To what extent were Malcolm X and the subsequent Black Power Movement the 'Evil Twin' of the Civil Rights Movement in the late twentieth century in the United States of America?
To what extent were Malcolm X and the subsequent Black Power Movement the 'Evil Twin'1 of the Civil Rights Movement in the late twentieth century in the United States of America? Malcolm X2 and the subsequent Black Power3 Movement (BPM) stemmed from the nationalist African American population and so took a different stance in their fight for Civil Rights than other leaders such as Martin Luther King4 (King). With this distinction, has come a historical debate into whether Malcolm X and the BPM aided or hindered the Civil Rights Movement (CRM); something that has been debated between historians such as Sitkoff and Cook. The purpose of this study is to decide whether Malcolm X and the BPM are indeed the 'evil twin' of the CRM or whether this title is unjust. Malcolm X was a black nationalist5 and a member of the Nation of Islam6. Malcolm X, through his father, garnered the beliefs of Marcus Garvey7 and his 'Back to Africa' campaign. He also believed in militancy as a method to attain black independence through the notion; 'fight violence with violence'. He believed that rather than allowing the continual persecution of African Americans by whites, it was rational for African Americans to defend themselves with as much force as was necessary as advocated in his 'by any means necessary'8 speech. This caused much tension between the two distinct civil rights movements because it
Assess the view that the Supreme Court was the most important branch of federal government in assisting African Americans to achieve their civil rights in the period 1865-1992.
Assess the view that the Supreme Court was the most important branch of federal government in assisting African Americans to achieve their civil rights in the period 1865-1992. The three main branches of America federal government often show great divergence of opinion - something that has a huge impact on the way laws and attitudes in the US change over time - and this is blindingly obvious in terms of the Civil Rights movement and the fight for African American civil rights - for example, even at times when Congress was highly conservative, the Supreme Court was able to make rulings, based on previous legislation, that dramatically improved the rights of African Americans, and even at times when the Supreme Court and Congress were both heavily opposed to further movement on the issue, the President was able to step in and issue Executive Orders. One of the first steps, of course, on the journey toward equal rights for African Americans was the 13th Amendment. Ultimately, unless the slaves had been freed, there could never have been equality for them with the rest of society. Followed by the 14th and 15th Amendments, which further extended the de jure rights of African Americans - indeed, the Amendments gave African Americans equal rights, in a de jure capacity. All three of these amendments were passed by Congress, and are indicative of the positive attitude towards the
Were the 1960's and 1970's a turning point for the equality of Native Americans? The equality for Native Americans was slowly declining, with the white settlers taking over and the natives were just a hindrance and the whites began devising different ways they could be removed from their homes, land, tribes and even from society as a whole. However the 1970's were a major turning point, due to the change to become less militant in their approaches that they applied to their fight for their rights, including sit-in's, negotiation, gaining publicity and being inspired by the ever growing black power movement. This was as a new generation of Native Americans grew, and especially towards the 1940's (post war) they began to stand up and fight for their rights, religion and culture, and the 1960's and 1970's showed a predominate era for their movement in their equality. The 1960's and 1970's showed a massive growth in the Native American movement and a gain in their rights. In 1968 the natives has a 'fish-in' (which was a mock of a sit-in), in Washington supreme state court. They gave the government a list of 20 demands, including: allowing Native American leaders to address in congress and to rebuild Indian relations and protect religious freedom and cultural integrity, even though this wasn't successful. This brought the beginning of the term 'Red Power' made by the younger
Assess the significance of the role of individuals in reducing racial discrimination in the USA throughout the period 1877-1981.
History Coursework: Part B Assess the significance of the role of individuals in reducing racial discrimination in the USA throughout the period 1877-1981 Between the periods of 1877-1981 there were many significant figures who contributed towards reducing racial discrimination in the USA. Although without events such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott, WWII or the actions of the NACCP to change attitudes towards African Americans, these individuals would have had little effect. The likes of Booker T Washington and Du Bois set the foundation for civil rights along with the Second World War; however other individuals such as Martin Luther King help to actively progress the movement. Along with this the government and various presidents more so in the latter of the period of 1877-1981 helped to change attitudes and enforce legislation which was vital in reducing racial discrimination in the USA. Booker T Washington began to provide the foundations to the civil rights movement in his actions. Although I believe that during this early period of the movement little was achieved, Washington was still able to provide education, and show African Americans that they had a future and it was at their own mercy. This helped to relieve some who were less fortunate. On the other hand Du Bois took a route which directly campaigned for civil rights for African Americans; alike to Washington he
TO WHAT EXTENT WAS THE NEW DEAL (1933 - 1937) A SUCCESS? The New Deal was an economic policy issued by F.D Roosevelt in response to the to the crash of the U.S stock market in the early 20th century and subsequent rising number of unemployed American's due. Despite its good intentions, the New Deal received numerous criticisms from writers and politicians after the first 100 days. However, it also gained much praise and was thought to be one of Roosevelt's finest policies by the forgotten man of America. In order to determine whether the New Deal was a success, both contemporary and modern sources need to be analyzed. The New Deal can be considered a success due to Roosevelt's ability to restore confidence in the American people. O'Callaghan states Roosevelt was seen by many as "God in this country"1 which is supported by Zinn who affirms that "Roosevelt [was] a hero to millions" in Source G. Source D shows the forgotten man receiving government attention and help which inevitably presented the everyday man of America with a sense of hope and unity. People trusted Roosevelt and therefore put their faith in the New Deal as it was offering jobs - although generally minor work - which allowed American families to continue with the idea established by their Founding Fathers of rugged individualism. It was this that resulted in Roosevelt's re-election, an election where he
How successful was prohibition ? (30 marks) Prohibition, considering the goals it set out to achieve , was largely unsuccessful. However initially it did manage to decrease alcohol consumption , created new jobs needed to enforce prohibition and found in 1934 Alcoholics Anonymous a ,voluntary effort program that succeeded in helping alcoholics. On January 16th, 1920, prohibition was introduced nationally by the 18th amendment which banned the sale, transportation and manufacture of intoxicating liquor with the general purpose of reducing alcohol consumption. It was considered, by mainly protestant groups, that alcohol was the source of social problems, thus by banning it their goals was to reduce crime, corruption, reduce tax burden created by prisons and poorhouses , and improve health and hygiene in America. By the end of the 1920s, with booming illegal trade in alcohol, it was evident that the ''noble experiment'' had largely failed to achieve it goals. Making alcohol illegal naturally lead to a deficiency in supply and a rise in its price which made it available only to a limited section of society and caused an initial decrease in consumption. However the sudden shift meant that demand still existed -old stock Americans and newly arrived immigrants refused to abandon drinking. As alcohol became a luxury item increasing its appeal and demand to
To what extent was the 1920s a major turning point in the development of labour and trade union rights in the USA from 1865-1992?
