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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991
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Why did the USA become involved in Vietnam in the 1950s and the 1960s? Describe the military tactics used by both the USA and the Vietcong forces in Vietnam
This 'Cold War' was a war between the two superpowers, USSR and USA, where no shots were directly fired at each other but there was extreme tension between the two nations. This led to general hysteria inside of the USA where there were witch hunts after Communist supporters and sympathisers with some of them losing there jobs. As well as that, there was a fear of the 'Domino Theory' that stated that if one nation in Southern Asia fell to Communism, all the rest would like dominoes.
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Muhammad Ali is one of the most recognized sportsmen on planet Earth; known not just for being one of the greatest fighters in the history of boxing, but for being one of the most influential persons of the Twentieth century.
Two days later, the world was shocked again when the name Cassius Clay was no more. Clay had joined 'the Nation of Islam', becoming Muhammad Ali. Ali quickly became the most recognizable and the most outspoken athlete in the world. However, he did receive bad press, having been seen in public with the well-known leader Malcolm X, and being accused by fellow boxer; Joe Louis who believed that he was part of a racist organization and lacked the skills to compete with past greats like himself and Rocky Marciano.
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Why were there such different reactions in the USA to their Countries involvement in the Vietnam War in 1960s?
The reason that the percentage fell was because in 1964 (the same year as President Johnson's 'Domino Theory' speech the 'Domino Theory' was an idea that communism was trying to take over the world country by country, like a line of dominoes falling) some of the American population started to believe in the idea that the Vietnam War was wrong. In the same year 25,000 people went on a peace march to Washington (it was the largest antiwar demonstration in American history).
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Source B reports that at least 35 people were killed and several hundred wounded. Source C tells us that about 1,000 people were killed! It also gives a statement from a Chinese government official which states "only 23 students died, with a few hundred troops". Some of the reasons for these differences are that source B was written by a reporter for 'The Sunday Times' on the same day as the Tiananmen Square incident so it was almost impossible to account for all the casualties that happened that day. Whereas an American historian wrote source C in 1990, which would have allowed the writer plenty of time to gather all the facts and figures of the casualties.
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Source C, on the other hand, shows a rampaging gorilla representing Germany. This gorilla is shown holding a baseball bat, trying to impose German 'Kultur' on others. The gorilla is also holding the Statue of Liberty, clasping its hands on its head, showing signs of sorrow and regret for not acting sooner. This poster is trying to say that if you do not help to beat Germany then America's freedom will be suppressed. Sources A and C are direct instructions telling you to "join today" and to "enlist".
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Moltke spread his forces out too much so that each force would be too weak. As a result each of the spread out forces did not get far into France as they put forces in the fortified areas such as Verdun and Nancy. Subsequently, as source A shows, none of the forces managed to reach Paris when they could if Moltke had stuck to the original Schlieffen plan. Source B shows that Moltke spread his troops out through the Boundaries between Britain and France. However, there is no comparison between the amended Schlieffen plan and the original Schlieffen plan so it is slightly inconclusive evidence.
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The British planted their mines in the early days of the war. The first set stretched from one side of the English Channel to the other, and the second set blocked the entrance in and out of the North Sea. The Germans laid their mines around their main battleship harbours. This meant that no supplies could reach Germany from the Atlantic Ocean, due to the British blockades. In the early months of the war, the Royal Navy swept all German surface raiders from the seas.
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However, Jim's adaptation to his new atmosphere is not easy, but later plays an important role in his survival. In the beginning Jim is still influenced by the western culture that was brought upon him by his parents and is consistent in brushing his teeth and living the way he would normally live with his parents. It's not until he finds that food and water is running scarce that he must find a new place and way to live. Jim's search eventually leads him to a prisoner of war camp.
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It was based in an old mansion north of London called Bletchley Park. When the government suspected another war was on the way they started setting up Station x properly. In the summer of 1939 Bletchley Park was given lots of attention. It had telephone lines, new living quarters, roads and water supplies added to the building.
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In 1967 the tide of opinion in the US began to turn against American involvement in Vietnam. As more ground troops were sent in and the death toll rose, first the newspapers and then television networks withdrew their support for the administration. Images and stories selected specifically to shock increased domestic unrest and many large demonstrations against the war were held across the US. Civil rights campaigners highlighted the injustice of civilian deaths in Vietnam and lead people to question the reasons for the conflict.
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“The First World War was the result of a badly mismanaged Balkan Crisis in the summer of 1914 rather than the product of long-standing rivalries between the Great Powers.” Assess the truth of this opinion on the causes of the outbreak of World W
Germany envied Britain's industry, of which Britain made money exporting goods. Britain essentially did this by having an empire. By Britain having colonies, it meant they had a large amount of resources, which they did not need to pay for, but which they could take from their empire and could sell to other European countries or use for herself. Weltpolitik was a contrast to the foreign policy of Bismark, who stated that Germany needed peace to keep them a great power.
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America decide to use s similar amount of force to which was needed in the 1950's in Korea to stop the "Red tide of communism" (Kennedy Source A) spreading throughout Asia. Source C tells us a different story, the young man who volunteered to fight was taken in by Kennedy comments "...what can you do for your country" and the fact that the USA had never lost a war. He felt like he was a policeman, and that he was stopping the "criminal spread of communism" throughout the world.
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Explain why there were such different reactions in the USA to the country’s involvement in the conflict in Vietnam in the 1960’s.
