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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  1. Frist ice

    The door was frozen so she had to give the door an almighty pull to get it open. As she pulled it, bits of ice fell from the door frame. The door only opened half way it was stuck; she had to slide through the little gap to get into the phone booth. When she finally slid through, she slowly closed the half opened door and turned around. She pulled her fluffy coat tighter to keep herself warm.

    • Word count: 571
  2. When and Why Did the Cold War Start? Was any Individual or Power the Primary Cause of the Cold War?

    As we see the differences laid bare between capitalist USA and communist Russia for all to see once their attentions were no longer diverted to Germany. A realization by Stalin himself: ' The alliance between ourselves and the democratic faction of the capitalists succeeds because the latter had an interest in preventing Hitler's domination...at present we are with one faction against the other , but in the future we shall be against this faction of the capitalists as well'. [Leffler, M.

    • Word count: 2445
  3. 'The Truman Doctrine of 1947 marked the real beginning of the Cold War.' How far do you agree with this view?

    The man hated communism, he hated Stalin, this seems to be the perfect opportunity to bring both down, however, the telegram consisted of a basic post-war Soviet outlook, using evidence from the Soviet's background history and so on. It concluded that Russia had no aims to work with the U.S. and in fact, looked to destroy it (along with democracy). The contents of the Long Telegram seems to be the long term reactant that caused a major shift in American policy, perhaps giving the Truman Doctrine the authenticity and authority it needed to wage a more open and physical attack on communism.

    • Word count: 1231
  4. How valid is the claim that the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan saved Western Europe from communism in the aftermath of the Second World War?

    America then donated $350 million to Greece and $50 million to Turkey to help fund the war on communism. A bigger sum was given to Greece, perhaps because it was more of a threat to Europe if it became communist, geographically - but nonetheless, even if America had its personal goals to achieve, Turkey and Greece did not reside to communism. However, from 1945-8, Stalin had used salami tactics to gain most of Eastern Europe under his sphere of influence.

    • Word count: 914
  5. Missile Defence

    Bush has asked for around 48 billion dollars in defense spending. Diplomacy and nuclear deterrence is needed at this current stage to address America's and Canada's security needs and goals, not a hopeless dream of creating an anti nuclear blanket over North America when the threat doesn't exist. The issue of missile defense arised back in May 1, 2001, where President George W. Bush made I clear the United States would move towards deploying an extensive and expensive anti-ballistic missile shield against nuclear missiles(cite estrdian pg1). This shield was not aimed at America's old enemy Russia but at other rogue states.

    • Word count: 1485
  6. Gallipoli Campaign How useful are the views of Anzac soldiers at Gallipoli suggested in Sources A, B and C. Explain your answer

    However, despite the useful opinions shown in the cartoons, the source is not very useful for describing specific events in the Gallipoli campaign. The source is relevant to many descriptions that have been made of the ANZACs, which means that it is trustworthy. It was also written by an ANZAC who was at the Gallipoli campaign, and therefore he would have had first-hand knowledge of the campaign. However, the fact that they were drawn by an Australian artist makes them less trustworthy, because he may have wanted to present the ANZACs in a good light.

    • Word count: 671
  7. why did a crisis develop over cuba in 1962

    They believed every one benefited this way. Fairness and equality for all, along with having a lower standard of living, but (in theory) everyone's equal this was another statement of communism. It also states that there should be only one part of government they felt that there was no need for anymore. Economy was also controlled by government. However America was capitalism.

    • Word count: 2273
  8. Should Britain eliminate its nuclear arsenal?

    Nuclear abolition from this realist perspective, would impact directly on ideas of sovereignty, national autonomy, prestige and security. Conversely, advocates of nuclear disarmament and peace researchers have a vision of co-operative relations and collective security and would view Britain's complete disarmament as a realistic and achievable goal. To provide an effective answer to this complex question the argument must be attempted in a two- fold manner. First one must explore and establish Britain's' incentives to reach and implement a goal of eliminating nuclear weapons. Secondly a counter argument needs to be formed, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of preserving the contemporary situation of nuclear deterrence.

    • Word count: 2299
  9. Which group made more progress as a result of World War Two: American women, or American black people?

