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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  1. Use the sources and your knowledge of American history to explain why there has been so much disagreement in the USA over the effects of the New Deal

    The first major turning point was in the way the American government operated. America was governed by the Federal system, which consisted of three branches that were equally influential: the President (the executive branch), Congress and the nine judges of the Supreme Court. When FDR came to power, the executive branch of government was thought to have become too powerful, and was thought to be overpowering the Supreme Court and Congress. A famous historian called Arthur Schlesinger called the time from which FDR came to power as the 'Imperial Presidency', as the President had a significantly greater role in the running of the country in comparison with the other branches of government.

    • Word count: 3502
  2. Apart from the Second World War, there was peace in Yugoslavia between 1919 and 1980. Why was there peace during this period?

    - they could now be educated in their own (spoken) language (as opposed to German). King Peter ruled until his death in 1921, when his son, who became King Alexander I, replaced him. King Alexander had a Government dominated by Serbs, which made all of the decisions. He refused to listen to wishes of Slovenes and Croats and would not give them any say in decisions concerning their regions. In 1929, Alexander changed the country's name from the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and the Slovenes and dismissed parliament so he could run the country as a dictatorship.

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  3. Women and the Second World War Sources Questions

    She portrays the war effort in an upbeat positive manner. "We are fighting for our lives". The Broadcaster seems very patriotic and is determined to win the war. Seeing as Britain was on the brink of defeat in 1941, she could probably see her whole life flash before her eyes if Britain were to give in to Hitler. Not only would her future be ill fated, but she would also lose her little freedom which she took advantage of. This is why she is hoping to get a constructive response from the women of Britain. 2.

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  4. Do the Writings of Clausewitz have contemporary relevance?

    Left out of the account are most technological, administrative and organisational factors... On War deals almost entirely with the ultimate issues as Clausewitz saw them: Political and strategic planning and the conduct of hostilities"6 Since his death, Clausewitz's work has come to be regarded as probably one of the most important works on military thinking ever written. Bernard Brodie once wrote that: "His is not simply the greatest, but the only great book about war"7 Although Clausewitz is still seen as one of the greatest thinkers on war, the question remains - is he still relevant today?

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  5. Who was responsible for the start of the Cold war?

    However no link has ever been proved, the tide of opinion now sways towards the view that Stalin was never really interested in pursuing the spread of Communism as far as Greece. In short, American over-eagerness to keep Europe open to free trade and in reality as a part of its' own 'Sphere of influence' is perhaps what provoked the start of the Cold war. Whether or not the Americans are to be blamed for holding such suspicions however, especially after such a long World war in which the dangers of appeasing powerful dictators had been so clearly exemplified, is a different issue altogether.

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  6. The role of foreign policy on democratic transitions in Armenia and Azerbaijan

    With the establishment of the former Soviet republics as legitimate and independent states in the late 1990's a new wave of democratization began. Like most of the former republics, with the exception of Belarus and Turkmenistan, Armenia and Azerbaijan looked forward to democratization. However as time passed the smooth transition from one regime to another began to falter. Though many reasons can be attributed to explain why democratization was not an immediate success within Armenia and Azerbaijan, such as political, economic and social conditions, not much attention has been given to external factors which have hindered the democratization process.

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  7. What were the Main Causes of the Cold War? and Which of these Causes Can be Seen as the Specific Starting Point to the Cold War?

    Russia lost and tensions grew between the two. However it is difficult to see this as an actual cause of the Cold War, as the world was very different then, than it is in the twentieth century and it didn't involved the U.S. The seeds of hostility between the United States and the U.S.S.R began near the end of World War I. The Bolsheviks (later communists), led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the existing Russian government. The socialist Bolshevik regime believed in all men being equal, although democracy certainly wasn't part of their intentions.

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  8. Was the public misled about conditions in the Trenches?

    Source B also toys with your emotions but in a slightly different way. It shows an average middle class man with a stern face looking to be thinking of something. He has two children a boy and a girl and the girl is sat on the man's knee looking at him and the words at the bottom of the poster are "Daddy what did YOU do in the Great War?" Notice how the poster again is aimed at you as an individual just like in source A and notice again like in source A it is a female who is provoking you.

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  9. Vietnam Coursework Sources Questions

    They felt the communist government was trying to conquer the people of South Vietnam. This idea that North Vietnam was forcing its views on South Vietnam by using weapons and violence made the American government look to the Truman doctrine. This gave Americans a justification to become involved in Vietnam because the Truman doctrine says that the United States must support people who have armed forces subjugation. In other words it made Americans feel they had the right to contain the spreading communism. Source C shows gives you a good idea of how many young men felt about the war when it first started.

