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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  1. Women and social change - To what extent did World War One effect womens labour market position.

    Most of the concern at the time was centred around factory work, were in addition young females were thought to be vulnerable to corruption by older married women, and again this would impact on the health of the great British nation as unmarried females would not have healthy children. In addition for employers and government to condone women working in mass numbers would put pressure on the to better conditions and give women rights even votes. Society as a hole was unhappy about women working.

    • Word count: 4951
  2. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan - Stalemate.

    * Fourth Army was held in strategic reserve near the centre. 1914: German railway system under military supervision - 1870-1914: lines to western frontier 9 ? 13 ? August 6th: 550 trains/day crossing Rhine bridges; 12th August: 7 German armies, 1,500,000 ready. * Deployment completed by August 17th: friction of war revealed weaknesses. ? Belgian resistance cloaked weight of main German columns and misled the Allies' Intelligence. ? August 7th, French advance began, movement into Upper Alsace as a distraction * Pressure of disasters elsewhere compelled its being dispatched Westwards.

    • Word count: 3635
  3. Do these sources, and the site visit at Hartford Works, fully explain how Oldham rose to a position of pre-eminence in the British cotton-spinning industry prior to the First World War?

    Instead, this is intended to increase the dignity and importance of the plant and what went on there. These will have been put there probably when business was good as they could afford to put stylish ( it would seem stylish in those days) designs on buildings to show off their highly established status. Embedded in the floor of both the ex-Millwrights and Tool Shop is a narrow gauge railway track to allow for rapid and easy transport of heavy or bulky equipment within the Works. This internal railway system shows the vastness of the size of the whole Works as well.

    • Word count: 4418
  4. Vietnam peace movement

    Instead, they developed a new method, and fought with chemical weapons like Napalm and Agent Orange. Napalm was a chemical of jelly consistency, which stuck to anything it touched and spread a blanket of fire over that object. It was designed to hurt people, but the trouble with it was that it hurt civilians and Vietcong equally. This meant it was effective as a weapon, since it fulfilled it's target to harm people, but ineffective since when the American public discovered what it did, it was deeply unpopular and had a counterproductive effect on the war where public opinion was concerned.

    • Word count: 4978
  5. Were Contemporaries Correct in Viewing Chamberlain as a Peacemaker?

    During the 1920's - 30's, Adolf Hitler was starting to rise to power. He left the army in 1919 and joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis). He quickly established himself as the party's leader, and used forceful means to take power, resulting in his arrest for nine months. After the Wall Street Crash and depression following it, many Germans turned to the Nazis for help, and Hitler eventually became the Chancellor of Germany in 1933. Within this essay I will be looking at the effects of the First World War, appeasement, the League of Nations, the Sudetenland and the problems in Czechoslovakia and Poland.

    • Word count: 3005
  6. "To What Extent Were Gorbachev's Policies the Catalyst to the Fall of the USSR?"

    Summary of evidence- The evidence used for this investigation varies according to the historical roots of each. The sources provided are both critical as they are informative, since they bring about the chronology on the occurrences of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as affected upon how the Soviet resolutions taken were implemented, and how the U.S. foreign policy was applied in the USSR; on an analytical basis, what their effects were, assessing these properly to discover the outcome of their content. The first main source is both informative and analytical. Mikhail Gorbachev's 'Perestroika: New thinking for my country and the world"1, analyses the reasons to implement both perestroika and glasnost, as well as their effects, from the point of view of their creator, and secretary general of the Soviet Union.

    • Word count: 3107
  7. To what extent did Britain's relation with her allies change during World War II

    If troops had been sent to USSR, and direct contact have been made; any future alliance would be very problematic and virtually inconceivable. The situation, illustrated the British attitude towards Russia in the early years of the war, with them seeing them as aggressors who conspired with Hitler under the n**i-Soviet pact, rather than seeing them as potential allies. Following the failure of the Norwegian campaign, a vote of no confidence was voted against the Conservative Prime Minister Chamberlain. Although Chamberlain won a House of Commons vote, he was clearly losing the confidence and Labour leaders said they were prepared to serve in a coalition Government but not under Chamberlain.

    • Word count: 3082
  8. There are four main factors which affected the final outcome of the war: the war at sea, the war in the air, the home front and the western front. The following essay will compare and dissect the aforementioned factors.

    The soldiers in the Western Front would starve enabeling the Enemy Armies to advance. The Pilots and Soldiers would have no ammunition as metal was imported and so they would have nothing with which to attack the enemy. The Home Front would become demoralised through lack of food and would be left with the choice of surrendering or starving to death. When the war first began it was expected that all of the major battles at sea wouyld be between the dreadnought battleships. There was infac6 only one major naval battle; this was the Battle of Jutland in May 1916.

