To what extent did the actions of Rosa Parks contribute to the reversal of the Montgomery, Alabama bus ordinance?
A: Plan of the Investigation Topic: To what extent did the actions of Rosa Parks contribute to the reversal of the Montgomery, Alabama bus ordinance? Plan of the Investigation: Many social reforms occurred throughout the 1900's for the equality of all citizens including African-Americans. Black people did not have the same rights/opportunities as those of who were white in colour. Sparked by Rosa Park's refusal to abide her seat, the Montgomery Bus Boycott was one of the social reforms, which led to the reversal of the Montgomery Bus Ordinance. This Historical investigation will take an in-depth look at Rosa Park's actions and see if it was the cause of the reversal. In the Summary of Evidence section, the investigation will cover Rosa Park's career, which lead to her defying the bus driver. Finally, the contributions of others such as Martin Luther King Jr. who helped with the formation of the Montgomery, Alabama bus ordinance will be taken into consideration as well as the Montgomery Bus Boycott. An analysis of these sections will indicate the extent of Rosa Park's contributions. (150 words) B: Summary of Evidence Rosa Parks * Born in Alabama, 1913 * Faced racial segregation * Attended all-black school * Involved in African Methodist Episcopal Church when she was young * Married Raymond Parks, activist * Active in Montgomery NAACP (National Association
The Politics of the 1850s . The whig Party was established in 1834 by politicians opposed to the "executive tyranny of Andrew Jackson. In 1840 the party's presidential candidate, was William Henry Harrison. However 4 years later the Whig party was defeated by a split vote by an anti-slavery Liberty party. The Whig Party returned to power in 1848 when they defeated competition from two other parties. In 1852 the war hero Winfield Scott was nominated as its candidate. The party was badly divided with Southerners deeply suspicious of Scott's views on slavery. Franklin Pierce won 1,601,474 votes against Scott's 1,386,578. Most Whigs joined the newly created Republican Party in 1854. 2. The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections. It was a third party that largely appealed to and drew its greatest strength from New York State. The party leadership consisted of former anti-slavery members of the Whig Party and the Democratic Party. Its main purpose was opposing the expansion of slavery into the western territories, arguing that free men on free soil comprised a morally and economically superior system to slavery. They opposed slavery in the new territories and worked to remove existing laws discriminating against freed blacks in states such as Ohio. 3. Franklin Pierce
In The Period 1880-1915 Did Black People Achieve More Through Protest Or Accommodation? By 1880 in America, the effect of the continuing process of legislating the means to segregate and discriminate against the black population had been embraced by most states. This had a huge detrimental effect to not just civil rights, but basic human rights towards the recently emancipated slaves. This brought with it a sharp polarization in the opinion of the black population, in regards how to tackle this problem. On one hand there were those who believed in protesting against the system, to fight for their noble cause of equality, however a large majority believed in accommodating these measures, in showing they were civilised beings and equal to the white man. The outcome was that by accommodating these laws, they gained much respect and made advances; however the effect the militant and protesting wing of the civil rights movement merely reiterated the prejudicial stereotypes held my their oppressors, and in essence hindered any advancements made. A prominent figure in the aggressive and militant wing of the movement, was Ida B. Wells. She was a southern protestor who believe in fighting the legalised segregation exerted by the federal governments. On numerous occasions she fought these measures, such as when a conductor asked her to stand for a white man in Ohio, and she
"This indeed is an ebullient night. I shall sacrifice a thousand bulls for the sake of it." Said the King cheering up his son who looked rather uninterested in the whole feast.
M. Mehdi Musawi "This indeed is an ebullient night. I shall sacrifice a thousand bulls for the sake of it." Said the King cheering up his son who looked rather uninterested in the whole feast. Instead, his eyes were longing to see his beloved mistress. It was obvious of his worried looks that he was waiting for the ceremony to come to an end so that he could quench his passion by accompanying the lady that sneaked into his soul, purloined his heart and left him with nothing to long for except her glittering eyes and fair angelic face. Everything was loud and clear. The king has finally accomplished what he was working on since the prince's birth, seventeen years ago. "At last, I now can be die peacefully knowing that my progeny will rule the kingdom that has whitened my black hair to keep it safe and secure." Murmured the old man. The Prince gazed at his father. "Have you been seeking wealth and security for Gonzaria since you became its ruler after King José the conqueror? Have you wasted all your life trying to make Gonzaria the 'perfect realm'?" he asked with astonishment. "Do you see anything wrong with that? You must acknowledge the fact that all this was done for no one except you my dear son," replied the king in a pitiful tone. The prince looked back at his father. "I do thank the heavens for I am no longer under your control. I neither live in your palace, nor
The Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln By: F. Scott Hill John Wilkes Booth's original plot to kidnap President Lincoln turned into an assassination. At approximately 10:15 p.m. on April 14th, 1865, the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, was shot in the back of the head while attending a play at Ford's Theater in Washington, District of Columbia. "At 7:22 the following morning... [he] took his last breath. (2)" Booth began to develop his kidnapping plot in the late summer of 1864. The plan was to take the President to Richmond, Virginia (the Confederate capital), and hold him in return for Confederate prisoners of the Civil War. An attempt was made on March 17, 1865, but failed when the President changed his plans. On April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox. Two days later Lincoln spoke from the White House to a crowd gathered outside. Booth was present as Lincoln suggested in his speech that voting rights be granted to certain blacks. Booth was infuriated. He decided that his kidnapping plan no longer made sense; the President would have to be assassinated. On the morning of April 14, 1865, during breakfast, President Lincoln and his wife Mary agreed to attend the comedy play 'Our American Cousin' starring actress Laura Keene. After breakfast, he met with the recently appointed
How Enslavement Lead to Negative Racial Attitudes Towards Africans in America I agree with the statement, "In this long evolution of racial attitudes in America, nothing was of greater importance than the enslavement of Africans." When the white men decided to take the Africans as slaves, it made the Africans seem exceedingly inferior and barbaric compared to the white Americans. The truth is, there wasn't much of a culture gap between colonial Europeans and Africans. This set the precedent that Africans were inferior beings that lasted a very long time. When the Africans were taken from their homeland, they were treated as non-human pieces of property. This greatly contributed to the belief that native Africans were inferior to the colonial Europeans. These beliefs have stuck with people through the years and are the main reason for negative racial attitudes towards African Americans in today's society. The main belief that resulted from the enslavement of Africans was the belief that they were inferior, as well as their cultures. As it turns out, there cultures were nearly as sophisticated as the American's cultures. "Recent studies of "pre-contact" African history have showed that the "culture gap" between European and African societies when the two peoples met was not as large as previously imagined. By the time Europeans reached the coast of West African a
How did anti-rights groups hinder the progress of Civil Rights for African Americans from 1865 to 1992?
