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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 21
  • Peer Reviewed essays 2
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Using these four passages and your own knowledge, assess the view that Napoleons Empire in Europe after 1804 offered little benefit to its subjects.

    5 star(s)

    Interpretation D also shows disagreement by saying ?the French presence tended to flush out the old regime.? Several nations within Europe, such as Poland and Austria, still operated on a bastardized feudalism, which was proving to be ineffectual compared to newer set of political and military customs being used in other European countries. Napoleon?s Civil Code helped to eradicate feudalism within the satellite states. Although, interpretation B argues that even with this, feudalism still existed in a different of form of ?nobles? privileges, seigneurial dues, serfdom and even labour services.? The nature of the political reforms regarding the structure of

    • Word count: 2001
  2. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent does Stalin deserve the title of Red Tsar when assessing his rule in the context of Russian government from 1855- 1964?

    5 star(s)

    As the General Secretary of the CCP Stalin had influence over all areas of the party, whilst the Politburo became the most influential body, as it controlled the actions of all government departments. Therefore the party became more centralised, as the influence of the grass-roots became less significant. Hence historians such as Richard Pipes claim that Leninism caused Stalinism, as Lenin's party resembled "a more secret order than a party in the normally accepted sense"3, this led to an elitist structure, meaning that Stalin's dictatorship was unavoidable.

    • Word count: 4112
  3. Marked by a teacher

    The Weakness of the Directory was the main reasons for Napoleons rise to Power. How far do you agree?

    5 star(s)

    Many moved abroad and began plotting a counter-revolution, but many did not return until Napoleon was leader. Following King Louis XVI fall from power a meritocratic system was set up in France whereby the more able people got higher positions, and allowed Napoleon to rise up the army quickly to a high rank. This rank reached Brigadier General after Napoleon shot on rioters at Toulon and got him noticed among the political elite as well as the military. However the weakness of the directory was the main reason to Napoleon's rise to power, because although the circumstances suited Napoleon and

    • Word count: 1481
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the successes and failures of Mussolini's domestic policy.

    5 star(s)

    The Church at that time was more worried about the threat from socialism, and fascism seemed to be suitable protection, and in actual fact, the Church and the State shared some common ground; they both saw the need for order, discipline, respect for leaders and a hierarchy, and a dislike of liberalism. Although progress early on continued at a slow pace, the relations by 1929 were at a peak, but went on to decline throughout the 1930s, with the disbanding of Catholic youth groups by 1931.

    • Word count: 2583
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Why did the League of Nations fail?

    5 star(s)

    Herbert Hoover, US President, had advocated the purchase of shares by everyone as 'the final triumph over poverty'. Eleven suicides in New York that day demonstrated the severity of the crash. There were two great failures on the League's part in the 1930s. Firstly, in 1931 as a short-term result of the Wall Street crash and ensuing depression, Japan invaded the northern province of China known as Manchuria. Japan was heavily dependent upon the US economy, and the collapse of trade meant that the only way Japan could survive would be to expand. Possessing very little arable land and even fewer natural resources, Japan relied upon trade and Korea (it had taken Korea in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5)

    • Word count: 2504
  6. Marked by a teacher

    Contrast The Contribution Made By Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi to Italian Unification

    4 star(s)

    Three people clearly played a great role in the process of unifying the State: Giuseppe Mazzini, the ideological leader of the Italian patriots and the creator of the famous Young Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi, a skillful military man that to this day is seen as the Italian national hero and Camillo Cavour, the Prime Minister of Piedmont from 1852 to 1861. All of them shared a great contribution towards the Unification, but they took actions at different paths: Mazzini was an ideological leader, Garibaldi ? a military one and Cavour a political one.

    • Word count: 1568
  7. Marked by a teacher

    How successful were the Five- Year Plans in transforming Russian industry in the years to 1941?

