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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  1. “Generals Win Battles, Resources Win Wars”. How Far Does Your Study of the Period from 1792 to 1919 Confirm this View?

    But the uniting of the working classes lead by 'a bourgeois animated by the spirit of revolution' had created a new concept in warfare that the traditional armies of the era were ill equipped to combat and that the high productivity of industrialisation was initially well suited to support - that of the 'nation at arms.' The armies of France literally swelled with soldiers zealous in their cause and equipped with the tools of war necessary to carry their revolution to the corners of Europe.

    • Word count: 3750
  2. Nicholas’ downfall

    He also tried to bring Tsarism back to Russia. He did this by forming a prosperous class of peasants who would support the ideas of Tsarism. The first event that affected his situation was the First World War. The War against Germany and Austria Hungary was not a cause that could be blamed upon the Tsar. He was forced to go and help Serbia once the Germans had declared war upon them, because Russia had an alliance with Serbia. The Russians did terribly during the war, because they were a financially poor country.

    • Word count: 1060
  3. Why were U.S. forces withdrawn from Vietnam in 1973?

    People were living in sewers. That's what they preferred to strategic hamlets. The series of attacks by the Vietcong had taken the Americans by surprise and now a majority of Americans at home, hearing the apparent success of the Vietcong protested for their soldiers to return home. President Nixon wanted US forces to withdraw and his solution to minimising US casualties was Vietnamization. He wanted to shift responsibility for defence of South Vietnam from Us troops to South Vietnamese forces.

    • Word count: 683
  4. The Age of Exploration

    They started to explore not out of greed but out of necessity as the gold mines of Ireland, and the silver mines of Germany were running out. And they needed the spices not to living their food up but to make it edible as they had no other ways to preserve their meats. Also after the Crusades they wanted to convert all the natives to their religion of Christianity, and they found out that it was necessary to become financially independent and that wars were costly.

    • Word count: 1051
  5. Why the stalemate on the Western Front was finally broken

    Over half the tanks used broke down before they even got to the German trenches. In 1917 at Cambrai the tank achieved great success, but they were so successful that the tanks advanced through enemy lines too far in front of the infantry. But in 1918 the German army started using armour piercing bullets, which were very lethal against the tank. In 1914 one of the places where every one expected a war to happen was in the air. The newspapers tried to get stories about heroic aces that were flying in the war. Most nations in the war had there own heroes.

    • Word count: 1044
  6. Effects of the Vietnam War

    The media proved vital in the general growing anti-Vietnam feeling throughout the US as they were allowed massive freedom to broadcast whatever they liked and thus informing the public on everything going on in Vietnam. This created groups like the 'Hippies' who were again youths and devoted to a lifestyle of rebellion. They radicalised protests and created symbols and slogans such as 'ban the bomb' and were a direct product of the impact of the war. Another group who were hugely affected by the war were the blacks that were the poorest group in great the American society at the time.

    • Word count: 1233
  7. With reference to Aristotle, Is it preferable for a society to suffer acts of injustice or to commit them?

    Since the terrorist attacks on the United States, we have seen a great pulling together of the American people. Immediately following the acts of violence against the United States we saw a nation come together in a way that this generation has never known. People that would normally not get along with one another came together to help a common cause (via rescue efforts, various fundraisers, etc...) and to share in the grief of an act of injustice committed not against a specific group within our society, but against the entire country, against every man, woman, and child calling themselves an American.

    • Word count: 1276
  8. Why had Britain abandoned her policy of ‘Splendid Isolation’ by 1902?

    Britain was suffering economic problems, she was rich but 20% of the population had 90% of the wealth. Britain's relations with Germany were also poor; between 1871 and 1914 Germany became the greatest industrial power in Europe-this was a threat to Britain. The German navy was also growing-this was competition for Britain. The Anglo-German problem also relates to the Boer War 1899-1902, because Kaiser had not only supplied the Boers with guns, but had congratulated them on their defeat. The Boer war was fought between Britain and the Boer Dutch farmers in South Africa.

    • Word count: 579
  9. The War in Vietnam

    If these questions were answered we could have a stronger idea on the Americans attitude to the war. Source 3 is reliable but has certain fallbacks; it is very biased and gives a strong US view. Dean Acheson, an American advisor said this in November 1967. He is a member of the government and works for the president so obviously he is biased but this is good as it shows a US view of the situation. He is full of determination to win the war and obviously supports the war.

