How effective was the early civil rights movement in advancing Black Civil Rights in the period 1880-1945?

"How effective was the early civil rights movement in advancing Black Civil Rights in the period 1880-1945?" The 13th Amendment was passed by the Senate in 1884 and put into practice on December 6th 1865. The amendment abolished slavery in the United States, making President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation part on the US constitution as it was previously based on was powers and therefore, did not abolish slavery in Border States, these being; Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri and West Virginia. This new ruling meant that anti-abolitionists had to accept the end of slavery. However, this did not mean that freed slaves had the same opportunities and rights as whites, in the South "black codes" were quickly implemented. These laws limited the human rights and civil liberties of African Americas thus keeping them inferior. They continued to emphasise the superior position held by whites it society, this was highlighted particularly in the state of Texas as Texans feared that without the codes blacks would not work. In reaction to the Black Codes the 14th amendment was passed in 1868. This stated that all free men shall be protected and enjoy equal treatment under the law. The idea was to protect the African American population, making them citizens thus forcing the federal Government to be responsible for them. If rights were denied by any States, the State in question

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  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: History
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Use sources A, B and C and your own knowledge. How far was the outbreak of the war of American Independence due to the lack of willingness of the American colonies to compromise in the years 1770 to 1775?

Use sources A, B and C and your own knowledge. How far was the outbreak of the war of American Independence due to the lack of willingness of the American colonies to compromise in the years 1770 to 1775? (24 marks) The outbreak of the War of American independence was partly due to the lack of willingness of the American colonists to compromise in the years of 1770 to 1775 but there were also a variety of other reasons. Some reasons include that Britain was too harsh to the colonies, the colonies were unreliable and untrustworthy and causes such as the first continental congress in 1774 and the Boston massacre also helped build up to the War of American independence. Firstly, it could be argued that the colonies lack of willingness to compromise in the years of 1770 to 1775 was the cause of the outbreak of the War of American independence. The American colonists were not open to any of Britain's policies and they spent a majority of the 1770's resisting against Britain's solutions to the problems in Britain and America. Because of this, by 1770 relations between British authorities and the leaders of the colonial legislatures had broken down. Moreover, events such as the Gaspee incident worsened relations between the American colonies and the British and it showed that the Colonists had no respect for the British policies and were not willing to compromise with the

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  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: History
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Was Roosevelt's foreign policy a success or failure

Was Roosevelt's foreign policy a success or failure? Roosevelt did many things in his foreign policy including: the building of the Panama Canal, the Spanish - American war. In this essay I will explain the failures and successes and then come up with a conclusion as to whether or not Roosevelt's foreign policy was a success or failure. After Japan showed its strength against Russia the US became distrusting of them; as they were worried about the threat in which Japan showed to the Philippines. However the distrust was mutual and was widened by racial ammonites on the west coast of America. A San Francisco school board ordered that students of oriental descent were to attend a separate school. This 'yellow peril' as it was known in 1906 caused relations between US and Japan to become sour. Japanese government protested and eventually Roosevelt managed to change the school boards mind. However this was only after ensuring that Japanese would not issue passports for its labourers. The gentlemen's agreement between Roosevelt and the Japanese government halted the influx of Japanese immigrants. "Yellow Peril" is another situation which Roosevelt demonstrated his ability to protect foreign relations and at the same time get what he wanted in terms of what was best for America and himself. However even though Roosevelt dealt with the problem it was still an extremely

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  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: History
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How far do you agree with the view that Hoover simply extended the agonies of the Depression?

How far do you agree with the view that 'Hoover simply extended the agonies of the Depression'? Explain your answer, using your own knowledge of the issues related to this controversy. On the one hand, Hoover's interventions mitigated the depression. Hoover has historically said to have "stepped up federal construction, urged state and local governments to accelerate spending", this indicates that he did try and ease the depression and that he did not lead America into a further and dire situation. Hoover even cut his own/state officials' pay by 20% to provide revenue for recovery measures. This shows that Hoover was sympathetic towards the American's suffering in the Depression, hence by reducing his own wages showed his willingness to help America during a time of economic difficulty. In support of this, the USA supreme court have been quoted to say that Hoover "started more public works schemes than had been done by the previous 40 presidents". The emphasis on "more public works schemes" suggests that Hoover was not reluctant to help, and he wanted to ease America during times of hardship. Furthermore, Hoover secures an additional $500 million from Congress in 1931, to help agencies around the USA to provide relief. In hindsight, it is clear that Hoover did much to try and ease America through the depression, but whether his aid was in time or consistent is arguable.

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  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: History
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Andrew Jackson was an effective and vigorous president, who acted upon a few key convictions,

I feel the statement, "Andrew Jackson was an effective and vigorous president, who acted upon a few key convictions," is a poor description of Andrew Jackson's presidency. While Andrew Jackson confronted a few major issues, such as removing some of the men that had hold been holding office for many years, about 1 in 10 men were removed. He also passed a few protective tariffs in an attempt to help the American economy. Even with these few accomplishments I few that President Jackson was not a very effective president. President Jackson made many choices based upon his political goals, not for the American people. He also, fought against the second back of the United States causing more problems for the nation. Jackson may have felt that he knew what was best for the nation's future, but he made many poor choices. He had promised to fix the corrupt government, but he vetoed twelve bills during his two terms, while the six men before him had only vetoed nine bills, mostly for unconstitutional issues. President Jackson vetoed bills if they conflicted with his agenda. The tariffs he passed also had problems. They favored the North. The South would have to pay more for got with the high taxes on imported goods, and they strongly opposed them. They even attempted to nullify the tariffs. Another problem with the tariffs was that the favored the average people much more than the

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  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: History
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