To what extent was the attack on Pearl Harbor a Surprise to President Roosevelt? Cassandra Stewart Mrs. Green Pre-IB Government 5/10/04 1519 words A. Plan of Investigation To what extent was the attack on Pearl Harbor a surprise to President Roosevelt? On December 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and left the Unites States in shock. The aim of this investigation is to determine if the US Government knew in advance that the Japanese had planned to attack Pearl Harbor. The investigation will cover the warning signs that were ignored, delays by US officials that led to the attack, and Roosevelt's deliberate withholding of information from officials at Pearl Harbor. An analysis of these sections should reveal whether the attack was a surprise. The research will come from books dealing with Pearl Harbor. B. Summary of Evidence . Delays in preparation * US officials decoded the 14th part of message at a leisurely pace (Willmott 20) * After the 14th part of the message was decoded, there were delays sending for secretary Hull who would deliver the message to officials at Pearl Harbor (Willmott 21). * It was a Sunday and few aircraft were manned, crews were ashore, ammunition for guns locked up and military planes were parked wing to wing (Alger
"The Eisenhower years saw significant improvement for the African Americans." To what extent do you agree with this statement? Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected Republican president of the United States of America in 1953. His presidency (1952-1961) saw changes taking place all over the world, a growing nuclear arms race, the height of communist fears in America, the beginning of the great space race and in 1961 Eisenhower became the first U.S. President to be forced out of office. At the same time in America the Black Civil Rights movement many would argue was digging its feet into the ground. Many historians would argue that the Eisenhower years saw a significant improvement for African- Americans. Harvard Sitkoff said that the 1950's were the beginning of the Civil Rights movement, insinuating that the 1950's were a significant period for the African-American civil rights movement. On the other hand other historians would argue that the Civil Rights Movement had already begun before Eisenhower's presidency began and that during his terms progress was actually limited. Despite the ongoing debate there is good evidence that there was improvement for the African Americans. Improvement in the political and legal system can be seen throughout the Eisenhower years. Firstly the Brown ruling of 1956 saw Oliver Brown supported by the NAACP appeal to the Supreme Court over the
To what extent was King the most significant leader of the African American quest for equal rights 1865 - 1992 Martin Luther King is probably the most famous civil rights leader ever, his message having permeated through national divides and survived the tests of time. His name is usually the first to come to mind when the topic of the African American struggle for civil rights in mentioned, but despite this many other key figures played an integral part in the successes of the movement, and we cannot be sure if the results would have ever been the same without all of them. King rose to fame on the back of his first major victory. In 1955 Buses in Montgomery Alabama were segregated with whites getting the best seats, yet despite this over 75% of the revenue for the bus companies came from Afro-Americans. Rosa Parks, an African American woman refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man despite the demands of the bus driver. The local community took up her case and a full scale boycott soon started. It was the newly appointed Minister of a local Church who came to lead this boycott, Martin Luther King. 381 days later and the boycott finished with the supreme court deciding that the Brown ruling of a 1954 should apply to busses as well, and as a result be de-segregated. This was a massive victory for the local black community in Montgomery, but perhaps even more
In what ways did the campaign methods used by the Civil Rights movement in the southern states of the USA change and develop in the 1950's and the early 1960's . During the early 1950's the Civil Rights movement started challenging de jure segregation in the South by legal means through organisations like the National Association of the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) .Realizing that the deep rooted nature of racism needed a more direct attack. The movement, guided by the peaceful principles of Martin Luther King, opted for non-violent direct action. As the movement gained experience it learned to manipulate the media, create situations where the federal government was forced into action and that mass action equals concessions .The broadening of the movement to include the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Non-violent Coordination Committee (SNCC) revitalized it with a range of tactics ,from boycotts and sit-ins to marches and open challenges to segregation. Momentum gathered and the movement reached the height of it's watermark in the early 1960's. Several legal cases such as the case of Brown V Board of education of Topeka were brought to the Supreme Court by leading black lawyer Thurgood Marshall , who argued that segregation was unconstitutional, with the support of the NAACP. The case of Brown V Board declared the integration
Why was there an economic boom in the 1920s ? There was an economic boom in the 1920s as there were many factors playing a part and working together, causing the boom to be self generating. These factors where resources, impact of First World War, technological change, Mass- production, Mass Marketing, Credit, Confidence and the policies of the Republican Presidents. These are the many reasons there was an economic boom in the 1920s. One of the main reasons there was an economic boom was the fact that the USA had a great store of natural resources, like coal, wood, iron, minerals, oil and land, meaning that not only the USA had such a great natural resources that they could use in trade, but also it helped America to become a great industrial power and proving a sound basis for further expansion. The impact of the First world war also played a huge part in the economic boom, as during the war America supplied Europe with many goods and had taken over overseas European markets, with in some area the USA industry was now the world leader, e.g. chemicals. The war hastened technological change which the US industry seized on. To link with the First war world is Technological change, the fact that the war helps speed up the changes. Plastics like Bakelite were developed effectively for the first time and were used in new household products. There were also other technological
Who was the President of United States during the Civil War? What/how was his childhood? What were the things that led the president to become the president of the United States? How did he affect the U.S.?