    • Word count: 2475
  10. Did Germany cause World War One?

    The German responsibility out balances all other nations. Many historians, reflecting on the War, have taken a traditional viewpoint that, 'All the governments were responsible for tension, which exploded at the July crisis of 1914.' But not all governments were equally responsible. The German government held the majority of responsibility for the pre-war tension. Germany was far more responsible for War because of its decisions during the pre-war times in 1903 -1913. According to Fischer, 'Germany willed the War in 1914 in order to release expansionist ambitions and to resolve an acute domestic crisis.

    • Word count: 1077
  11. China's Relationship With The West

    They dispute the facts and otherwise explain these incidents away." Emphatically shattering the careful language US officials have so far used to handle the subject, he added, "China's record on human rights is terrible. It is an authoritarian country... there has been some progress, but not nearly enough." This obviously made an impact on China because there had been nothing like it Chinese history. President Clinton avoided no issues, bringing up everything that was relevant to the topic of human rights.

    • Word count: 5111
  12. For A Christian, Nuclear War Can Never Be Justified.

    Theses weapons can only kill a thousand people or less, and is certainly not as destructive as a nuclear bomb. As many nuclear warheads are kept at sea and are well hidden there are fears of the weapon detonating itself by accident and causing escalation and retaliation. If this happened a nuclear war could start in some other circumstances, for example, if a crazy dictator came into power in a country which has nuclear arms or if an irresponsible government, a terrorist group who were able to get hold of a nuclear weapon or a technical error could set off a nuclear arms accidentally.

    • Word count: 486
  13. The six-day war Coursework

    The old man, perspiring with fear, is how the Arabs viewed Israel at that time, partly because of the lack of weapons, and partly because Israel had seemingly let Egypt close the Gulf of Aqaba without fighting. Another message is the depiction of Israel surrounded by Arab armies, all trying to force her into the sea. This is an idea that the cartoonist got from the geographical position of Israel, (surrounded by Arabs and next to the Mediterranean sea) and the fact that Arab armies were advancing to the borders of Israel.

    • Word count: 2866
  14. What were the important reasons for the peace movement in America and why?

    The media documented a large amount of these soldiers' experiences. Vietnam was, of course, the first 'televised' war. Another detrimental effect was that veterans of the war were very against it. They then went into colleges and universities and gave lectures to students. The young people of America were obviously the future, so they had to be taught about this war. At that time students were extremely easy to influence so this was helping to turn the screw against the war and started more anti-war movements. The media also showed a lot of what chemical warfare could do.

    • Word count: 959
  15. “The 1948 Berlin Crisis was the most crucial event in the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1955.” How far do you agree with this statement?

    The Russians believed this to be a political manoeuvre to take supremacy in Europe. They also believed it to be just a variant on the Truman Doctrine- a plan against communism. After the end of World War II, Germany and Berlin had been split up into four parts. The Northwest belonged to Britain, the Southwest by France, the Southeast belonged to America and the Northeast by the Soviet Union. The West of Germany (under the British, French and American rule)

    • Word count: 928
  16. Australia does not follow a “tradition of impulsive involvement in international conflict regardless of the nation’s state of preparedness”.

    Australia's first contingent of 12 000 men, was extremely well prepared. It was said that "No troops ever went to the front more generously equipped than the Australian first contingent" (Mordake, 1992:xvi). This was the product of the 3 years of planning and preparing. All of the above was kept secret from the public, due to the opposition it was feared it might cause in Australia. As a cover story for the preparation, the government said it was all necessary to defend Australia from Japan, no mention was made of the looming crisis in Europe.

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  17. The U.S.A in Vietnam Sources Question

    At 21 he travelled around the world and settled in France where he became a Communist. It was because he was a Communist that America did not support him, they were Capitalist and hated Communism. The leader of South Vietnam was Ngo Dinh Diem a strong opponent of Communism, although his government was extremely corrupt, he held little respect for the Buddhist religion of most of the peasants, and he repressed political opponents America still backed him because they needed an anti communist to rule South Vietnam and they couldn't find any one else. The Vietnamese could choose to live in north or south and a general election was to be held in 1956 to determine who would rule the country.

