Journalism - Two generations of the journalists - Soviet and the post-Soviet - make journalism in contemporary Russia.
Journalism Two generations of the journalists - Soviet and the post-Soviet - make journalism in contemporary Russia. The difference is in how the young generation quite critically estimates the Soviet experience and thinks that until the crucial reforms of liberalisation journalism was a completely different profession. The basic distinction between the old and the new journalism, according to young generation lies in the approach toward information, particularly what information goes to society and how - understood as the quality of informing society. In the statement by the former editor-in-chief of the elite magazine Itogy of the company "Media MOST", Sergei Parkhomenko: ... the journalism, in my view, till 1990 worked without sources. The primary source was the author's brains. On rare occasions there was a certain simulation of the source somehow: "a reader's letter", TASS or something like that. But the primary content of the text it was the author's thoughts. Till the end of 1990 in the domestic journalism there was not a problem of speed... There were not perceptions of the type "I am first, you are second"... In the absence of a competition and the perception about that what information proceeds from source, a certain race had abstract, absolutely unclear for a reader and consumer of this information character. I consider that till that moment while categories of
Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem The role of Saddam Hussain in serving the aims of America in the Middle East In order to appreciate the role of Saddam Hussain in serving the American aims in the Middle East, it is imperative to outline the international struggle over that particular region and specifically over the Gulf region during the second half of this century. Despite the fact that the international struggle over the Gulf is part of the struggle over the whole region, it is however important to lend it special attention due to the extreme importance that this particular region enjoys vis-a-vis those countries who are seeking to exploit the Islamic world, due to what its lands contain in terms of huge reserves of oil that are practically unmatchable up until now. Despite the fact that as a substance, oil has been used by man for thousands of years, its importance however did not come to light until this century. The means of life in all its various aspects, be it military or civilian, have increasingly become more and more dependent on this commodity. It would be also right to say that no country in the world today could do away with oil for one single moment, and the more advanced and industrialised the country, the greater its dependence on this commodity and the more vital to its progress it becomes. Oil has become the main source of energy in the whole world and an
Teong Yi Heong U021202J ISM Report Dr. Alan Chong 31 March 2004 Rationality, Educated Opinion and Peace The belief in progress Abstract: This paper addresses the relevance of interwar thought to the building of peace through examining the ideas of three important writers of the period: Edward Hallett Carr, Norman Angell and Alfred Zimmern. The role of public opinion was under much query in the politics of the period they wrote in, and crucial to this issue are the questions as to whether the public mind is rational and capable of reason. These writers are concerned with the influence of public opinion and believe that through educating the public mind, the possibility of peace can be increased. Drawing from their ideas, this paper thus postulates that peace is a product of rationality and there is possibility of progress through education. The birth of international relations as a separate discipline was founded against the context of the interwar years, which brought about important consequences for the subsequent development of the interwar years. The tensions prior to and the subsequent devastation of the Great War forced intellectuals of the early twentieth century to seek explanations for the causes of war and to postulate measures by which another catastrophe could be prevented. The general psyche of the people exerted an influence on the direction of
After the collapse of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the world started realizing a new ideology.
After the collapse of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the world started realizing a new ideology. An ideology that witnessed the collapse of concepts that were taken for granted; an ideology that is faced with fear about the formation of the new world order. Before the September 11 attacks and during the post Cold war era, the world has seen no greater power than the United States. International Relations have seen the control and dominance of the United States over the world's structure. However, after the Twin Tower attacks, the world started realizing the role of other players inside the international arena, players that were preferably called as terrorists. September 11 questioned the validity of several theories that were formulated as soon as the end of the Cold War was announced, these theories were trying to predict the shape and attitude of the world as it entered a new era. It has always been known that every era in history adapts an indication that will mark it as distinctive, and therefore all of those theories were simple speculations on the nature of what could be such an indication. Theories valid, some predicted the rise of democracy and liberalism, others feared the return of barbarism and anarchy. Also, other theories predicted a clash that will divide the borders of the world according to culture, civilization, ethnicity, and most importantly
CONTENTS Introduction A Summary of the Marshall Plan Marshall Plan Expenditures (chart) Origins of the Marshall Plan Marshall's Worldview in Early 1947 Origins of the Truman Doctrine Moscow Foreign Ministers' Conference Decision to Propose a New U.S. Aid Policy The Harvard Speech Text of the Marshall Plan Speech Results of the Speech Struggle for Congressional Approval Examples of the Uses of Marshall Plan Aid Bibliography Introduction On June 5, 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall spoke at Harvard University and outlined what would become known as the Marshall Plan. Europe, still devastated by the war, had just survived one of the worst winters on record. The nations of Europe had nothing to sell for hard currency, and the democratic socialist governments in most countries were unwilling to adopt the draconian proposals for recovery advocated by old-line classical economists. Something had to be done, both for humanitarian reasons and also to stop the potential spread of communism westward. The United States offered up to $20 billion for relief, but only if the European nations could get together and draw up a rational plan on how they would use the aid. For the first time, they would have to act as a single economic unit; they would have to cooperate with each other. Marshall also offered aid to the Soviet Union and its allies in eastern Europe, but
