Compare and contrast the policies of the U.S.A and the U.S.S.R towards Vietnam in the 1960s and 1970s.
Compare and contrast the policies of the U.S.A and the U.S.S.R towards Vietnam in the 1960s and 1970s. As the Cold War progressed, the playing field for superpower altercations-by-proxy began to expand well past European boundaries, beginning with Korea in 1950. Vietnam was only one of the prominent (if not tragic) examples of the globalization of what should have been a small-scale confrontation. Instead, both the U.S.A and the U.S.S.R opted to fight out their differences by proxy. In Vietnam, this meant channelling personal hostilities through what should have been a strictly civil war, which could be argued would have not have taken place without superpower involvement in Geneva 1954. Nevertheless, like most tragedies and indeed most of history, the story of Vietnam is replete with "should haves"- it is all too easy to take benefit of hindsight for granted. Therefore, while the policies of the U.S.A and the U.S.S.R in Vietnam may seem reprehensible today, if should be remembered that a legacy of fifteen years of superpower rivalry by the time of the 1960s may prove the justification of their policies to some extent. In most respects, Vietnam is often considered as "America's War." Beginning with Kennedy's "finger in the dike" approach to the Third World in 1960, to Johnson's disastrous "Rolling Thunder" and ground troop escalation, and ending with Nixon's
How important was Haig's tactics on the Western Front in bringing an end to the First World War when compared to: a) War at Sea b) The Eastern front c) American entering the war d) Technological factors? In 1914, the people of Britain greeted the war with enthusiasm. Everyone agreed it would all be over by Christmas and they were certainly gripped by war fever. Images of brave young men were portrayed and heroic soldiers ending up victorious. The general reaction was that the war would be over in a few 'lightning marches' and a great battle would settle the matter. The Great War will always be remembered as a War of many battles. There were battles on land, at sea and in air. During this time, nobody had ever witnessed such a fierce and brutal war, but more significantly, allies and individual countries had no experience in this type of warfare before. As the war dragged on, and more experience gained, it seemed have better tactics than your opponent would be the only way of unlocking the stalemate. After the break out of World War One, it was clear that the victor was always going to need to be the side strongest on all its fronts. With so many countries participating in it, and more gradually entering, vulnerable areas of possible attack were on the increase. In War, a failure on one front for a country would usually cause a crisis for the country itself, trying
ENC1101 Angela Fralick Essay #4, All about D.C. During my freshmen year at Columbia High School I had the liberty of taking a trip to the nation's capital, Washington, D.C., as well as other cities along the way. The trip was one of a lifetime. I will never forget the beautiful landscapes of the capital's terrain, of Arlington National Cemetery or the Vietnam War Memorial. I never realized that one district could contain so many exciting places. From the national landmarks to the site seeing of other popular surrounding places, I will never forget a single moment of my retreat to Washington, D.C. The trip took a grueling fifteen-hours by bus from Lake City, Fl. The first place I arrived at was the Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. The cemetery was first constructed in 1864 as a burial ground for armed forces veterans and their dependants, as well as soldiers killed in battle. (http://www.college.hmco.com) To me, the Arlington Cemetery was a very peaceful and serene place. The cemetery consisted of approximately 3 miles of shining white marble tombstones and was beautifully landscaped with shaped bushes and oak trees. While I was there I visited the graves of former presidents John F. Kennedy and William Howard Taft, and also the grave of former world heavyweight boxer Joe Lewis. Another well-known place I visited in Arlington was the Tomb of
Explain why the Great Leap Forward failed? In 1956 Mao wanted a time of reflection throughout China, He asked the people for their opinions. He called this the "Hundred Flowers Movement", historians are not certain of the motives for this movement, but there are two theories as to why it happened; It could have been just to get the opinions of the people so that the communist system could be improved, or it could have been to seek out any opposition. In 1957 the movement was ended and the opposition and critics were arrested and re-educated. This was a sign of Mao's unwillingness to accept criticism, even if it was constructive. This shows the lack of communication between Mao and the people, his stubbornness overpowering common sense, and shows the early onset of corruption. The idea came, to get China forward thinking again. Small-scale industry was invoked into villages. The peasants of China were to get organised to improve agriculture and would make China a powerful nation agriculturally and industrially. This idea seems brilliantly simple and plausible if like Mao you relied on informants to tell you what you want to hear. Mao set up the communes by joining the co-operatives. This got rid of private land and property, family life was replaced with an army style regime. The people were taught to follow orders and not to make their own decisions, which created a
How useful is the Marxist concept of imperialism to our understanding of contemporary international relations?