    • Word count: 2088
  18. Vietnam Sources Questions

    Back up your answer with evidence from the sources. I think that it is very unlikely that two sources alone would allow a definite conclusion on the attitudes of all U.S polities making it adequacy situation. Also the evidence could not sub stain a universal conclusion because all three politicians are from the same party and the Republican point of view hasn't been representive. These sources are invalid in compiling an overall view on the American political system as the sources don't tell us the views and attitude of local politicians.

    • Word count: 2049
  19. Socialists in Ireland

    He was a Socialist and he led the Irish Citizen Army (ICA), a body of Socialists. Farmers Irish Farmers experienced a boom in sales of their products when the war began. During the war Irelands economy prospered. Vegetables, meat etc were needed for troops and for the Irish people. Farmers also exported to England where grocery prices were high. Because of this they supported the war effort. Industrialists Industrialists, e.g Harland and Wolff shipbuilders in Belfast experienced a massive boom in sales, like Farmers.

    • Word count: 381
  20. In Poland In 1939 and in Western Europe in 1940, the German army defeated its enemies quickly, was this only because of the Blitzkrieg tactics used?

    The German tactic Blitzkrieg was a new strategy, devised by European generals in the 20's and 30's. Germany was the only country who adopted the strategy, even though some of the generals who thought of it a good tactic were British. The man most associated with it was a German general Gudarian, although he did not introduce it by him self, he was highly responsible for it being used by the Germans. Britain and France failed to adopt the highly successful strategy, which was only proved useful with the German attack of Poland. The reason for the British and French not using it was for many reasons; The french generals were highly defensive, they did not wasn't to expand their country and their main threat was from Germany.

    • Word count: 1419
  21. The Vietnam War – G.C.S.E. History Coursework

    What we do know about opinion polls is this: they are commonly neutral sources and are factual pieces. Source three is probably part of a speech given to the American public. It was more than likely a morale talk to the public (or the soldiers in 'Nam) to boost patriotism .The good thing about this source is that isolates one individual opinion. The other good thing would be that the speaker represents the government so that may indicate that that is the way the whole of or a least the majority of America thinks.

    • Word count: 3904
  22. Why Was the USA so prosperous in the years 1945-63?

    It wasn't until the end of the war that the USA started training black pilots and once again they had to fly in all-black squadrons. By the end of the war unemployment was less than 650 000 and the country's economy was growing at a rapid rate. There were many reasons for this. People had saved huge amounts of money throughout the war. As the war came to an end, people started spending this money on consumer good. America did not have to ration during or after the war like Britain did so there was no control on what people bought.

    • Word count: 997
  23. Assess the strategic strengths and weaknesses of America's 'containment of communism' policy since 1945.

    The effects this had on US policy thinking were immediate. In the same year as Keenan's article (1947) President Truman initiated the 'Truman doctrine' in a speech in March as a response to the fear of Russian intentions & involvement in Turkey and Greece due to the power vacuum created by Britain's withdrawal of aid & guarantees to these two countries (Civil war in Greece and Russian desire for territorial gains in Turkey). Truman proposed a choice between two ideological combatants, whereby: "One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion from political oppression.

    • Word count: 3603
  24. World War One Sources Questions

    Another similarity shared by all of these posters is that they are all government propaganda posters. A and B try to get people to sign up by appealing to a sense of duty to fight for your country and patriotism. They also create a sense of guilt if you do not fight, source B does this especially intensely as it emphasises the thought of what people would think of you if you did not sign up. It does this by using 2 children asking there father what he did during the war. C takes a different approach by appealing to a sense of fear and urgency, as well as a hatred of Germany and its actions.

    • Word count: 3812
  25. Propaganda was an essential weapon in the war against Germany

    or peoples side * To manipulate people to the persons or peoples advantage Most sources of propaganda are often lies or are a manipulative twist of the truth. In fact, the British government even made up that the German were turning the fats of dead British Soldiers into soaps! This is obviously untrue but during the war people were hearing of such atrocities in Germany that they believed this. This would have stimulated a lot of people to want to help out in the war effort as it plays on their conscious that their relatives may have been turned into soap!

    • Word count: 1612

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