    They were often extremely badly paid, and looked down upon by the rest of the community. People were extremely racist at this time and it was thought of as acceptable to be so, showing America's prejudice against skin colour. Many blacks worked as farm hands, being paid virtually nothing, treated as slaves. I feel that Black Americans were treated like dirt, something you would never see nowadays in the modern world, where blacks have equal opportunity. The New Deal helped Blacks and women very little. During his whole presidency, Roosevelt only passed one law for Black People and this was only because he was under threat from bad publicity.

    • Word count: 1752
  10. To what extent were Germany and her allies responsible for the outbreak of a general European war 1914?

    Another criticism of this is that 1912-1914 Germany gave very little support to Austria, not what one would expect if Germany was preparing for war. Fisher's thesis has been criticised by b�low and Berchmann-Hollweg because of his (Fisher's) one sided focus on Germany , he did not, for example, take into account the diplomatic situation in 1914 or the importance of policy making in other countries. However, even if we reject Fisher's thesis, Germany can still be held partially responsible for the war. Her aggressive policies increased tension and soured international relations frightening France, Russia and Britain into defensive alliances.

    • Word count: 1001

    was up to a German general called Alfred Von Schlieffen to devise a plan to counter this problem The Schlieffen plan consisted of Germany invading through Belgium and defeating France quickly so that they could turn there attention to Russia, the Germans estimated that it would take Russia up to 6 weeks to fully mobilize their army, mainly due to the countries poor infrastructure and huge army- it was very hard to get all of the troops into one place, it took time.

    • Word count: 824
  12. Why Did the USA become involved in Vietnam in the 1950s and 1960s

    For instance there was a lot of money spent on weapons, partly nuclear. USA had first developed the atom bomb, and then the USSR developed it. Next the hydrogen bomb was developed by the USA and the USSA had then developed it themselves, there was once a point where it came to there being enough weapons between them to destroy the earth. It wasn't just the weapons the USSR and the USA had been competing on, it was the 'space race', this was accomplished first by the USSR when they successfully launched the first satellite into space in 1957.

    • Word count: 1806

    Another reason for the government evacuating children is that when the major cities would have been attacked such as London and Manchester, because the Germans were destroying military targets, they were bound to get the children. This could have led to mothers taking their children to the country and therefore Britain being left with no workforce. The government also thought it was vital to maintain the morale (spirit) of the population. Bombing of cities was intended to destroy morale by terrifying the population to the point where the government would have to ask for peace.

    • Word count: 1309
  14. How Useful are Sources A-C to explain why the United States became involved in the war in Vietnam?

    The facts tell us how useful the source is even if the source is telling us something wrong it can still give us additional useful information. The reasons that the United States became involved in Vietnam can be split into two groups these are long term reasons and short term reasons. The long term reason for the United States becoming involved in the war in Vietnam was because of Communism. The United States did not want communism. Communism was spreading and was mostly becoming popular with poor countries.

    • Word count: 4541
  15. Coursework on discussing whether television was an important reason why the United States lost the war in Vietnam using sources D to K (provided by centre)

    The opposition of the war included the Burning of Draft cards, students becoming involved in anti-war demonstrations, Black civil rights leaders demonstrating. Another factor which caused the US to leave Vietnam was the initial cost of the war which was 20 billion a year this interfered with the great society. In this essay I will see if there is enough evidence in Sources D to K to support the interpretation that colour television was an important reason to why the United States lost the war in Vietnam.

    • Word count: 4270
  16. How significant was the contribution of women to Britain's War effort

    Act. This called for all unmarried women aged between twenty and thirty to work in essential services. Women's contributions to the essential industries during the war years showed that women were more than capable of doing the same jobs that men were previously doing in munitions factories and engineering. After this act 1/3 of the workforce were women in the essential industries, without whom production of bombs and planes would have been significantly reduced. One of the biggest aims of getting women into the industries doing a 'man's job' was to free up men to fight in the war and to increase production for the war economy.

    • Word count: 1016
  17. Why Did the United States of America Become Involved In Vietnam?

    necessary measures to prevent further aggression peace and security", this meant that he could take the USA to a full scale war. Source A: Source A shows and tells us that this extract is a speech, from April 1965.The speech was given by president Johnson, this source tells us that the speech is from a primary source as this was spoken from the president at that specific era, which was in 1965. President Johnson produced the speech, with maybe his generals too, Johnson wrote this source, he also delivered this speech at the auditorium in Shriver hall at 9pm, on the 7th of April (1965), at the university.

