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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  1. Forrest Gump; the Modern Day Fairytale

    The opening sequence links with many of the major themes, which are raised throughout the film. We see a woman run across the road, this to me is symbolic of Jenny's character; always running away in her life, never staying to face her problems. The film is so popular because people can relate to the characters, we all want to run away in our lives, jenny lives this nightmare. The woman then dodges a car, this sign of danger represents the danger Jenny inflicted upon herself, pushing her body to the limit, and causing her to contemplate suicide.

    • Word count: 5620
  2. In what ways did the Second World War affect the lives of ordinary people at home?

    Organisations like the local defence volunteers, first aid post and the home guard provided people with opportunities to help the community in the times of trouble. Many communities rallied together for church and town hall meetings in order to discuss the organisation of blackouts and the suitable procedure in such circumstances. Often reliable people were given certain jobs to do like warning people of air attacks by going through their street and shouting the message. The war opened new opportunities for women, who suddenly realised they could be independent and faced responsibilities like earning money for the family and being in control.

    • Word count: 6771
  3. Why did the USA become involved in Vietnam?

    It was decided that the French troops would withdraw from Vietnam and the Vietnamese people would be allowed to choose whether to live in the North (Communist) half or in the South (Capitalist) half. In 1956 there would be a general election to choose whether the country should be united, and who, out of Diem and Ho Chi Minh would rule Vietnam. Although Vietnam was over 9000 miles away from the USA they were threatened by the fact that Ho Chi Minh was the most likely winner of the 1956 election in Vietnam.

    • Word count: 3147
  4. Analyse and Discuss the Reasons Behind the Breakdown in the Relationship Between the United States a

    There followed a Russian Civil War from which the Red Army formed by Leon Trotsky was eventually to secure a victory for Lenin's Bolsheviks. Prior to this the emerging state faced enemies both internally and external, indeed Britain, France and the US all at one time gave support to the whites the enemies of the communists in the Russian Civil war. In 1923 Lenin died and a power struggle ensued to see who would succeed him. Joseph Jugashvili, better known as Joseph Stalin emerged as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

    • Word count: 4896
  5. In why the United States withdrew its' forces in 1973

    Although America did try to provide hospitals for the civilians and any form of medical aid, these doctors ended up doing more damage than good. Many diseases in Vietnam were unheard of in America and so the doctors did not know how to treat them, often providing unnecessary medication. Other than this the Americans did more harm than good. They offered nothing more. Constant bombing of villages and towns angered the civilians, who failed to see how they could trust a country that was killing thousands of innocent lives. The Vietcong, however, offered the peasants freedom for all and land.

    • Word count: 3800
  6. Evaluation of key sources to address the question of increased tension

    This could be another representation to the British public that they need to catch up in the arms race. At this point in time both America and Russia were desperate to be ahead in the arms race. The cartoon features a contrasting expression on Khrushchev's face, he looks very angry and vicious and this differs greatly from the other runners. This display is informing us that Khrushchev is showing ruthless determination. Considering that it is a British cartoon it is likely that this interpretation of Khrushchev is a biased and therefore inaccurate one. Source A1 is definitely a useful source; it shows the UK's interpretation of the situation and visually displays each superpowers position in the arms race.

    • Word count: 3398
  7. The Cuban Missile Crisis and the blockade

    Finally, many agree with Kennedy's decision, stating that it was an appropriate compromise that opened the door to both the air strike and the diplomatic option, whichever seemed necessary as time went on.vi For most of the duration of the crisis, most favoured the air strike as it was quick, efficient, and displayed the true power of the United States.vii However, as time went on, the blockade became more favourable, as it still showed that the United States would act, but in a much more reasonable way then repeating what had happened at the end of World War II in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    • Word count: 4309
  8. The home front (source based work) 1914 - 1918.

    The reason why theses two quotes support each other is because I know from my own knowledge that women disliked domestic services so much that they loved it when they were able to change their jobs to now work in factories, the one quote informs us that when women were given the chance to leave their old jobs and take on jobs previously done my men in factories the women were delighted, the other quote just spots you from having any doubts about the subject as it informs us that women liked the factory life more than life in domestic service.

    • Word count: 5113
  9. Select and explain the most important turning points in Senator Joe McCarthy's political career

    McCarthy was taking advantage of it, constantly accusing people of being communists, doctoring photos to prove it. He accused the media, and the film industry. When Eisenhower, a fellow Republican, became President, McCarthy lost the friction he had always had between himself and the President, which he had always thrived on. Fred Salmon 11MO Eventually McCarthy overstepped the line, accusing the army of hiding 45 communists in its ranks. He had no real proof or evidence that he was correct in his accusations.

