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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  1. How Useful are Sources A to C to Explain Why the United States Became Involved in the War in Vietnam?

    From this, I can gather that the Americans became involved in Vietnam as they did not want communism to spread. Towards the end of the speech, President Johnson seems to refer to the domino theory when he says 'the battle would be renewed in one country and then another.' The domino theory consists of the idea that if one country gave in to communism, communists would rebel in other countries and therefore capitalism would begin to control most of the world, which was against the American belief.

    • Word count: 4938
  2. The Sino-Soviet Split

    The early years of the Sino-Soviet relationship were characterized by "Soviet disinterest and Chinese mistrust."4 In the late 1940s, when the Chinese Communist Party had been working towards the Revolution of 1949, its leaders had approached Stalin for military assistance, but were turned down with instructions to "obey the GMD wholeheartedly."5 From this occasion, and a number of others, it became clear to the CCP that Stalin was willing to jeopardize the success of their revolution in order to prevent Western alarm about China's political alignment.

    • Word count: 3068
  3. The Collapse of Communism in the USSR and Eastern Europe

    In order to fully understand the forces that pushed Moscow towards such reforms, it is necessary to begin with the 1970s and the Soviet Union under Brezhnev. This was a period that left a strong legacy economically and thus shaped the local and international environments to a significant degree. A time of superpower d�tente, both East and West were feeling the strain of Cold War competition- President Nixon of the U.S. looking for a way to liquidate the Vietnam War, and Brezhnev beginning to find the arms race excessively expensive.

    • Word count: 3972
  4. Account for the tensions between the Islamic World and the West

    America on the other hand "lacks a colonial past or any long standing cultural attention to Islam" (Said/1997:13) America has become the worlds unofficial global policeman, promoting capitalist interests and protecting the so called 'free world' since the Cold War intervention in Middle Eastern states has dominated the foreign policy of the United States. The Islamic world consists of 52 sovereign Muslim states each at different stages of development the Muslim world encompasses over 60 diverse languages, ethnic backgrounds and traditions. These states sometimes stand together as a single international bloc as well as sharing cultural and religious links.

    • Word count: 3811
  5. A REPORT ON "The London Bombings: One Person's Experience"

    Ever since 9\11 a lot of work was published on Al-Qaeda and what they want. In contrast to the 9/11 literature that was vastly spread across the world, insufficient or very little literature was available on what the public thinks of the atrocities. Then in July 2005 a series of attacks were carried out by terrorists across the London Underground Network. Again, insufficient research was done on what the public thought of the attacks. My research is completely different to that already done. There have been many case studies written on terrorism and nearly all of them are politically critical and do not reflect reality.

    • Word count: 3229
  6. How did the poets and the songwriters of the 1960's react to the Vietnam War

    But he will 'end up like a dog that's been beat too much' and cower away from people. 'Born in the USA' is used so many times thus suggests that the USA can be the only country in the world that could do such a thing as waging war on an 'innocent' country. It can also suggest that Americans are the biggest and best in the world, but they always seem to get themselves into trouble. 'Got into a little hometown jam' could suggest that he got into a petty robbery or statutory rape, 'so they put a rifle in

    • Word count: 3064
  7. I will be looking at how the U.S became increasingly involved Vietnam, the problems facing U.S soldiers and the anti war movement in the United States.

    At a 1954 peace conference the country was divided into North and South until an election could be held. The USA's initial reaction to the French leaving was panic; they believed that if Vietnam became a communist country, then other countries surrounding Vietnam would too fall to communism. This was known as the "Domino Theory," and the fact that the Viet Minh had just defeated a major power only increased the USA's fear that other countries would follow Vietnam into communism hoping to solve their problems.

    • Word count: 5625
  8. Examine the main premises behind Eisenhower's concept of containment

    Eisenhower was unhappy with the seemingly unlimited spending that went into this policy; he cautioned the American economy was being undermined by such military outlays. The fiscal year 1953 (July 1952-June 1953), defence spending had soared to $50.4 billion (nearly 2/3rds of the national budget, 18% of GNP2), where as 1950 had seen $13 billion allocated for defence. Ike believed that no more than $40 billion per annum was the maximum that could be spent without putting undue strain on the United States economy3.

    • Word count: 3027
  9. The First World War

    This would mean that the Russians could devote all of their army of many millions of men long with the Serb army to the eastern front. On the western front there would be a combined British, Belgian and French forces consisting overall of about two million soldiers and if the German army was split in half by a war on two fronts they could only dedicate one million men to each front. This would mean that the Germans would be outnumbered on both fronts.