To what extent was the 1920's a major turning point in the development of labour and trade union rights in the USA from 1865-1992? Throughout the period trade union rights, the most basic of which was to exist, and labour rights, which unlike trade union rights were granted by the employer and were individual to the workers, generally failed to develop along the same trajectory. At many points, indeed during the 1920s, the advancement of labour rights appeared to conflict with the development of trade union rights. However, when considering the turning points in the development of trade union and labour rights together during the period, it is evident that the 1920's, far from being a turning point, was an era which saw only superficial advancements in labour rights and limited change for trade unions. In contrast, major turning points can be identified at the very start of the period, which saw the establishment of trade unions, during the 1930's and towards the end of the period between 1980 and 1992, a pivotal time due to the significant regression of union rights. As a decade which enjoyed an unprecedented level of economic prosperity, it is true that during the 1920's workers were indeed granted better conditions and the number of causes of industrial unrest was reduced. For example, workers saw a rise in real wages and employers taking actions to improve working
Why was Progress for Racial Equality so slow in the years 1945-1955? Any progress for racial equality during the period of 1945-1955 faced a series of problems, both through the Government and legal means and the American public, slowing down and limiting its affect overall during this time period. Any effect of measures for racial equality were also limited for the same reasons, making the development of racial equality on the whole incredibly slow. Presidents of America during this time period played their own part in slowing down progress. Truman (1945-53) in principle may not have been racist man that does not mean however that his stance on civil rights was in favour of racial equality. His attitude towards their plight was seemingly ignorant and his own awareness for his need for the southern vote made him wary to bring about change. His committee on civil rights in 1946 outlined only basic requirements for all Americans but even that failed to pass congress. Eisenhower (1953-61) contributed to the progress of racial equality during this period even less. His intervention in the state of Arkansas on the issue of Little Rock can be seen as progress as Federal Government interfered with states on the issue of racial equality but it was clearly not enough for the cause and attitudes like this of top politicians slowed down any progress in the development overall. Any
Use sources A, B and C and your own knowledge. How far was the outbreak of the war of American Independence due to the lack of willingness of the American colonies to compromise in the years 1770 to 1775?
Use sources A, B and C and your own knowledge. How far was the outbreak of the war of American Independence due to the lack of willingness of the American colonies to compromise in the years 1770 to 1775? (24 marks) The outbreak of the War of American independence was partly due to the lack of willingness of the American colonists to compromise in the years of 1770 to 1775 but there were also a variety of other reasons. Some reasons include that Britain was too harsh to the colonies, the colonies were unreliable and untrustworthy and causes such as the first continental congress in 1774 and the Boston massacre also helped build up to the War of American independence. Firstly, it could be argued that the colonies lack of willingness to compromise in the years of 1770 to 1775 was the cause of the outbreak of the War of American independence. The American colonists were not open to any of Britain's policies and they spent a majority of the 1770's resisting against Britain's solutions to the problems in Britain and America. Because of this, by 1770 relations between British authorities and the leaders of the colonial legislatures had broken down. Moreover, events such as the Gaspee incident worsened relations between the American colonies and the British and it showed that the Colonists had no respect for the British policies and were not willing to compromise with the
How far do you agree with the view that 'Hoover simply extended the agonies of the Depression'? Explain your answer, using your own knowledge of the issues related to this controversy. On the one hand, Hoover's interventions mitigated the depression. Hoover has historically said to have "stepped up federal construction, urged state and local governments to accelerate spending", this indicates that he did try and ease the depression and that he did not lead America into a further and dire situation. Hoover even cut his own/state officials' pay by 20% to provide revenue for recovery measures. This shows that Hoover was sympathetic towards the American's suffering in the Depression, hence by reducing his own wages showed his willingness to help America during a time of economic difficulty. In support of this, the USA supreme court have been quoted to say that Hoover "started more public works schemes than had been done by the previous 40 presidents". The emphasis on "more public works schemes" suggests that Hoover was not reluctant to help, and he wanted to ease America during times of hardship. Furthermore, Hoover secures an additional $500 million from Congress in 1931, to help agencies around the USA to provide relief. In hindsight, it is clear that Hoover did much to try and ease America through the depression, but whether his aid was in time or consistent is arguable.