To what extent did the actions of Rosa Parks contribute to the reversal of the Montgomery, Alabama bus ordinance?
A: Plan of the Investigation Topic: To what extent did the actions of Rosa Parks contribute to the reversal of the Montgomery, Alabama bus ordinance? Plan of the Investigation: Many social reforms occurred throughout the 1900's for the equality of all citizens including African-Americans. Black people did not have the same rights/opportunities as those of who were white in colour. Sparked by Rosa Park's refusal to abide her seat, the Montgomery Bus Boycott was one of the social reforms, which led to the reversal of the Montgomery Bus Ordinance. This Historical investigation will take an in-depth look at Rosa Park's actions and see if it was the cause of the reversal. In the Summary of Evidence section, the investigation will cover Rosa Park's career, which lead to her defying the bus driver. Finally, the contributions of others such as Martin Luther King Jr. who helped with the formation of the Montgomery, Alabama bus ordinance will be taken into consideration as well as the Montgomery Bus Boycott. An analysis of these sections will indicate the extent of Rosa Park's contributions. (150 words) B: Summary of Evidence Rosa Parks * Born in Alabama, 1913 * Faced racial segregation * Attended all-black school * Involved in African Methodist Episcopal Church when she was young * Married Raymond Parks, activist * Active in Montgomery NAACP (National Association
King David One the most powerful ruler in the history of the ancient Near East established his empire on his strength of character and ingenuity. David was the youngest son of a wealthy family would receive no inheritance and used his aggressive nature to gain power through marriage, warfare and trade alliances.1 The void of political power in the declining civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt provided the ideal setting for the emergence of a dominant ruler.2 David was an militaristic expansionist who used all means necessary to control the ancient Near East, and fulfilled that void, eventually controlling from "Dan to Beersheba". His military and political genius cannot be determined completely accurately, but the evidence allows us to examine the history of one of the most powerful rulers of all time. David's ascendancy to power started with his political skills in marriage. First he married Saul's daughter, Michal, tying him with the dominant family of Israel; then he married Abigal from the house of Caleb, the dominant family in Judah. Besides being a skilled warrior, David was a wealthy landholder seeking bigger fish to fry. He then relocated to the Philistines with his own private army of mercenaries to work for Achish the king of Gath.3 He would decimate and plunder pastoral tribes like the Amalekites, Geshurites, and the Girzites. "Whenever David attacked an
In considering the development of the USA in the years 1815-1917, how far can the union victory in the civil war be seen as a turning point?
In considering the development of the USA in the years 1815-1917, how far can the union victory in the civil war be seen as a turning point? In 1865 America was re-united after the civil war. This was certainly a significant moment for America as the re-unification itself marked an absolute change in American history. For this discussion a 'turning point' will be defined as a point at which a very significant change occurs; a decisive moment. To measure whether American development met this criteria, we must consider the main areas of development in this period the primary areas will be the lives of African Americans and Native Americans, westward expansion and immigration, economic developments and foreign affairs. In the development of the lives of African Americans the union victory did act as a change. In some ways this can be seen as a decisive moment, which would make it sufficient to be described as a turning point. Evidence to support this is that the development of African American lives were improving, as they were creating their own identity, enhancing their religious and cultural believe, therefore the Civil War triumph can be seen as a trigger of freedom for African American, a turning point. In practise African American involvement politically were also progressing, by late 1870's 64 out of 140 Representatives where Black Americans in the state Mississippi,
How accurate is it to say there was significant progress towards racial inequality in the period 1945-55?
How accurate is it to say there was significant progress towards racial inequality in the period 1945-55? Racial inequality in the USA was an extensive and significant issue before, and controversially after this time period. What is crucial to say is that progress still needed to be made - this is despite the colossal step forward predominately in the legal frame work of federal government, but economic and social steps too, for example - voting rights in the southern states. Arguably though these so called steps forward both helped and hindered the fight for black equality. An example of this hinderance would be the rise in white opposition due to African American protests. One major problem in American society before 1945 was the lack of expression the black population had on American politics, and crucially if they could vote the amount of affect they could make.One effective section of American society that was positively changed by primarily Truman's government was political appointments, and political change. Perhaps interestingly you could say, limitedly that political viewpoints and acceptance had been altered. On one section we look at political appointments. Under Truman’s government we see an attitude change to black people in politics. Before 1943 we have no African Americans in senior political and federal positions. However the change begins in this year
Was Lincoln a genuine advocate of civil rights for African Americans? Abraham Lincoln is known by historians today for his staunch determination to protect the Union, even if that meant using force. With this in mind, it is hardly surprising that his public views on African American’s civil rights have been disputed - whether they were just a tool to protect the Union or whether he actually believed that they should be equal. It is arguable that Lincoln’s own views were that slavery should be abolished; however it may also be the case that he did not want to lose popularity by advocating civil rights for African Americans. Lincoln came to attention to the public during seven debates in 1857 and 1858, with the Democrat Senator Douglas, both trying to get elected in Illinois. Slavery was the key topic during these debates, with each candidate stating their views. In one speech in Edwardsville, Illinois Lincoln said, ‘they [the Republican Party] will use every constitutional method to prevent the evil [slavery] from becoming larger’. This shows his disapproving stance on slavery and his unwillingness to let slavery expand to other areas in the United States. Furthermore in a letter in 1862 to the editor of the New York Tribune he stated ‘my oft-expressed personal wish that all men everywhere could be free’. This letter was written in explanation of why he did