    • Word count: 4428
  9. To What extent was Germany Responsible for the outbreak of World War One?

    Closer examination suggests the origins of this statement lie more with fears of the shortcomings of their war plan, than with an overwhelming 'will to war.' The logical conclusion is not drawn from this quote, which would be 'to present Russia or France with an ultimatum, which would unleash war with right on our side.2' Germany definitely saw war as a way to escape her problems, following the example of Bismarck in 1871, but the war council in itself is not evidence enough to prove that they were planning on starting a war.

    • Word count: 3590
  10. Cross-referencing of Sources (3.3.2) Vietnam

    Source A has been taken from an American schoolbook; this may suggest us that this source could be biased, as the information it holds may not show both sides' point of view. Also this source was written in 1990 this source might not be exactly accurate because it's a secondary source. Which means that the author may not have beer at the time closer to the Vietnam War. On the other hand secondary source can be more reliable because more evidence may have become available.

    • Word count: 3124
  11. 'To what extent had the USA become two different societies by the eve of the Civil War?'

    However, this traditional view disregards the fact that the north was still very much agricultural, with 40% of the region's workers employed in the agricultural sector of the economy. It is true that in the previous 40 years before the Civil War, the northern states of America were moving towards urbanisation, with a powerful manufacturing sector. By 1860, 15 of the largest 16 cities in the USA were located in the states that remained loyal to the Union3 and the urban population in America grew 3 times faster than the rural population from 1810-1860, going from 6% to 20% of the total4.

    • Word count: 4263
  12. Do the recent events in Russia and America suggest that world peace and a reduction in nuclear arms has become more or less of a possibility?

    Gorbachev was the new leader of the Soviet Communist Party, taking over from Khrushchev in 1985. Whilst Gorbachev was in power he introduced a number of policies that influenced the breakdown of communism, the biggest influence was the establishment of Glasnost, this was just one of his polices that resulted in the break down of communism. The policy called "Glasnost" emphasized openness with regard to discussion of social problems and shortcomings. The purpose of these reforms was to elevate the Soviet standard of living in order to reaffirm the citizenry's loyalties to the Communist party and to enable the rebirth of the Soviet economy and ideal.

    • Word count: 3192
  13. Why did the Americans join the Vietnam War?

    Here we shall see which of the factors was the most significant in the intensification of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. America itself had very firm beliefs about communism, and after the Second World War, this American fear of communism was to come into play. There was a clear conflict of ideas between the two superpowers, the U.S.A and the U.S.S.R. They both had different views about how a country should be run and this conflict of communist and capitalist ideas created a political divide between the two countries. One example of the differences between the superpowers came in what was known as 'the kitchen debate.'

    • Word count: 3599
  14. World War 1 Questions

    With this mindset, it became increasingly challenging to mount successful offensives, however, the opposing army was faced with the same problem. And thus started the beginning of trench warfare on the Western Front. 1c) In the year 1918, Germany was experiencing success on several fronts and had men firmly positioned on enemy soil throughout Europe, however there were also great causes of concern. The war had turned into a battle of attrition for the most part, and though Germany was experiencing great success, the problem it faced was for how long would it be able to sustain that success.

    • Word count: 3107
  15. What can you learn form Source A about Anthony Eden's reasons for opposing Colonel Nasser?

    At this time it could be presumed the British wanted peace, because of the recent events and their outcomes. Eden says what he had to, to make the people believe in his plan unless they wanted a repeat of World War 2. 2. Study Sources B and C How useful are these sources as evidence of Egyptian public opinion during the Suez Crisis? In Source B I think overall it gives a sense that Nasser had the favour of his country. I believe this is so, because first of all he is smiling and his arms are raised which tells us he is happy and he might be celebrating something.

    • Word count: 3117
  16. What can you learn from Source A about the reasons for US involvement in South Vietnam?

    However, the situation in Korea had been very different from that of Vietnam. Source B also states that America have never lost a war before, this fact was another reason why America expected to be successful in Vietnam. Source C is an extract from a book, which was written in 1977 by Caputo, who volunteered to fight in Vietnam. Source C states that war was appealing to young men, who do not know about it, this statement seems to be referring to President Kennedy.

    • Word count: 3220
  17. How and why did the Cold War in Europeand Asiabecome more serious during the period 1961-3?

    Instead they financially supported other countries in their fight against oppression. This is why it was called the Cold War. Source A1 (A cartoon published in a British magazine during the Olympic Games in Rome) The cartoonist who drew source A1 drew it to show the situation of the so called Arms Race. It shows the two major powers of Russia and The United States leading the race and Britain and France behind them. This is to show who is leading the arms race. The words on the flag say "the important thing is not winning....but taking part".