    • Word count: 3073
  10. The Battle of Britain as a turning point in the Second World War.In the summer of 1940, the Luftwaffe (German air force)

    The ships that they used were no suitable and they could not go out in Gail force six. They would not stand a chance against the British's 80 destroyers, 5 Major Battle ships and 11 cruisers. Germany at that time only had 10 destroyers and 5 cruisers. So with navy 20 times smaller then the British it was never really going to happen even if they had control of the air. And it looked like Hitler noticed this as well.

    • Word count: 4094
  11. Discuss Trotsky's View that War was the Locomotive of History (1855-1914)

    The Russian peasant was in essence, Russia, who above all paid most of the taxes, produced Russia's most valuable export; grain, and formed a massive eighty percent of the population, half of which was comprised of serfs. Serfdom was failing on all counts; it was failing the serfs, the nobility and the state. The system was failing the state because it didn't encourage innovation or experiment in either industry or agriculture. The problem needed to be addressed, and Alexander snatched this opportunity to implement his ideas in the aftermath of war and defeat.

    • Word count: 3066
  12. While surfing the channels on TV you might hear a lot of news about terror attacks. Only think of the latest tragedy in Moscow when a Chechen terrorist group occupied a theater full with tourists; or just think of bombings in Bali

    -President George W. Bush, 10/11/01 While surfing the channels on TV you might hear a lot of news about terror attacks. Only think of the latest tragedy in Moscow when a Chechen terrorist group occupied a theater full with tourists; or just think of bombings in Bali! The wave of terror seems to reach us. The world has turned to a more aggressive way, people's daily life get fuller of violence from day to day and people feel anger or fear.

    • Word count: 7713
  13. China's relationship with the West 1) There are various ways in which a country can put pressure on another country, and many such ways were used by the West regarding the poor standards of human rights in China.

    Alison Reynolds, the head of Free Tibet, hoped that Blair would 'urge China to open dialogue with the Dalai Lama'. Amnesty International had what was perhaps the most aggressive argument against China, but even still they refrained from harshly or abusively accusing China of poor human rights. Instead they used persuasive language with strong implications, such as 'they call into question China's sincerity in signing key human rights conventions'. China also bore pressure regarding human rights from members of it's own country.

    • Word count: 3201
  14. In What Ways Were Britain's Imperial Policies Before 1952 Influenced By The Development Of The Cold War?

    Deighton states that Britain wanted the best of both worlds with her own sphere of vital influence in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East Eastern without accepting an exclusive Soviet sphere in Eastern Europe3. This was due to the geographical proximity of counties such as Bulgaria and Yugoslavia to Greece, Turkey and the Aegean and Black Seas and the fear of an extension of Soviet influence which could reorganise the whole of Europe into a Soviet-led bloc. The development of the Cold War certainly influenced British imperial policy with increased importance placed on Anglo-American solidarity and a hard line against growing Soviet and Communist influence.

    • Word count: 3584
  15. How was opposition to the Vietnam War portrayed in contemporary literature, film and popular song?

    The "flower power" generation were overwhelmed and shocked as they based their ideals on peace, love and harmony. Film: Back in the time of the war televisions became an everyday object in the average household. There were very few channels but on these channels was the news. This newsreel had a very important role to play in the shift of opinion from the public's perspective, although it did not intentionally do so. Because the television was relatively new there was no such thing as censorship, so when footage of a peaceful antiwar demonstration turned into disaster people were horrified.

    • Word count: 4525
  16. History Coursework on Hammersmith and Fulham

    Source B tells us how the council organised black-out practises to prepare for the air-raids. They did this because they were concerned with the safety of the civilians and they wanted to make sure that people knew what to do in case of a real air raid. Source D touches on two different points, one being the way in which people could be protected in case of Gas attacks and the other being the protection of buildings. The council of Hammersmith and Fulham went house to house doing a census of babies so they knew how many gas masks for babies to order, which shows they were concerned for everyone.

    • Word count: 3285
  17. The United Nations and the Iraq Conflict

    While the Security Council as an organ of the United Nations is relevant as a producer of a multinational council for the resolution of international breaches of collective security, due to power, money and state importance, the UN remains a puppet-like framework for which sovereign states use to solve national agendas, as highlighted by the recent Iraq conflict. The Security Council, one of the United Nations six organs, has a "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security."4 The Council goes about doing so through a system of representation of the 185 member states that hold a seat in the General Assembly.