"I was within the circle: so that I neither saw nor heard as those without might see and hear." (Frederick Douglass) What was the significance of the slave narratives and their authorship? Anti-slavery writings and slave narratives were undeniably significant and helpful in the abolitionists' fight against slavery. Many called them "the abolitionist movement's voice of reality." As they were first hand accounts of slavery from the African American slaves themselves. They depicted life as a slave and life after, and disproved the opinion that life as a slave was a happy one. They showed the "reality" of what was happening to slaves, and the mistreatment they were suffering at the hands of their masters. William Lloyd Garrison, David Walker, Harriet Jacobs and Frederick Douglass were some of the most important abolitionist writers. Each of these writers had different experiences with slavery, but they all had one thing in common: they tell of the abominable institution of slavery and how greatly it affected their lives. Frederick Douglass wrote his own slave narrative - Narrative in the life of Frederick Douglass, (which went on to become the biggest and best selling slave narrative still today) to give north Americans a closer account of slavery, it told about sexual, physical and mental abuse, the horrors of family separation and the inhuman workload at the hands of his
Coursework- The abolition of Slavery 1833 Part One These sources outline many different causes of the slave rebellions, some agree that the Baptist missionaries caused the rebellions but others say that Baptists only wanted to help. Source C blatantly states that the missionaries were one of the causes of the rebellions, but the reliability of this source is tainted as it is from the House of Assembly of Jamaica. They would be inclined to blame the missionaries as they believed that the slaves we incapable of organising such a revolt. Source B, has largely little to say, but in the 11th line it says that some whites joined in with the rebellion. This suggests that missionaries took part in this campaign and would show that they caused the slave rebellions. But this source is written in 1998 and so would be a secondary source, it also doesn't state that missionaries took part, only that whites were involved in the campaign. This makes the source unreliable and open to different interpretations. Sources A and F say that Sam Sharpe organised the rebellions and that he could be trusted as he was head of a Baptist church. This involves the church indirectly as they taught Sharpe the fundamentals of all people being equal and that it was wrong for a people's to be oppressed. Sam then went on to organise rebellions, so these sources indirectly support the statement that the
There were a number of factors that contributed to the Atlantic Slave Trade ending (officially in the early 19th century) after it had been going on for over 400 years. One factor
The Middle Passage was the most infamous route of the triangular trade. This voyage carried Africans across the Atlantic Ocean. Captains of slave ships were known as either "loose packers" or "tight packers," depending on how many slaves they crammed into the space they had. However, most ships were "tight packers" (especially those in the 18th century); life for the slaves on these ships was extremely uncomfortable. Slaves were taken from the holding forts, shackled together impairs with leg-irons and carried to the ships in the dugout canoes. Once they were aboard, they were branded with red-hot iron, like cattle, to show who owned them and their clothes removed. Slaves were housed in the ships as if they were cargo. Men were kept in chains while women and children were allowed to go free, they laid on specially built shelves with about 0.5 meters of vertical space. As long as the slaves were in the hold, they had to remain lying on their backs. There were times when the captain of some ships would allow the slaves to be brought up out their dungeon area. However, the men's legs were linked to a chain running down the center of the ship's deck to prevent them from jumping overboard. While on deck a good captain would have the slaves washed down with warm vinegar and scrubbed and some did not bother in rough weather (would not allow the slaves out at all). These
Abraham Lincoln has been depicted as the American Hero who abolished slavery. The American public, even today still believe that 'Honest Abe' was exactly that. Modern historians though have started to question this myth. Was Lincoln using the slavery issue to promote a 'United States of America'? Was he really bothered about the slaves or was he a closet racist? The one thing that is unquestionable is that after the civil war slavery was abolished and America was united. Unfortunately, Lincoln did not see this as he was assassinated on 14th April 1865. The fact that Lincoln was President for only five years has left a lasting impression on Americans' even today. Even today, Americans still look to Abraham Lincoln as the Icon of Americas' past. They believe that they are right, honest and lawful in all their actions, especially on moral grounds. This indoctrination starts virtually at birth, continues throughout their academic careers and beyond. It is now even shown in animated television programmes like "The Simpsons".1 The crowd around Lincoln's memorial asking for his advice is huge., however when the character "Lucy" went to Jefferson's memorial there was nobody around. The answer to her question, which she had to reproduce in class, caused uproar. This shows that the writers of this program see Lincoln as the ideal role model for American society today and possibly as
Ryan Maish Period 6 U.S. History Final Stowe & Elkins Just picture, a game of basketball played in a wheelchair: football, with no pads. According to Alexis Tocqueville and his transcendentalist ideals, this creates a tyranny of the Majority, and a separate society. From the annexation of Texas in 1845 to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, the institutions segregating blacks and supporting slavery continued and even expanded throughout territory in the United States. Laws and ordinances such as the Wilmot Proviso in 1846, which proposed new lands acquired from Mexico shall be free of slavery, were successful ideologically, but the pragmatic sense of the time period never produced a solid result such as abolition. Looking at the institution of slavery, Elkins was correct when he said, "There were elements in the very structure of the plantation system- its "closed character" - that could sustain infantilism as a normal feature of behavior." With Tocqueville¹s secluded society and Elkins' view of personalities; these unique ideas are present as Harriet Beecher Stowe evaluates the corrupt influence of slavery upon both blacks and whites with her controversial book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. The idea that the institution of slavery is immovable is seen in both texts of Stowe and Elkins There is no resolution, to the turmoil that occurs in Uncle Tom's Cabin; all the