    • Word count: 3409
  18. How crucial a role did war play in the downfall of the Romanov dynasty in 1917?

    Meanwhile, internal unrest grew in Russia as the Tsar remained out of touch at the front. Empress Alexandra's increasingly incompetent rule drew protests from all segments of Russian political life and resulted in the murder of Rasputin by conservative noblemen at the end of 1916. It can be seen that the First World War caused significant unrest in Russia. Many Russians died in the fighting and the economy was severely weakened due to the huge war effort the country was involved in financing. The War was a disaster and lead to the communist party eventually coming to power.

    • Word count: 2011
  19. Hiroshima Coursework This piece of coursework will concentrate on three questions, all source based.

    This is due to the fact that he was actually there and he was a civilian. His motives would be to make sure that America is seen as the 'bad' and 'evil' country that has killed thousands of innocent civilians. Also, the text seems to be a little farfetched. For example, 'In their terror of dying they clawed their way, over one another, their eyes hanging from their sockets...' The reader may think that this is trying to influence them by describing the event as worse as possible. You have to take into consideration the narrators motive.

    • Word count: 4056
  20. Why did British troops experience a stalemate on the Western Front during most of 1915-1917? (450 words max, 15 marks)

    This meant that both sides were not only just defensively waiting for the enemy to attack, but their machine guns could target them "...with a merciless precision". This new bombardment forced both sides to react, and so they dug trenches to provide protection. This meant both sides smartly defended and so "the revolution in firepower helped produce a stalemate". In addition to this revolution in guns, was the artillery, barbed wire, mines and the flamethrower.

    • Word count: 499
  21. Must a defensible theory of the morality of war must integrate moral reasoning with institutional theory

    Last, the criticisms of just war theory will be critically compared against Michael Walzer's account of just war theory. This will in turn enable this essay to reach a conclusion of whether or not a defensible theory of just wars needs to incorporate institutional theory. As mentioned in the introduction, just war theory is seen as the middle course between political realism and pacifism. Realism simply regards war as war, and denies that there can ever be any distinctions drawn.

    • Word count: 2708
  22. 3 presidents

    The navy in actual fact doubled in size between 1901 and 1909. Along with the size of the navy, its expenditure grew by over 50 million US dollars. Roosevelt (being the show off he is) sent the US 'Great White' fleet around the world to show just how much of a naval power America is. He wanted to 'signal' America's power and presence to the world, which he did (there is another reason which will be underlined later on). Roosevelt worked effectively in ending the Russo-Japanese war. As the Japanese won the war with ease, Roosevelt was unsettled as he saw Japan becoming what can only be described as a potential threat.

    • Word count: 1628
  23. What Broke the Stalemate Stalemate is the word used to describe the situation on the Western Front from December nineteen fourteen

    time until Germany ran out completely, so the best option was to give one big push that would hopefully end the war. Before dawn, six thousand big guns burst out in a shattering bombardment for a duration of five hours. Mustard gas was used to blind and suffocate the Allies in their trenches. Then, operating under the cover of dense fog, seventy German divisions moved forward in the direction of the British lines on the western front. Because they were out numbered and bewildered, the British got up out of their trenches and fled.

    • Word count: 2125
  24. Schlieffen Plan

    French/German boarder as it would be heavily guarded; and the southern army would stay put on the France/Germany border and just defend. Also defeating Belgium meant Germany had coastal access which left the door open for a coastal attack on Britain at a later date. The plan was that part of the army would get stopped easily by the French and would get pushed back and would start to retreat, pulling the French army out of Paris. The stronger northern army would then engulf and encircle Paris.

    • Word count: 1420
  25. Explain why the United States withdrew its forces from Vietnam in 1973

    The battle took place at the town of �i�n Bi�n Phu in north-western Vietnam, along the country's border with Laos. The French reinforced their garrison at �i�n Bi�n Phu in November 1953 to prevent the Vietminh from gaining control of northern Laos and the middle and lower Mekong River Valley. The Vietminh, led by General Vo Nguyen Giap, began besieging the French at �i�n Bi�n Phu on March 13, 1954. After months of fighting with the French forces, the base was overrun by the Vietminh on May 7, 1954.

    • Word count: 3371

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