    • Word count: 3507
  10. The month of August in the year of 1991 marked the beginning of a new era in world politics.

    Soviet influence disappeared and American influence was no longer focused on the rise and spread of communism. The United States and the remnants of the Soviet Union began to pull back from their ideological empires to tend to more limited problems within their own spheres of self-interest. As a result, regimes that had been propped up by the opposing superpowers lost their support and crumbled as nations collapsed into civil war. Economic and political problems that had plagued these nations intensified, further increasing the rate at which they descended into anarchy. Above all, nationalism and ethnocentrism emerged from the oppression of the cold war ripping apart the fabric of many nations.

    • Word count: 3183
  11. Allen Ginsberg

    His age would be on a spiritual quest, but to embark on it they would need a new religion for a new day; modern religion could no longer do as "good and evil and evil seemed increasingly inadequate in a world of science fiction turned fact" (Ziegler 172). The beat therefore found their religion in Zen Buddhism for one central reason: both sides of good and evil were embraced in "oneness" for the individual in the meditation where spontaneous flashes of images and sights might come ( Merill 7).

    • Word count: 5118
  12. This graduation paper is about U.S. - Soviet relations in Cold War period. Our purpose is to find out the causes of this war, positions of the countries which took part in it. We also will discuss the main Cold War's events.

    In 1941, during World War II, Germany attacked the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union then joined the Western Allies in fighting Germany. For a time early in 1945, it seemed possible that a lasting friendship might develop between the United States and Soviet Union based on their wartime cooperation. However, major differences continued to exist between the two, particularly with regard to Eastern Europe. As a result of these differences, the United States adopted a "get tough" policy toward the Soviet Union after the war ended. The Soviets responded by accusing the United States and the other capitalist allies of the West of seeking to encircle the Soviet Union so they could eventually overthrow its Communist form of government.

    • Word count: 21198
  13. A Study of Air Supremacy in the Korean War.

    Air supremacy was reached by the end of August. This allowed for friendly troop movements to take place without the enemy threat coming from the air. The commander of FEAF, George E. Stratemeyer, had his air power assets ready for wartime operations despite the continuing downsizing taking place after World War II. His primary objective was to provide support to the ground forces, knock out eighteen strategic targets with a bombing campaign, and set up the infrastructure necessary to carry out future air operations.

    • Word count: 5858
  14. Africa and the role they played during both of the world wars.

    Africans participated as soldiers and porters in Togoland, Cameroon and the East African campaigns. They became involved in these campaigns on one side or another depending on who the colonial masters were at the time.4 The union of South Africa also enlisted several thousand Africans for the campaign against south west Africa, but refused to use them as combatants out of fear of arming the local population.5 So, Africans were not used as soldiers, but as labourers and carriers in the war effort, which was just as important role as fighting.

    • Word count: 4191
  15. Rationality, Educated Opinion and Peace

    He consciously and deliberately tied issues of foreign policy to domestic politics, giving rise to what will come to be known as the "democratic peace thesis". Wilson advocates the belief that "popular participation, public life and opportunity for all [will be] the guarantee of peace". Wilson believed that diplomacy and foreign policy must be taken with regard to public opinion and the public being rational would prefer peace to war.3 The crucial premise here is that public opinion matters in a democratic political system.

    • Word count: 6191
  16. American economic foreign policy and the origins of the cold war

    One important notion where orthodox and revisionist historians appear to concur is that American foreign policy in the 1940s was largely shaped by lessons of the past. By latest after the attack on Pearl Harbor, policymakers in Washington were remarkably unanimous in their belief that that outbreak of the Second World War had been indirectly caused by major errors of the American government during the interwar period. According to Paterson, "Americans studied their own "mistakes" - their rejection of the League of Nations, high tariffs, and restrained involvement in international crises - all of which tugged at the national conscience

    • Word count: 5101
  17. The purpose of my examination of war is to question whether the resort to war is ever justified.

    By clearly establishing Walzer's view of the legalist paradigm and state sovereignty, it will be clear what is wrong with war, and that is that it violates the basic human rights. I will then go on to outline the justifications for war fought in self defence. Once self defence is established as a justified means to engage in war, I will argue that preemptive strikes are justified under extreme conditions by not only the target of the threat but also by third parties states who are appointed by the international community.