    • Word count: 3411
  18. In 1915 a British Newspaper printed a letter from a 'Lady Reader' who claimed, "The women of Britain will tolerate no such cry

    Only a generation before, Germany and Britain had been united, usually against the French. However, when Kaiser Wilhelm announced his intentions to build a powerful German navy, Britain became suspicious. Germany had hardly any coastline and not much of an overseas empire. The Kaiser, who was cousins with queen Victoria and the Tsar, admired Britain's empire and therefore wanted one of his own, which he called 'a place in the sun'. Already in 1905 and 1911 in Morocco the Kaiser had tried to cause trouble by interfering with French and British affairs. Before that, in 1870, Germany had fought a short war with France and had taken the rich industrial region of Alsace-Lorraine from France.

    • Word count: 4707
  19. What Impact did the Second World War have on the lives of women in Britain

    Whilst women in the RAF spotted planes and in the Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA) they were able to fly transport planes. Even though women were able to work in the armed forces it was very hard for a lot of women to gain respect from their fellow work colleagues as most were seen as a 'duty bicycle' rather than as a colleague. This then caused the problem of sexual harassment for most women, for example one woman, who refused to do sexual favours for her sergeant, had her put up on charge because of it.

    • Word count: 3106
  20. Explain why the US withdrew its forces from Vietnam in 1973?

    Therefore they would struggle hugely on the unpredictable Vietnamese terrain, which consisted of deep valleys, mountains, sharp ridges and an impenetrable jungle canopy. The climate only worsened matters for the US troops as it rained continuously, turning the red earth to a sticky clay, and forcing the men to endure great strains as they shuffled through ankle-deep mud. There were treacherous water plains, swamps and mud flats, all of which the soldiers had to fight through, as well as their enemies.

    • Word count: 4146
  21. Why did President Truman Decide to Drop the Two Atomic Bombs On Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945?

    There are four main reasons why Truman ordered the dropping of the two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. I will now discuss each reason in more detail with factual evidence that justifies his decision. By April 1945 the Japanese armed forces had been eliminated from everywhere apart from their home soil and parts of northern Manchuria in China. The Americans had already taken some of the Japanese homeland, Okinawa approximately 300 miles south of Kyushu had been taken. At a joint war plans committee it was concluded that 46,000 Americans would die in the invasion of Kyushu and Honshu.

    • Word count: 3368
  22. Total War, Britain during the Second World War

    The German airforce (the Luftwaffe) had been very effective during the Spanish Civil War, when it had had almost no opposition and had been able to bomb at low level in daylight. Bombing Britain was quite another proposition as the Germans found out in 1940. One major advantage that Britain had was that Robert Watson Watt had invented Radar in 1936 and by 1939 a network of radar Stations had been built along the east and south coasts. These were able to warn the RAF of approaching raids.

    • Word count: 9346
  23. Introduction - US policy to Southeast Asia in general

    By this time, The Philippines, Burma, Thailand and Indonesia were independent, with new nationalist rulers. Vietnam was still a French colony and Malaya a British one. The US got tough on the insurgencies, whilst supplying 'economic and defence assistance, technical support, political advice, diplomatic backing, even such intangibles as understanding, patience and sympathy'4to the newly formed independent countries. In answer to the title question, and in attempt to unravel the complexities of Washington's foreign policy in Southeast Asia, this essay will examine more closely US strategy regarding two countries - Vietnam and Indonesia - throughout the time of decolonisation.

    • Word count: 4258
  24. United Nations: The Wounded Dove

    These five Allied Nations became permanent members and shared equal power (US, Britain, France, USSR, and China). "At no time in history has there been a more necessary meeting then this one...you members of this conference are to be architects of the better world. In your hands rest's our future." Though they do not do as much for our future as they could and say they do. In theory the UN's overall needs reforms, but when broken down and viewed into the separate branch's, some of these branches do more then we think, but yet the other branches are a waste of our money and need to be reformed.

    • Word count: 4057
  25. In what ways was the Pacific war a racist conflict?

    (talk about the yellow peril here). AMERICAN PROPAGANDA. The first thing I should talk about is a series of films, documentaries, commissioned by the US Government, made by Frank Capra. The Series as a whole was called "Why we Fight", and consisted of 7 separate films. They were produced to be shown to the US troops due to fight in the war, but several of the films were shown to civilians. In fact, such was the success of the films in the eyes of the US government; they were translated into French, Spanish, Russian, and Chinese.

    • Word count: 3676

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