    • Word count: 3120
  18. How important was the war at sea

    All Britain had been planning to do was to cut the Germanys supplies and starve her by withholding food and raw materials. So the British avoided battles but other than that laid mines across the English Channel so Britain was a barrier between the North Sea. Britain had managed to cut the trade to Germany and so allies trading Germany would now trade to Britain. Germany had to go through the Grand Fleet of the British to be able to receive supplies but that was nearly impossible for them.

    • Word count: 5058
  19. An evaluation of the United States decision to use atomic bombs against Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 shows that the use of the bombs was not a justified means of obtaining Japan's surrender

    However, various pressures influenced President Harry Truman's decision to use nuclear arms against Japan. The justification of the multibillion dollar Manhattan project was a concern, as well as acting in accord with a general American hatred of Japan stemming from Pearl Harbour. President Truman may also have wished to use the bombs to gain diplomatic advantage over the Soviet Union. In addition, no evidence has been found to indicate that the government of the United States gave due consideration to the magnitude of the weapon that they were about to use against the Japanese and the political, social, military and medical effects that would be incurred.

    • Word count: 3970
  20. There were two periods in which the United States pursued policies of non-intervention in the affairs of neighbouring states. The first was the years immediately following the American War of Independence, which ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1783.

    In 1801, he outlined the "Manifest Destiny" when he said, "... however our present interests may restrain us within our limits, it is impossible not to look forward to distant times, when our rapid multiplication will expand beyond these limits and cover the whole northern, if not the southern, continent with a people speaking the same language, governed in similar forms and by similar laws". Greenwood and Hamber, in "Development and Decolonisation" refer to this idea that it was natural and inevitable that the United states would dominate the Americas in wealth, power and territory, as "nationalistic, expansionist and aggressive and based on a feeling of the racial and cultural superiority of the American People".

    • Word count: 4239
  21. Britain in the age of total war. Why were the major cities of Britain bombed by the Germans in 1940-41?

    This was damaging the RAF as by August 24th they were losing more machines than the Luftwaffe and their airfields were quickly becoming unusable. Then on the evening of August 24th some 10 German bombers lost their way and mistakenly dropped bombs over London. This enraged Britain and in retaliation Britain bombed Berlin for the next four nights bombed Berlin. Hitler was infuriated by this as he had always boasted that Berlin would never be bombed. Because of this Hitler desperately wanted to b**b London, but it was still only planned to be targeted when invasion was imminent.

    • Word count: 3141
  22. Does Source C show that the anti-war protests described in Source A had an immediate effect on the number of U.S. troops in South Vietnam?

    In conclusion source C shows that the anti-war protests id not have an immediate effect on the number of troops in South Vietnam, but as the war continued, the second protest had a positive influence in ending the combat. B) Study Sources D, E, F and G. How reliable are these sources as evidence of the importance of the role of women in the war in Vietnam? Source D is a photograph showing a female Vietcong soldier loading a machine gun.

    • Word count: 3277
  23. Were Some Contemporaries Correct In Their Belief That Churchill Was A Great War Leader?

    He later entered the Royal Military School at Sandhurst and passed with honours. When he was eighteen Churchill jumped off a bridge and fell 29 feet whilst being chased by his brother and cousin, thus showing his strength and determination. While doing this he ruptured a kidney and was unconscious for three days and could not work for two months. Then when Churchill turned twenty, his father died and shortly after Churchill was appointed as second lieutenant in the 4th Queens Own Hussars, a regiment of the British Army. As he turned twenty-one Churchill reported on military happenings throughout the world in countries such as Cuba where he travelled with the Spanish Army.

    • Word count: 3979
  24. Source A is an extract from a book written by John F Kennedy, before his presidency. The first paragraph shows the belief in the 'domino effect', - if Vietnam turned communist

    The source is a very early indication of involvement as it was written in1956, and might be slightly biased towards the US. Source C is from a book written in 1977 by a Vietnam volunteer. As this is from after the war it is mainly about the reasons for the involvement of men as fighters in the war. It is more of an individual point of view. The book which the source comes from is called 'a rumour of war' this is because the US never actually declared or called the fighting in Vietnam a war.

    • Word count: 3049
  25. Britain and the First World War

    Because of this the condition of the trenches would have improved. In Source A you could not deem that soldiers would actually live in a trench like that, mainly because of the large amount of water in it, however in Source B you could deem that soldiers lived in the trench. Source A tends to mock trench warfare, whilst the soldiers in Source B are making a better daily life by smoking and drinking. We can tell that Source A mocks trench warfare because the title reads 'The Incorrigibles' (someone who will not learn).

    • Word count: 4556

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