    • Word count: 3095
  18. During the course of this essay I will be investigating a play called 'All My Sons' by Arthur Miller.

    The 'closely planted poplars lends the yard a secluded atmosphere' and we have the sense of a closely knit neighbourhood as people enter and leave the yard. Sue said to Ann that her husband 'spends so much time here, they'll be charging him rent'. The Keller's becomes a meeting place for neighbours, visitors and the poker players who gather every Saturday night. Friendship among the families is admirable, at least on the surface. Jim Bayliss, the doctor is the first person in the play to speak; he's in the Keller yard where he seems to spend so much of his time.

    • Word count: 3165
  19. How useful are sources A to C to explain why the United States became involved in the Vietnam war?

    The United States of America always feared the spread of communism. They believed that is South Vietnam had fallen to communist power then all of South East Asia would also fall into communist hands (the domino theory). The domino theory: The theory had a precedent, of sorts: the Eastern Bloc. At the end of World War II, the Stalinist Soviet Union tried to starve West Berlin into submission during the Berlin Blockade, maintained tight control over East Germany, and mentored the rapid rise to power of totalitarian Communist regimes in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

    • Word count: 3807
  20. With reference to the period 1880 to the present day, explain why people chose to migrate to Britain?

    A flourishing community of Jewish people had lived in Britain since the 17th century. They had become a fundamental part of British life. They kept their religious and cultural traditions alive and made a significant contribution to social, economic and political life in Britain. Thousands of Jewish people migrated to Britain after 1880. They left the Russian Empire and Eastern Europe because they wanted to escape persecution and find superior life abroad. Jews in Russia were often the victims of savage attacks and laws passed the government made it difficult for Jews to earn a living there.

    • Word count: 3095
  21. The Arab-Israeli conflict 1956, 1967 and 1973.

    When the British decided to cancel loans promised for the Aswan Dam, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal to make money from the tolls paid by ships. Nasser also closed the Gulf of Aqaba to Israel, which was their only access to the red sea. Nasser was helping the Arab rebels who were fighting the French in their colony of Algeria. This was another way of increasing their wealth and power. To get rid of western influence in the Middle East, Nasser persuaded the other Arab states not to join an alliance called the Baghdad Pact, with the British, and instead formed an alliance between Egypt, Syria and Saudi Arabia.

    • Word count: 3211
  22. To what extent was the treatment of Prisoners of War held by Britain different to that of the treatment of Prisoners of War held by Germany and Japan?

    The amount of food was to "be equivalent in quantity and quality to that of the depot troops." In terms of work all POWs were to receive "pay either according to the pay scale of their own country or to that of their captor, whichever was less; they could not be required to work." This work was not to expose them to "danger, and in no case could they be required to perform work directly related to military operations." In terms of disciplining POWs "Imprisonment is the most severe disciplinary punishment, which may be inflicted on a prisoner of war.

    • Word count: 3357
  23. Why did the USA become involved in Vietnam in the 1950s and 1960s?

    This theory that America was the world protector was known as the Truman Doctrine, thought up by President Truman. That was why President Truman agreed to send $15 million in supplies to the French, but financial and supply aid was all the USA was prepared to put in at that stage. The Korean War had just ended for the United States, in which many young American fighters had died, and the US were not prepared to see it happen again, just yet.

    • Word count: 4890
  24. Why did Mao Zedong introduce a second five year plan in 1958 and to what extent did it succeed or fail?

    Fifteen of the eighteen provinces had joined the revolution. In February of 1912 Yuan Shih-Kai was made president and Prince Chun and the Emperor Pu Yi was forced to abdicate, as he was not in control of the army. He remained president until his death in 1916. Chaos ensued and the Chinese government effectively collapsed. In 1921 a huge political revolution occurred, whereby the formation of the Chinese communist party (CCP) took place. Sun Yat Sen died of cancer in 1925 and the leader of the nationalist party fell to Chaing Kai-Shek.

    • Word count: 4570
  25. Why did a gangster culture develop in the USA in the 1920`s to the 1940`s ?

    They tried to create a sense of family which was well organised and had a strong hierarchical layout. History of the vicious increase of foreigners: The U.S. Mafia, or the "Black Hand" as it was known in the early period, began to develop in the 1800`s in the USA because of the vicious increase in foreign immigrants during that time in America. Three million Irish, three and a half million Jews and four million Italians immigrated to America. New York was the second biggest Italian city after Naples, one quarter of New York - more than half a million people - were Italian .

    • Word count: 4372

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