How far did Truman and Eisenhower increase US involvement in Vietnam? Vietnam is an Asian country to the east of the Indochina Peninsula. From 1946 to 1954 the Vietnamese people were under French rule, and the Vietnamese struggled for independence. In 1954 the French left, and Vietnam was temporarily divided in two, Communist north and Capitalist south. The Americans quickly moved into help the anti-communists of the south. There are several reasons for the increased US involvement, some involving Truman and Eisenhower and others that are not related to the two presidents. In order for the topic to be fully explored and the question to be answered; the actions that Truman and Eisenhower took must be compared to other factors that affected the US involvement in Vietnam. Areas such as; the domino theory, the stalemate theory, the quagmire theory will be covered. In my personal opinion I believe Truman and Eisenhower had a big role in the amount of involvement the USA had in Vietnam. It could be argued that Truman had played an important role in Vietnam financially, which led to further US involvement. Truman gave France $2 Billion, 78% of their costs. Truman also gave $50 billion in economic aid to the region. Truman related the Vietnam conflict with the Cold War and therefore believed that the Vietminh were taking orders from Stalin. The Truman doctrine gave USA a reason to
Describe the impact of the Montgomery bus boycott During the 1940s and 1950s there was little practical progress made in civil rights, NAACP had been concentrating on, ironically, lawful ways to fix what was wrong with the justice system, they had been focusing on court cases and representation. There had been some advances, e.g the Brown case which deemed that segregated education was indeed unconstitutional. However although the case invoked passion across America it was the Montgomery bus boycott which was a turning point for civil rights, it showed Alabama that African Americans were serious, and willing to go to great lengths for their cause. Rosa Parks was a dignified and respected women, she was friendly to neighbours and believed strongly in equality. Her attitude and reputation already gave her the moral high ground against opponents. Parks decided she did not want to give up her seat for a black man and was subsequently arrested, her arrest and trial sparked outrage across the black community and there was a call for action, for something direct to be done. Thus the boycott was implemented. The boycott was different previous attempts at gaining civil rights, Civil rights leaders and groups such as NAACP had tried court action with moderate success and not enough progress. The boycott had a huge impact on the way people saw the African American community of
It is hard to pinpoint the exact beginnings of slavery in the United States. It is known, for example, that the Native Indians practised some forms of slavery in small minorities. However the Atlantic Slave Trade, begun in the late 1500s
What is Slavery? Slavery, simply defined means 'the state of a person who is a chattel of another'. But slavery is much more than this. It is the basic denial of human rights, the oppression of one person due to another, an 'inhumane form of legalised inequality'. In America, Africans had suffered this inhumanity for centuries, under the coercion of white Americans. They were forced to work on the Southern plantations, harvesting crops such as cotton, for little or no pay, without any basic rights. Families were torn apart, slaves were regularly beaten and killed; but regardless of this cruelty, slaves still managed to harvest a life for themselves, constructing their own culture - music, religion, songs. It was not until the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 that slavery was finally on its way to extinction in America. It is hard to pinpoint the exact beginnings of slavery in the United States. It is known, for example, that the Native Indians practised some forms of slavery in small minorities. However the Atlantic Slave Trade, begun in the late 1500s in England, was responsible for the large-scale importing of slaves into America; slaves who for generations to come would be integral to the economy of the South and who would divide and segregate the country. The Atlantic Slave Trade worked on a basic principle, collecting and enslaving people from Africa and forcing them
Attempts to enforce Prohibition in the USA were doomed to fail. How far do you agree with this opinion? (30 marks)
Attempts to enforce Prohibition in the USA were doomed to fail. How far do you agree with this opinion? (30 marks) January sixteenth 1919 saw the proposed eighteenth amendment to the United States constitution and the Volstead act. The eighteenth amendment banned the manufacture, transportation and sale of intoxicating liquor within the USA, also it's worth noting that Prohibition didn't actually ban the consumption of alcohol, and did allow the sale of alcohol for religious reasons. Additionally the Volstead Act defined intoxicating liquor to be any drink that contained more than half a per cent of alcohol, thus together they would form Prohibition, which went into effect after a year of approval on January seventeenth 1920. However the fifth of December 1933 saw the retraction of Prohibition, and has been the only amendment to the constitution to actually be repealed, but was Prohibition always doomed to fail? Prohibition was created mainly due to popular support of the public, as in years prior to the amendment, interest groups were growing in strength, which were largely supported by women, as women saw alcohol as a means for mean to oppress them; however others such as religious groups and business were in support. Religious groups, especially those who where strongly protestant and who were in support of the Republican party, thought alcohol to be the work of the
Woody Guthrie was just 42 when he entered the hospital for the last time in 1954. His period of true creativity had spanned no more than eight or nine years, though in that time, he had traveled far, seen wonders and known defeats, and written as many as 1,400 songs. He had traveled Route 66, he boasted, enough to run it up to 6,666, back and forth, across the county as urges and winds took him. Woody was one of the greatest influences on Bob Dylan. During his brief time as a college student, Bob Dylan became interested in traditional and American folk music. After reading Woody Guthrie's autobiography, called Bound for Glory, Bob's music was heavily influenced by Guthrie's. In January 1961, he moved to New York City, to perform there and to visit his sick musical idol Woody Guthrie, who was dying in a New Jersey hospital. Guthrie had been a revelation to Dylan and was the biggest influence on his early performances. Dylan would later say of Guthrie's work, "You could listen to his songs and actually learn how to live." In the hospital room bob took out his guitar and started singing to him. Dylan met Woody's old road-buddy Ramblin' Jack Elliott, who was visiting Guthrie the day after returning from his own trip to Europe. Dylan and Elliott became friends, and much of Guthrie's work was actually channeled through Elliott. "So long Woody it's been good to know you. Your songs