    4 star(s)

    For an country that was struggling as much as Russia was at that time, it was an achievement. Stalin had many initiatives to achieve a better industry. He put in place a reward scheme for workers if they helped reach the targets that were set. Workers were encouraged to work for these rewards. This strategy worked wonders as it increased the turn around in the factories as the workers were all working for something at the end. One case of this would be the Russian miner, Stakhanovite. Stalin used this miner as a propaganda opportunity. Stakhanovite had been claimed to have mined an extreme amount in one shift.

    • Word count: 1590
  8. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the view that Stalins suspicions of his western allies between 1941 and 1945 were justified

    4 star(s)

    Most of the casualties suffered by the USA were from fighting with the Japanese. The attack on Pearl Harbour on 7th December 1941, which effectively was the point at which America joined the war, saw 2,402 Americans were killed, 57 of these being civilians, with a further 1,247 wounded. Mainland fighting was also a cause of heavy losses for the Americans, for example with the Battle of Okinawa starting on the 1st April 1945 and ending on the 21st June 1945. If America were to win this battle, it would prove to be a strategic advantage over the Japanese, as their aim was to control the island as a base for air operations on the planned invasion of the Japanese mainland.

    • Word count: 2195
  9. Marked by a teacher

    The impact of the First World War merely heightened existing social and political tensions which had divided Germany before 1914. How far do you agree with this judgement?

    4 star(s)

    Although, it is seen to be that some social effects just didn't affect the tension in Germany. The 'silent dictatorship' also stemmed tensions as in 1916 Bethmann called off submarine warfare he then wanted to support by means of Hindenburg and Ludendorff which was a major turning point as they proved more popular than the Kaiser and Chancellor, in which they started to take control and that led to the idea of political powers that were in theory sidelined. The tensions then stemmed from this and so is clear further that Germany had certain tensions in Germany and so to help compare to the tensions they had after the war.

    • Word count: 1227
  10. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the view that the lives of the peasants in Russia did not improve in the period from 1855 to 1964.

    4 star(s)

    Investment was made in new agricultural techniques with mixed success as Stalin realised that agriculture had to be used in order to boost industry, much like Stolypin before him. In contrast, under the Tsars peasants did not have access to such technology, however they were able to set their own pace as to how they worked, and therefore how much they produced. In most cases, this meant they had to work as hard as possible in order to provide food for their families, as well as the requisition squads which Lenin would later introduce in an attempt to improve productivity.

    • Word count: 1878
  11. Marked by a teacher

    How successful were n**i economic policies in the years 1933-45?

    4 star(s)

    The fundamental problems consisted of those related to trade, industry, employment agriculture and finance. These problems were to be confronted with the n**i economic policies introduced by Hjalmar Schacht. Financial benefits were given to farmers and small businesses. This helped to stimulate economic growth, but also rewarded the sympathetic supporters of the n**i's. These benefits came in the form of maintaining tariffs on imported produce, reducing debts by tax concessions and lowering interest rates trough the Reich farm law. They also gave allowances to encourage the re-hiring of domestic servants and allocated grants for house repairs.

    • Word count: 1833
  12. Marked by a teacher

    Major Causes of French Revolution

    4 star(s)

    The government was corrupt and centralized and the King's authority had been slowly extended over the country. Under the system, there was a lot of overlapping authority and a great inefficiency in the provincial governments. The only people who could obstruct the royal government in an attempt to save the country was the Parliament of Paris. Unfortunately, its members were only concerned about their own welfare rather than the members of the country. The greatest government weakness was the lack of consistency and order. By 1788, the government was almost bankrupt. The supporters of economic, social and governmental reforms had become increasingly vocal during the reign of Louis XVI.

    • Word count: 3511
  13. Marked by a teacher

    To What Extent was fear of the Gestapo and the SS the main reason why Hitler was able to stay in power after 1933?