In the US in 1960 Communism was perceived as a real threat to democracy. The Americans had difficulty understanding the difference between liberal or radical ideas and communism, all were viewed with intolerance, and McCarthyism had encouraged the idea that all views outside those of the mainstream could be seen as unpatriotic. President Eisenhower, who had a distinguished career in the army before entering politics, the increasing arms race and the cold war all encouraged a militaristic influence in foreign policy.
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It was a time for women to take advantage of their economic opportunity. By 1945, women composed 36% of the national workforce. 200,000 women also joined the armed forces as non-combatants. This all led to greater integration of the sexes and a permanent social shift created by the war effort. Racial segregation was highlighted and reassessed after the war. There were over 1 million blacks in the armed forces during war; most felt they had encountered discrimination. They felt they were not living the four freedoms, which Roosevelt had said applied to all American citizens: freedom of speech, of worship, from need and from fear.
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The recruitment campaign was highly successful. Due to this propaganda, over half a million signed up in the first month. In 1914 the government passed the Defence of the Realm Act which came to be known as DORA. It gave the government wide-ranging powers over people's daily lives. It allowed it to seize any land or buildings they needed, and to take over industries which were important to the war effort. It also allowed the government to control what the public found out about the war through censorship.
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Source C is a poem (The General) written by Siegfried Sassoon an infantry officer in 1917 (during the war). Therefore source C is a primary source, it is written by someone who had experienced life on the frontline first hand, so I think that it should be fairly reliable, so it should not be bias. I also know that the soldiers did not have much respect for the superiors, because they thought that they were sending them to their deaths. Therefore I think that source C does show what the soldiers really thought of their superiors quite well. 3)
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this was the only area where women were working, as it was a much larger industry than it had been before the onset of the war, and had required women workers as unemployed men were not available, although this was not the case and women were employed in all areas of work. The painting also does not show the status women gained from this work, as they could be merely providing cheap unskilled labour as working class women had done before the war, the truth being that the realisation of men that women were capable of skilled labour due to
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In August 1945 atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Was it necessary to use the bombs to bring about the defeat of Japan?
There are many Reasons for the dropping of the atomic bombs, one of them is that it was said that it would save lives. This was based upon the theory that the Japanese would fight to the last man to protect the Emperor. Also if America invaded thousands of American lives would be lost. Also the Americans wanted to show their military superiority to the USSR as the USA could see the cold war coming. Also most Americans wanted revenge for Pearl Harbour.
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The American soldiers were very wasteful, leaving guns when soldiers died. Perhaps if America had been a poorer country, this would not have happened, and the NLF wouldn't have ended up so well armed and able to challenge the Americans. A lot of the American casualties were actually shot with American guns. Another one of America's tactics, which perhaps wasn't a good idea, was "carpet bombing". More bombs were dropped in the Vietnam conflict than in any other war. Any unexploded bombs were used by the NLF for making booby traps and other devices, which effectively killed the US soldiers with their own weapons.
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The text underneath the Olympics logo on the flag in Source A1 supports this with the text reading "The important thing is not winning... but taking part". This is a clever pun as no winner can come of the race. I consider the arms race as a headlong race to destruction. Source A2 shows how desperate the United States wanted to know how far ahead of Russia they were. It shows the means of what lengths they went to - U2 spy planes.
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Italy, then declared itself 'neutral'. Although a great majority of Italians welcomed this decision, neutrality did not solve Italy's problems concerning its relationship with Europe. Italy found itself in a difficult situation by remaining neutral. The was could have war results; on the one hand if Austria-Hungary and Germany won, it could be possible that they would choose to seek revenge on the country that had turned its back as soon as it was needed, Italy. On the other hand if the Entente won they would have no reason to grant Italy any of the Austrian territory that she so desired.
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'Propaganda Was an Essential Weapon In the War Against Germany’ - To What Extent Do You Agree With This Opinion On the Role of Propaganda As Used By the British Government During World War One?
For example the poster to which I will refer to as 'Go', as it portrays a father type figure embracing a son like figure by the shoulders and gesturing to the horizon. The caption then reads 'It's your duty lad, Join to-day'. The text is in large writing and would be easily seen from a great distance away if placed on a billboard. The emphasis on this piece of propaganda is on the word 'Go', it is much larger than the rest of the text and during this time in the 1st World War, people did not have to read the rest of the poster to understand what was being said.
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Gaining public favor is the best way for one to get the bills they want passed approved in Congress. President Woodrow Wilson, when first elected, found it easy to pass bills due to his overwhelming favorability in the public eye and due to a Congress that had a Democratic majority. In 1913 he succeeded in passing the Underwood Act and the Federal Reserve Bill, establishing income tax, the twelve Federal Reserve banks, and creating a new currency.1 As hostilities in Europe continued to escalate, and German forces started to attack American merchant ships, the American public grew more and more agitated at America's stance of neutrality.
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It was also a guerilla and a psychological warfare, rather than the conventional war the Americans and the American media ware used to; that meant that there was almost no sense of cohesion and of purpose to the baffles and often the reporters themselves did not know how to interpret the fighting. In the words of Richard Nixon: The American news media had come to dominate domestic opinion about its purpose and conduct!...] In each night's TV news and each morning's paper the war was reported battle by battle, but little or no sense of the underlying purpose of the fighting was conveyed.
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This was now a new era called the Cold War, which would be at its peak in the 1940s and 1950s and would last for almost 50 years. However, these serious of events were only a part of the build of what would come in the near future for the USA. For this reason the Truman doctrine was published which stated that: " It must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation, by armed minorities or by outside pressures".
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