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  10. ‘In origins and outcome, the Spanish Civil War was a Spanish and not a European affair.’ Discuss.

    That movement rejected not only the private ownership, but also the state and the church. It intended to abolish capitalism and every institution of suppression, it rejected however the communist workers state1. In 1911 the anarcho-syndicalist trade union CNT (Confederacion National de Trabajo) was founded. During the First World War, Spain underwent a boom due to its neutrality. The prospering agriculture and the start of industrialisation in a country that was regarded as backward up to this point was followed by deep crisis in the 1920's. The majority of the population was still living on the land and about half was employed in agriculture.

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  11. America In Vietnam, 1953-73

    -this level of gov't spending created a massive public debt, created rising inflation(5.3%), forced an 10% increase in the income tax surcharge in 1968 and killed LBJ's Great Society Programme of much needed social reforms for the poor because of a lack of money. -Blacks rioted in Watts, Los Angeles 1965 and Newark, New Jersey 1967 because of their very poor social and economic situation demonstrated the need of these reforms. -not even America could afford to spend $30,000 million a year on a war it was not winning.

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  12. Post-Cold War Realities

    While not an argument for primacy, this paper will attempt to prove that engagement of both Russia and Iran is a necessary course action in order to serve vital U.S. national interests and preserve stability and security in the greater Middle Eastern regions. RECENT HISTORY OF SOVIET/RUSSIAN-ISLAMIC REPUBLIC RELATIONS From the Iranian revolution in 1979 to the end of the Cold War, Soviet-Iranian relations could never be described as ?great.? The term ?reserved? might better describe it. Soviet-Iranian political discourse consistently brought to light the deep uncertainties about nature, motives, and intentions that each held for the other.

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  13. The Sieges of Ladysmith, Mafeking, and Kimberley

    The Boers promptly besieged it. What importance did these towns have to provoke such irrational tactics in the Boers, and ultimately, what was the effect that the sieges had on the campaign, strategies, and morale of the Boer and British during the Boer War? -Part I: The Strategic and Psychological Importance of Mafeking, Kimberley, and Ladysmith.- Chapter I: Strategic and Psychological Importance of Mafeking for the British. In itself, Mafeking was nothing but a strategically unimportant town on the railway, identical to many others.

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  14. Why did the Communists win in 1949?

    Landlords bought an education and official positions for their sons. Bureaucratic bought land as an economic bolster to their government positions. Her a few basic facts concerning the Emperor and the Landlords * The Emperor was very rich and very powerful * The Emperor and the family had very long fingernails which represented their status * The Emperor made all the laws * The Emperor lived within the Forbidden city * The Emperor was almost seen as a god * The landlords assisted the Emperor in running China. * The landlords were extremely powerful * The landlord's jobs were related to moneylenders, tax collectors and judges.

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  15. Was the My Lai Massacre a failure in the Rules of Engagement or a tragedy of War?

    Charlie Company's commanding officer was Ernest Medina, a 30-year-old Mexican-American who was well liked by his soldiers, and his platoon leader was the 24-year-old Lt. William Calley. They had massacred up to 400-500 Civilians, and the man who carries most of the blame was Lieutenant Calley Jr. The incident remained unknown to the American Public until the autumn of 1969, when a former soldier wrote a series of letters to government officials, which forced the army to take action. The choice of the US Government to get involved into an South-East Asian political crisis has caused the initial stages of the murderous Vietnam War, which had taken many young and innocent lives.

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  16. The Bay of Pigs Invasion

    had been training and supplying antirevolutionary Cuban exiles in Guatemala for a possible invasion of the Bay of Pigs. The plan was a gradual, secret buildup of anti-Castro forces in Cuba with a strong political and military unit to support the overthrow of Castro. This invasion plan was approved by Eisenhower's successor, John F. Kennedy (Encyclopedia of U.S. Foreign Relations). The invasion occurred in April 1961, when about one thousand five hundred Cuban exiles, armed with U.S. weapons, landed on a Cuban island, about 300km south of Florida, called the Bay of Pigs. With the hope of support from the local population, the exiles intended to cross the island to Havana, but were stopped by Castro's army.