How useful is the Marxist concept of imperialism to our understanding of contemporary international relations? Curiously enough, most of the clues to the Marxist theory of imperialism in this century were provided by the English economist John A. Hobson (1858-1940). Hobson argued that imperialism results from maladjustments within the capitalist system, in which wealthy minority oversaves while an impoverished or 'bare substitute' majority lacks the buying power to consume the goods of modern industry. Capitalists are therefore faced with the problem of over-production and under-consumption. If capitalists were willing to redistribute their surplus wealth in the form of domestic welfare measures, there would be no serious structural problem. The capitalists, however, seek to reinvest their surplus wealth by seeking foreign profit-making ventures abroad1. The result is imperialism, 'the endeavour of the great controllers of industry to broaden the channel for the flow of their surplus wealth by seeking foreign markets and foreign investments to take off the goods and capital they cannot sell or use at home.2' Hobson's view on imperialism was the basis for the Marxist concepts, and a huge influence of Lenin. The best-known theorist of imperialism in modern times was Lenin. The architect of the Bolshevik Revolution was neither the scholar nor the original thinker that Hobson
DÉTENTE: MEANING AND DEFINITION: Détente is a process by which two or more nations move away from a continuous confrontation with each other in general direction of cooperation1. It is the relaxation of the international tensions which can take place only when certain objective conditions exist: a realization by the protagonists that there are political and economic limitations to the assertion of their power in the world, a change in the respective national perceptions of the "enemy" and a recognition of the necessity to seek improvement of nation' posture through a partial accommodation with the adversary. Détente is a French term, meaning relaxation of the tension. With the watering down of antagonism and hostility between the superpowers an atmosphere of relaxation gained momentum in international relations. It was this atmosphere of relaxation that found expression in term détente .In the nuclear age, détente, in some form, was essential For survival. Outright hostility was ruled out between the two power blocs. Two superpowers realized that by mutual cooperation, their distrust could be minimized and the intensity of conflict reduced .In their mutual interest both sides found it advantages to enlarge the sphere of mutual cooperation. Detente is conscious and deliberate attempt to reduce this tension significantly. Dtente means an effort by both superpowers
Evaluation of a reading from a chapter of a scholarly text that justifies an evaluation of documented destructive deviant behavior within the veil of economic and political elites.
Greed - Stuffing a dozen assorted chocolates into one's mouth simultaneously, in the presence of a diabetic. - The Cynic's Dictionary "Freedom is not free" - A recent television commercial Part I - Introductory Overview This paper is first a summary, and secondly a contemplative evaluation of a reading from a chapter of a scholarly text that justifies an evaluation of documented destructive deviant behavior within the veil of economic and political elites. These elites are shown to be intimately interconnected as well as intra-causal in that the policies of one entity provide an opportunity for another. As evolved following the many facets of World War II, especially to the fortuitous benefit of the United States, this phenomenon creates a profound triangular structure of the Military-Industrial-Complex, which are the body of elites of the U.S. military, U.S. lead multinational corporations, and high-ranking influential U.S. politicians. The text titled National Defense, Multinational Corporations, and Human Rights examines the behemoth Military-Industrial-Complex, Multinational Corporations, its extensive abounding acts of deviance and its immoral impact on human rights. The purpose of the author is clear: Cite appropriate, applicable, and an adequate number of graphic examples of deviance for each entity of the multi-industrial-complex to support the author's
History Coursework 2003-Suez Crisis - What can you learn from Source A about Anthony Eden's reasons of opposing Colonel Nasser?
History Coursework 2003-Suez Crisis What can you learn from Source A about Anthony Eden's reasons of opposing Colonel Nasser? Anthony Eden was Prime Minister at the time of the Suez Crisis in 1956. His political career began in 1923 and by 1926 he had become a parliamentary private secretary at the Foreign Office. He was very involved with the League of Nations, believing in their principles and at the age of 38, became Foreign Secretary. At this time international affairs were seen as being aggressive and Anthony Eden was forced to resign from Neville Chamberlain's Government over his policy of appeasement. He joined the Government during World War Two and became Secretary of State for war under Churchill. After the war times were very difficult with the Cold War at its peak and trouble in the Middle East. Colonel Nasser became dictator of Egypt in 1954 after leading a successful revolution against King Farouk. British troops left Egypt for the first time since 1882, and as soon as they had gone, Nasser declared the Suez Canal to be the property of the Egyptian Government. The Suez Canal was a vital shipping route for oil being brought to Britain. Eden wrongly saw Colonel Nasser as the next Hitler and was determined to make a stand against him. "Nasser has a finger on our wind pipe", he remarked. Nasser was going to be taught a lesson. Nasser was seen as a nationalist
My life in writing When Michael Cunningham completed his fourth novel, The Hours, he had "no doubt whatsoever", that it would sell a few hundred copies at most. "It was to be my artistic book", he explains. "The plan was to try and make it up with the next book which would be the best-seller". But the plan had to be put on hold earlier this year when The Hours was shortlisted for the Pulitzer Prize, and was ripped up altogether when, to Cunningham's astonishment, he was awarded the prize in April. It was a remarkable change of fortune for the 47-year-old New York-based author whose previous novels have been set at the messy junction where gay life meets family life in America. The Pulitzer is specifically given to a book that reflects the "quintessential American experience"; Cunningham had increasingly been painted as a populist gay writer. He says: "My book is about three women of ambivalent sexuality, one of whom is Virginia Woolf, so when I was nominated I thought ha ha ha... But maybe my favourite thing about winning the prize is the implication that the American experience is broad enough and deep enough to include three women of ambivalent sexuality one of whom is Virginia Woolf. "I haven't changed my view that prizes are mostly stupid and embarrassing, but I do like the fact that this odd little book was deemed in some way to be about the American experience."
Judith Pugh Marking tutor: Ian Whitehead What factors were influential in the British decision to enter the First World War? The assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914 by Serb nationalists may have been the spark that tipped Europe over the edge into war, but it is generally considered that the complex group of alliances and grievances routed in history that existed between the major European powers at the time made diplomatic alternatives difficult to realize. France, for example, still felt hostility toward Germany due its defeat and consequently because of the land it lost (Alsace and Lorraine) to Germany in the Franco-Prussian War. If required to go to war, "France intended ...to use the opportunity to ...recover the lost provinces."1. Germany itself was tied in to the war through its alliance with Austria-Hungary. However, it is important to recognise that alliances and past grievances alone are not by and large considered adequate reasons to go to war. For the powers that made the decision to fight, ultimately the chief rationale was that they would benefit more from joining the war than by staying out of it all together. Germany, for example, had alienated Russia and France and needed to honour its agreement with Austria-Hungary to gain security and ensure it was not surrounded by hostile powers. France, as mentioned, stood to recover land