrants. "Yellow Peril" is another situation which Roosevelt demonstrated his ability to protect foreign relations and at the same time get what he wanted in terms of what was best for America and himself. However even though Roosevelt dealt with the problem it was still an extremely
How far do you agree with the view that 'Hoover simply extended the agonies of the Depression'? Explain your answer, using your own knowledge of the issues related to this controversy. On the one hand, Hoover's interventions mitigated the depression. Hoover has historically said to have "stepped up federal construction, urged state and local governments to accelerate spending", this indicates that he did try and ease the depression and that he did not lead America into a further and dire situation. Hoover even cut his own/state officials' pay by 20% to provide revenue for recovery measures. This shows that Hoover was sympathetic towards the American's suffering in the Depression, hence by reducing his own wages showed his willingness to help America during a time of economic difficulty. In support of this, the USA supreme court have been quoted to say that Hoover "started more public works schemes than had been done by the previous 40 presidents". The emphasis on "more public works schemes" suggests that Hoover was not reluctant to help, and he wanted to ease America during times of hardship. Furthermore, Hoover secures an additional $500 million from Congress in 1931, to help agencies around the USA to provide relief. In hindsight, it is clear that Hoover did much to try and ease America through the depression, but whether his aid was in time or consistent is arguable.
Why was Progress for Racial Equality so slow in the years 1945-1955? Any progress for racial equality during the period of 1945-1955 faced a series of problems, both through the Government and legal means and the American public, slowing down and limiting its affect overall during this time period. Any effect of measures for racial equality were also limited for the same reasons, making the development of racial equality on the whole incredibly slow. Presidents of America during this time period played their own part in slowing down progress. Truman (1945-53) in principle may not have been racist man that does not mean however that his stance on civil rights was in favour of racial equality. His attitude towards their plight was seemingly ignorant and his own awareness for his need for the southern vote made him wary to bring about change. His committee on civil rights in 1946 outlined only basic requirements for all Americans but even that failed to pass congress. Eisenhower (1953-61) contributed to the progress of racial equality during this period even less. His intervention in the state of Arkansas on the issue of Little Rock can be seen as progress as Federal Government interfered with states on the issue of racial equality but it was clearly not enough for the cause and attitudes like this of top politicians slowed down any progress in the development overall. Any
How effective was the early civil rights movement in advancing Black Civil Rights in the period 1880-1945?
"How effective was the early civil rights movement in advancing Black Civil Rights in the period 1880-1945?" The 13th Amendment was passed by the Senate in 1884 and put into practice on December 6th 1865. The amendment abolished slavery in the United States, making President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation part on the US constitution as it was previously based on was powers and therefore, did not abolish slavery in Border States, these being; Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri and West Virginia. This new ruling meant that anti-abolitionists had to accept the end of slavery. However, this did not mean that freed slaves had the same opportunities and rights as whites, in the South "black codes" were quickly implemented. These laws limited the human rights and civil liberties of African Americas thus keeping them inferior. They continued to emphasise the superior position held by whites it society, this was highlighted particularly in the state of Texas as Texans feared that without the codes blacks would not work. In reaction to the Black Codes the 14th amendment was passed in 1868. This stated that all free men shall be protected and enjoy equal treatment under the law. The idea was to protect the African American population, making them citizens thus forcing the federal Government to be responsible for them. If rights were denied by any States, the State in question
Assess the view that the Supreme Court was the most important branch of federal government in assisting African Americans to achieve their civil rights in the period 1865-1992.
Assess the view that the Supreme Court was the most important branch of federal government in assisting African Americans to achieve their civil rights in the period 1865-1992. The three main branches of America federal government often show great divergence of opinion - something that has a huge impact on the way laws and attitudes in the US change over time - and this is blindingly obvious in terms of the Civil Rights movement and the fight for African American civil rights - for example, even at times when Congress was highly conservative, the Supreme Court was able to make rulings, based on previous legislation, that dramatically improved the rights of African Americans, and even at times when the Supreme Court and Congress were both heavily opposed to further movement on the issue, the President was able to step in and issue Executive Orders. One of the first steps, of course, on the journey toward equal rights for African Americans was the 13th Amendment. Ultimately, unless the slaves had been freed, there could never have been equality for them with the rest of society. Followed by the 14th and 15th Amendments, which further extended the de jure rights of African Americans - indeed, the Amendments gave African Americans equal rights, in a de jure capacity. All three of these amendments were passed by Congress, and are indicative of the positive attitude towards the