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  17. Why did the USA become involved in Vietnam in the 1950s and the 1960s? Describe the military tactics used by both the USA and the Vietcong forces in Vietnam

    This 'Cold War' was a war between the two superpowers, USSR and USA, where no shots were directly fired at each other but there was extreme tension between the two nations. This led to general hysteria inside of the USA where there were witch hunts after Communist supporters and sympathisers with some of them losing there jobs. As well as that, there was a fear of the 'Domino Theory' that stated that if one nation in Southern Asia fell to Communism, all the rest would like dominoes.

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  18. Women at War: Source work

    this was the only area where women were working, as it was a much larger industry than it had been before the onset of the war, and had required women workers as unemployed men were not available, although this was not the case and women were employed in all areas of work. The painting also does not show the status women gained from this work, as they could be merely providing cheap unskilled labour as working class women had done before the war, the truth being that the realisation of men that women were capable of skilled labour due to

    • Word count: 3413
  19. 'Propaganda Was an Essential Weapon In the War Against Germany’ - To What Extent Do You Agree With This Opinion On the Role of Propaganda As Used By the British Government During World War One?

    For example the poster to which I will refer to as 'Go', as it portrays a father type figure embracing a son like figure by the shoulders and gesturing to the horizon. The caption then reads 'It's your duty lad, Join to-day'. The text is in large writing and would be easily seen from a great distance away if placed on a billboard. The emphasis on this piece of propaganda is on the word 'Go', it is much larger than the rest of the text and during this time in the 1st World War, people did not have to read the rest of the poster to understand what was being said.

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  20. The Role and Importance of the Media in Vietnam

    It was also a guerilla and a psychological warfare, rather than the conventional war the Americans and the American media ware used to; that meant that there was almost no sense of cohesion and of purpose to the baffles and often the reporters themselves did not know how to interpret the fighting. In the words of Richard Nixon: The American news media had come to dominate domestic opinion about its purpose and conduct!...] In each night's TV news and each morning's paper the war was reported battle by battle, but little or no sense of the underlying purpose of the fighting was conveyed.

    • Word count: 3735
  21. How secure was the USSR’s control over E.Europe,1948-89?

    The leaders held summit meetings. Brezhnev visited Washington and Nixon went to Moscow twice. The first American president to do so. SALT 1 was signed in 1972 and great progress was made towards a possible SALT 2. 6. The space programmes of the USA and USSR had helped them to develop extremely complex missiles, which could carry many nuclear warheads. Another new and deadly weapon was the submarine-launched missile. These were virtually impossible to detect and yet carried enough firepower to wipe out several cities.

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  22. The Blitz

    Then it was covered in a 40cm thickness of mud and soil, this would help disguise the shelter and decrease the chance of being hit. Nearly 500,000 of these shelters had been distributed by the end of the year and only a few Londoners decided to stay in the railway stations. With people trekking from place to place evacuation was a problem. The evacuation plans meant that the younger school children would be evacuated out of London to prevent any more deaths while the elders were on the front line fighting for the country.

    • Word count: 3743
  23. The Home Front – Cambridge During World War II

    Also, another problem with this source is that there are many things that we cannot tell from it. We cannot tell how much of the preparation for the war that took place was done by women. We cannot tell if it was the woman who organised the preparation that took place or whether it was the men who took the lead role in the organisation of the preparation that took place. Question 2: Sources 'B', 'C' and 'D' help me to understand how Cambridge prepared for the effect of bombing in different ways.

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  24. The American Revolution

    (The American Pageant "The Colonies and Mother Country at the Close of the French and Indian War") The ratification of the Treaty of Paris in 1763 heralded the end of the French and Indian War. Both England and the Colonies emerged as successful, having driven the French out of a major portion of America, however, they were also in very and deep debt. The Colonies were more than two million dollars in debt, but this was but a fraction of England's 140 million dollars of debt. Furthermore, with interest, the English accumulated approximately another four million dollars in debt with each passing year.

    • Word count: 3427
  25. Was Churchill a manufactured hero 1930-1945?

    However the source was written after being confined to simply working with the same men for years. This could be a release of frustration at how things were at the time or Churchill arrogances at believing he knows what is best about everything. 'Very few will criticize Churchill openly... if one hints that perhaps Churchill isn't all he's supposed to be, a great leader many people respond immediately and will begin to tell all kinds of things they dislike about him.'2 During and after the war there was a great sense of patriotism created by the media to whip up support for the war and Churchill's speeches were a main focus of this and enabled him to grow in stature and in the confidences of the British public.

    • Word count: 3164

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