History 333, The Historical Method-- Arthur Coumbe, Professor A Study of Air Supremacy in the Korean War By Tom Spearman The Korean War was the first major test of the newly formed United States Air Force. It had been in existence for only three years when North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950. The North Koreans purpose was to attempt to unite the country under communist rule. When hostilities first broke out the United States war machine was not fully prepared to stop the aggression. War material was in great supply but it had to be brought out of storage. More importantly, most of the experienced military personnel had returned to the civilian sector. The Far East Air Force (FEAF), composed of the Thirteenth in the Philippines, the Twentieth on Guam, and the Fifth in Japan, were responsible for carrying the air war to the enemy.1 The journal, Air Power History, chronicles the stages of the air war and focuses on the integral components that made up the totality of America's response to achieve and maintain air superiority. The aim of the journal was to examine the contributions of each component and demonstrate how their integration as a cohesive force helped achieve their goal, which in turn led to a peaceful settlement. Specifically it looked at the commanders, logistics, combat cargo, strategic interdiction, close air support, aerial combat,
Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe? Communism is like Prohibition - it's a good idea but it won't work" (Will Rogers, 1927) (1) This essay will give a brief introduction to communism. It will then discuss the various factors which combined to bring about the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe. It will examine each of these factors and evaluate the effect of each. Finally it will attempt to assertain whether Rogers' opinion (see above quotation) on Communism is true, that is, whether communism was truly doomed to fail from the start, or whether its collapse was a result of external influences. Communism is based on the ideas and teachings of Karl Marx as modified by Lenin. At its most basic, the ideal of communism is a system in which everyone is seen as equal and wealth is distributed equally among the people. There is no private ownership. The state owns and controls all enterprises and property. The state is run by one leading elite. The Soviet model of communism was based on these ideals. All opposition parties were banned although parties who were sympathetic to communism and who shared the communist ideals were allowed. All power was concentrated into the hands of the Communist party. Free press and civil liberties were suppressed. Censorship and propaganda were widely used. There was state ownership of the economy. No private enterprise was allowed.
DÉTENTE: MEANING AND DEFINITION: Détente is a process by which two or more nations move away from a continuous confrontation with each other in general direction of cooperation1. It is the relaxation of the international tensions which can take place only when certain objective conditions exist: a realization by the protagonists that there are political and economic limitations to the assertion of their power in the world, a change in the respective national perceptions of the "enemy" and a recognition of the necessity to seek improvement of nation' posture through a partial accommodation with the adversary. Détente is a French term, meaning relaxation of the tension. With the watering down of antagonism and hostility between the superpowers an atmosphere of relaxation gained momentum in international relations. It was this atmosphere of relaxation that found expression in term détente .In the nuclear age, détente, in some form, was essential For survival. Outright hostility was ruled out between the two power blocs. Two superpowers realized that by mutual cooperation, their distrust could be minimized and the intensity of conflict reduced .In their mutual interest both sides found it advantages to enlarge the sphere of mutual cooperation. Detente is conscious and deliberate attempt to reduce this tension significantly. Dtente means an effort by both superpowers
I will be looking at how the U.S became increasingly involved Vietnam, the problems facing U.S soldiers and the anti war movement in the United States.
Jonathan Tindall 11x1 History Coursework - Rough Draft Assignment Model B - Vietnam Introduction In this piece of coursework I will be answering three questions based on the United States involvement in the Vietnam War. I will be looking at how the U.S became increasingly involved Vietnam, the problems facing U.S soldiers and the anti war movement in the United States. Question 1 Explain why the United States became increasingly involved in the war in Vietnam. Since the end of the nineteenth century the French had ruled the Asian country of Vietnam. After their 1940 defeat during World War Two by Germany, the Japanese (German allies) took over Vietnam resources. During the war an anti Japanese movement, named the Viet Minh emerged. They were led by a communist leader named Ho Chi Minh who inspired the Vietnamese to fight for independence. When the war was over the Viet Minh controlled the Northern part of Vietnam and declared Vietnam independent. The French returned in the hopes of once again ruling Vietnam and war broke out. Because Ho Chi Minh had not proclaimed his desire for a Communist Vietnam, the Viet Minh were sympathised by countries such as the U.S.A. However when Communists took over in China and began helping the Ho Chi Minh the Americans saw the Viet Minh as a cover for the Chinese communists. The US began to support the French dramatically, in order to
Forrest Gump; the Modern Day Fairytale Forrest Gump is a classic film; this essay will explore all aspects if this favourite. From the beautifully naïve Forrest, to the political underlay throughout the narrative. The opening sequence of the film stimulates a distant memory, a reminiscence of fairytales from years gone by. Once getting to know the character of Forrest I realize this innocence of fairytales is reflected in his being. The tinkling keys of the piano sets the atmosphere for the rest of the film; magical. We see a feather floating on a breeze. A signifier is a symbol, it can be verbal (seen) or aural (heard). It is a symbol that the audience can place a significant meaning onto. In Forrest Gump the signifier is this feather. To me the feather has no complex underhand meaning. Like Forrest the feather is simple. I believe that it represents his life; worry free, just meandering along quite happily on a breeze. "The feather is a metaphor for the randomness of life. It has a destiny, or did it choose to land at Forrests feet?" This it what the director, Robert Zemekis ponders about the feather. He refers to destiny, are the events in our live due to destiny like a feather on the breeze or do we make our own destiny? A question we will all surely ponder in our life, and a theme that this film subtly addresses. We follow this feather on its significant journey