APUSH Chapter 21 NOTES Bull Run Ends the "90 Day War" * Lincoln thought that a defeat of the Confederate forces at Bull Run (Manassas Junction, VA) would not only be successful, but quickly put an end to the South's secession from the Union WITHOUT damage to the economic and social system of the South -but he was wrong - Stonewall Jackson's regiment held * Victory was worse for the South b/c now the South was even more confident that they could win AND volunteers fell off b/c it didn't look as if they were needed * Defeat was better than victory for the North b/c it dispelled all notions that this was going to be a quick, easy war and caused the North to hunker down and gear up for the task at hand "Tardy George" McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign * George McClellan, the commander of the Army of the Potomac * Brilliant and experienced, "Little Mac" was also a perfectionist who learned the hard way that winning wars requires risk - He was overcautious and was arrogant to Lincoln * Lincoln had to issue orders to advance his army and thus began the Peninsula campaign in which the North lost as well * Result of this battle: Lincoln was willing to leave slavery alone where it already existed, but now declares that the rebels cannot try to destroy the gov't and just rejoin unhurt if unsuccessful - Lincoln now begins to draft an
APUSH Ch. 22 NOTES The Problems of Peace * What to do with freed blacks * How to reunite the South into the Union * Who would control Reconstruction - executive or legislature * Southern way of life was abolished although Southerners remained very resistant - really defiant Freedmen Define Freedom * Slaves' freedom came gradually * Slaves took the roads, changed their names, wanted to be addressed with respect which angered whites * Church became important in blacks' lives and created their own denomination(s) - attendance was very high * Reading and writing became highly important - teachers were scarce until the gov't provided some teachers Freedmen's Bureau * Created by Congress - March 1865 * Meaning of agency was intended to be a primitive welfare agency (food, clothes, med. Care and education) - not just for freedmen but for white refugees too * Oliver O Howard - head of the bureau (founder Howard University) * Greatest success was in education * Its accomplishments were meager - even corrupt - land was not distributed to freed blacks and many were tricked into signing labor contracts to work for former masters * Southerners cried federal oppression * President Johnson shared white supremacist views and tried to kill the agency - it expired in 1872 Johnson: The Tailor President * Johnson became president by
History Extended Response. In the 1920's, there were many reasons why black people rioted in many American cities. The reasons included that 40% of black American's still lived in poverty. Blacks lived in ghettos which were places of crime, gangs and drugs. Many blacks were either in low paid jobs or had no jobs at all. These reasons and more will be discussed in this essay to explain why black people rioted in many American cities in the 1960's. By the 1960's, the main aims of the non-violent black campaigners had been achieved. These aims were to desegregate public places and for blacks to get the right to vote. What the Civil Rights campaigners had not done was tackle the problems that black American's faced in the northern states. By 1960 half of all black American's had moved from the south to the north and crowded together in ghettos. They suffered from poverty, high unemployment, lack of health services and high crime rates. Riots were caused in mostly ghetto areas by acts or rumours of police brutality. The most serious riots where in New York, Detroit and The Watts area of Los Angeles. The assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968 lead to riots in 125 American cities. There were shootings, arson and looting in and around black American ghettos. Buildings were set on fire and burned down during these riots, and hundreds of people were injured and killed.
The main events of the Civil Rights movement happened between 1945 and 1968. However black Americans did not suddenly start campaigning for better rights in 1945, organisations and campaigns had existed before then.
From its birth in 1776 until the year 1955, the "American Experiment"-despite its many wonderful qualities-still suffered from racial inequality and injustice. These realities contradicted the equality and religious language at the root of the nation's founding. Finally, in 1955, progress toward racial equality took a great leap compared to the slow and gradual progress seen prior to this time. The champions of the Civil Rights Movement always included religious language in their battle for justice and wholesome race relations.With the defeat of the Confederate States of America at the end of the Civil War, the nation entered a 12-year period (1865-1877) known as the Reconstruction. But from 1877 through to the end of the century, there arose a tragic proliferation of racially discriminatory laws and violence targeted at American blacks. Scholars generally agree that this period stands as the nadir of American race relations.Even though Congress had adopted the Fourteenth Amendment to guarantee equal protection of blacks, in the states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, and Kansas, there emerged elected, appointed, and/or hired government officials who began to require and/or permit flagrant discrimination by way of various mechanisms. The main events of the Civil Rights
Why was Theodore Roosevelt was essential to the progressive movement? Progressivism was the movement in the late 19th century, which was thought to improve the quality of living, equality and the ability to control the economy. This showed us that America was slowly becoming more industrialized therefore resulting a massive divide between the rich and the poor. We can then imply that this led to no rules on working practices, meaning there were no minimum wage and no limit on working ours. Roosevelt believed that 'combination and concentration should not be prohibited but suspended and within reasonable limits controlled'. Theodore invited William Howard Taft; Roosevelt made him the secretary of war, and then later on won the 1908 presidential election. William Taft preferred Law to Politics as he was appointed a federal court judge at 34, but his wife did not like the idea of this therefore forced him into politics. We can understand that Taft increased the number of anti trust suits against companies in fact doubling them in comparison to Roosevelt. In addition he brought new laws to protect mine workers and had more government control, but people believed that he didn't work hard enough. This resulted in the 1913 where William Taft lost to Woodrow Wilson. We can understand that Roosevelt started 25 anti lawsuits against monopoly businesses. He gained support from