How did anti-rights groups hinder the progress of Civil Rights for African Americans from 1865 to 1992? Throughout this period, The Civil Rights movement faced opposition from a number of sources. Anti-rights groups played an important role, as they did a lot to publicly oppose the development of civil rights, and often used extreme tactics, such as violence, against African Americans in order to prevent them gaining equal rights. Although these groups were eventually overcome, they did a great deal to hinder or slow down the progress of the Civil Rights movement, particularly at the start of the period, in the second half of the 19th century. The most prominent anti-rights group during this period was the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), a white supremacist group who were active in the South from 1866. Formed in Tennessee, the Klan rapidly spread across the Southern states, showing how widespread the opposition to Civil Rights was at the start of the period. In 1867, one in every nine white voters in Alabama belonged to the Klan, which shows how influential the Klan could be, as if all these voters had voted for the slightly more racist Democrat party, there would be less chance of Civil Rights legislation being passed. The KKK began their terrorist activities in 1867, under the leadership of Nathan Bedford Forrest. The way in which the KKK quickly developed into such a radical group
Evaluate Gettysburg and Vicksburg Both the battles Gettysburg, in 1863, and Vicksburg, also in 1863, have a huge impact on the war. Both battles have similarities and differences but they were both victories for the north. At Vicksburg in 1863 there was a clear northern objective, the aim was to take the town of Vicksburg, despite not seeming to be of much importance, this was the 'nail-head' that held the two half's of the confederate land together, also if Vicksburg was captured the confederates wouldn't be able to use the Mississippi river for trade or the movement of troops. However there is one issue that is overlooked here, Davis, the confederate leader knew that Vicksburg was important but only in a symbolic way, there was now little trade travelling up and down the Mississippi, nevertheless the loss of Vicksburg would still be a huge blow to the southern morale. Where as at Gettysburg there wasn't as much of a clear laid out plan, the south had realised that the only way they could get Lincoln to accept a southern peace settlement was to win victories on northern soil, hence why Lees troops were sent into Tennessee instead of sent to reinforce Vicksburg. The aim was simple, to win a victory on northern soil, however this would prove more difficult than first thought, when Lee left to go north he was being pursued by the union general Hooker who had little idea of
Caeric Blackhammer and the Quest for the Sword Ignobly born yet blessed with a heart and soul as pure as any Angel's, Caeric was born the son of Goerin, a humble blacksmith, and spent his childhood days working in his father's smithy, forging weapons for the endless wars that plagued his people. In the summer of his seventh year the boy's life changed forever when he saw Cambruin and his Champions riding through his village on the way to battle. Thinking the shining warriors were angels, Caeric was overjoyed to learn that they were but men, and vowed to join them when he came of age. Five years later Caeric left home to seek the King, wearing armour forged by his own hand and carrying only his hammer for a weapon. He met the haughty Knight Sir Rovennor upon the road, and the Champion told him, jesting, that fifty victories in battle were required before a squire could be dubbed a Knight. Prompted by Sir Rovennor's jest, Caeric bested a full fifty Knights and Warlords, armed in every battle only with his hammer and his unyielding Virtue. Caeric bound each Knight with an oath, demanding that they go to the court of the King Cambruin and pledge their featly to him. After sending the fifty vanquished foes to Cambruin, Caeric finally came to the King at Caledorn. Cambruin knighted Caeric on the spot, naming him one of his Champions. So knighted, Caeric took up a sword and served
TO WHAT EXTENT WAS THE NEW DEAL (1933 - 1937) A SUCCESS? The New Deal was an economic policy issued by F.D Roosevelt in response to the to the crash of the U.S stock market in the early 20th century and subsequent rising number of unemployed American's due. Despite its good intentions, the New Deal received numerous criticisms from writers and politicians after the first 100 days. However, it also gained much praise and was thought to be one of Roosevelt's finest policies by the forgotten man of America. In order to determine whether the New Deal was a success, both contemporary and modern sources need to be analyzed. The New Deal can be considered a success due to Roosevelt's ability to restore confidence in the American people. O'Callaghan states Roosevelt was seen by many as "God in this country"1 which is supported by Zinn who affirms that "Roosevelt [was] a hero to millions" in Source G. Source D shows the forgotten man receiving government attention and help which inevitably presented the everyday man of America with a sense of hope and unity. People trusted Roosevelt and therefore put their faith in the New Deal as it was offering jobs - although generally minor work - which allowed American families to continue with the idea established by their Founding Fathers of rugged individualism. It was this that resulted in Roosevelt's re-election, an election where he