Frederick Douglass Academy Sofia Mohammed Class 805 January 2, 2003 Research Paper #1 Topic- Who was the President of United States during the Civil War? What/how was his childhood? What were the things that led the president to become the president of the United States? How did he affect the U.S.? Abraham Lincoln was born on Sunday, February 12, 1809 in a log cabin near Hodgenville Kentucky. He was the son of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. Abraham was names after his grandfather. Thomas Lincoln was a carpenter and farmer. Both parents of Abraham were members of a Baptist congregation which got separated from another church because of the opposition of slavery. At age seven, the family moved to Southern Indiana. Abraham went to school for a period of time in Kentucky and in Indiana. He attended school with his older sister Sarah and younger brother Thomas who died in his early age. In 1818, Nancy Hanks Lincoln died of Milk Sickness. Milk Sickness is a disease caught from drinking milk from a cow which got poisoned by a white snakeroot. Thomas Lincoln remarried the next year to Sarah Bush Johnston Lincoln. She brought three kids of her own into the family. Abraham loved his step mother as well as reading. He preferred reading than working in t he fields and his relationship with his father (who was just the opposite) became difficult. Abraham's older sister
In mid 19th century, Abraham Lincoln's three speeches mirrored the changes in his ideals and themes throughout the Civil War from a political view to a more spiritual level.
In mid 19th century, Abraham Lincoln's three speeches mirrored the changes in his ideals and themes throughout the Civil War from a political view to a more spiritual level. In Lincoln's "House Divided" speech, he rhetorically illustrated the North's concern about morality of slavery, the preservation of the Union, and the increased and conflicted demands of the South. For example, Lincoln exemplified the immoral changes in Negro rights through the actions of the Supreme Court, Senator Douglas, and President Buchanan that coincidentally set the country in motion toward legalized slavery. They established three drastic changes that denied Negroes citizenship, permitted slavery in United States territories, and prohibited Negroes from appearing in United States courts. Lincoln then revealed that these political leaders corruptibly cheated the Negroes of their rights by cooperating together in order to establish a "niche, for the Dred Scot decision...and [declared] the perfect freedom of the [Negroes], to be just no freedom at all." Furthermore, Lincoln affirmed that a division in the government will only weaken its infrastructure by stating, "a house divided against itself cannot stand." In light of failed compromises, Lincoln then explained that the increased tensions over slavery are an inherent flaw in the political system when he said, "I believe this government cannot
Why did the effectiveness of the black campaign for equality decline 1965-68? (40 marks) The Civil rights campaign had been in full swing during 1960-64 as they were using new methods of protest but by 1965/66 the campaign had lost its flair as the protestors appeared to have exhausted a lot of peaceful methods which were initially used and were being largely ignored. 1965 may be seen to mark the beginning of the end of peaceful protests as during this year more and more riots started to break out, initiated usually by black citizens. The government then digressed from the subject of Black Civil rights and this gave radicals an opportunity and reason to rise. Martin Luther King, a figure head for the black campaign for equality, had been publicly fighting successfully for the cause since around 1955; he had campaigned successfully in the south and decided to spread the movement to the north. However he was entering uncharted territory and had limited knowledge of the area, he assumed the north would be the same as the south in terms of tackling the problems; this was not the case. He began in 1966 in Chicago and moved into the slums to demonstrate his empathy and understanding of what life was like for the poverty stricken blacks. The react from northerners, even blacks, wasn't at all what King had expected. The violence displayed by the black people was formidable, despite
Why, despite the victory of the Unionin the Civil War, did former slaves fail to secure full civil rights 1865 - 77?
Why, despite the victory of the Union in the Civil War, did former slaves fail to secure full civil rights 1865 - 77? The end of the Civil War provided America with the perfect opportunity to start again as a united and democratic country. The Northern victory had put an end to the threat of a rupture in the Union, and the future of the country had been established. However, there was also the far more significant chance to unite the country under the flag of liberty and equality, for which the North had won their devastating success. Surely victory would be useless if it was not pursued by a radical change in the situation and status of the African Americans, who, after all, had played a significant part in the war effort. Unfortunately, there were several obstacles in the way of true racial equality, which were destined to remain insurmountable for nearly one hundred years. At the end of the war, the challenge for the Northern leaders seemed intricate and thorny, but not necessarily impossible. The most important question still to be answered was what to do with the rebel states. Should they be treated leniently and allowed back into the union relatively easily, or should they be punished and reformed in order to ensure that Northern values and principles were extended to the South. Lincoln believed in the former view, so proposed the "ten-percent plan," under which ten
Weapons and Armour - Most civil war soldiers carried a rifled musket, which had quickly replaced the smoothbore muskets.
Civil War Assignment By John Jang Yr10 Weapons and Armour Most civil war soldiers carried a rifled musket, which had quickly replaced the smoothbore muskets. Te old smoothbore muskets had very limited range and were not very accurate. In places where soldiers on firing lines were more than a hundred yards apart a smoothbore musket wouldn't do much damage. Mass numbers of soldiers would often charge next to each other towards the defensive line and use bayonets and their superior numbers to wipe out the enemy. However rifled muskets changed the way that soldiers fought. It was a muzzleloader and had grooves inside the barrel that guided the bullet much more accurately. A charging mass of soldiers would be caught in enemy fire half a mile away and so it was impossible for them to get to the defending enemy and kill them. But these new rifles could not be fired very fast. Before a soldier could fire his musket, he had to bite open a paper cartridge, pour powder down the musket barrel, push the bullet in with a ramrod, cock the hammer, and set the percussion cap. New soldiers spent weeks trying to learn how to do t his quickly, but even the rifle fire from experienced soldiers was slow Heavy guns were also loaded by pouring in the powder and then the charge. Between shots the barrel was swabbed out. If a spark remained from the previous shot, the new powder being poured in