    4 star(s)

    The traditional view was that terror was a part of everyday life in n**i Germany but recent historians have challenged this view. An action of the SS was their slaughter of the thuggish SA in the Night of the Long Knives which helped Hitler greatly as the SA appeared as a threat to Hitler at the time and Hitler was not scared to use violent means to get rid of this threat. After this the SS gained their reputation and became extremely powerful, emerging as the chief political arm of the n**i party and it was also found later by

    • Word count: 1699
  14. Marked by a teacher

    Explain how the effects of the First World War caused the collapse of the Tsarist regime

    4 star(s)

    The army could now blame the Tsar for everything bad in the military. They blamed him for all their defeats in the war. The low morale and loyalty eventually led to the army defecting and joining the revolutionaries. The spirit of the army was falling and General Krymov felt that 'A revolution is imminent'. The Tsar had no way of protecting himself, and now, he had lost the reason why the last revolution had failed. This, in turn, ended up with the collapse of the Tsarist regime.

    • Word count: 3839
  15. Marked by a teacher

    Was it the policies pursued by Henry VIII that caused "the mid-Tudor crisis"?

    4 star(s)

    The members were to have equal powers and were to govern until Edward reached the age of eighteen. This corporation was meant to be balanced between the conservative and radical factions but by the time of Henry's death, the radical party had gained control. It could be argued that Henry was partly responsible for this, as it was he who had expelled Gardiner and had Norfolk arrested, thus weakening the conservatives, but it was almost inevitable that one faction would emerge stronger. Although a balanced solution is ideal in theory, in practice it is almost impossible to operate when there is a power vacuum and "no longer a royal focus of authority".

    • Word count: 2723
  16. Marked by a teacher

    The Problems of the Weimar Republic and the Path to War.

    3 star(s)

    Long live the new! Long live the German Republic!? (4) Two days later, on the 11th of November, Germany signed an armistice with the Allies bringing an end to the war. This piece of work will highlight the inauspicious circumstances that the German government was born in during the years of 1918-1923. This essay will highlight the political, economical and the violent problems that the new Republic faced and how some courses of its actions led Germany on the path towards another World War. Straight away, a ?political vacuum? appeared within the Republic.

    • Word count: 1025
  17. Marked by a teacher

    How far do you agree that Stalins paranoia was the main cause of the Great Terror?

    3 star(s)

    However, his main aim for introducing collectivisation was to eliminate the wealthiest peasants known as the kulaks. By eliminating the kulaks, it therefore meant that more money was able to come into the Russian economy. Through the economic problems that Russia were facing, it allowed Stalin to blame them on his political enemies which would have cause Stalin?s paranoia and therefore allowed him to discreetly achieve his aims and increase his own reputation by seemingly trying to save Russia from the economic problems that they were experiencing. The next cause for the Great Terror was the threats which Stalin had to his leadership and therefore added to Stalin?s paranoia.

    • Word count: 958
  18. Marked by a teacher

    Decisions made in Berlin from 1900 determined the outbreak of war in Europe in August 1914. How far do you agree with this opinion?

    3 star(s)

    This increase in tension and "collision course" with Britain could then be seen as a decision that was made that helped determine or at least increase the reasoning behind going to war in August 1914. However, this could be misinterpreted as Britain joined the war in accordance to the Triple Entente as opposed to the race to build a better naval fleet. Source 3 also agrees to a certain extent with the opinion, as the decision made from 1900-1914 was essentially "let the Schlieffen Plan determine events," this is evident that it wasn't a decision that would help Germany or at least the outcome of war as Keegan describes the Kaisers' attitude as though "he panicked" into making the decision.

    • Word count: 1190
  19. Marked by a teacher

    Mussolini's foreign policy.

    3 star(s)

    On the 27th of August 1923 an opportunity fell to Mussolini to show that Italian foreign policy was powerful and dynamic. An Italian general and four members of his staff were shot while working on frontier arrangements between Greece and Albania for the League of Nations. Two days after the murders, the Italian government presented an ultimatum to the Greek government which demanded an official apology and the payment of an indemnity of 50 million lire within five days. When the Greeks refused Mussolini ordered a naval bombardment and occupation of the island of Corfu.

    • Word count: 1242
  20. Marked by a teacher

    Lenin's Legacy Has Been Grossly Exaggerated; to what extent do you agree with the statement?

    3 star(s)

    He was expelled from university for his radical policies. Lenin completed his law degree as a student in 1891. He moved to St Petersburg and became a professional revolutionary for the peasants. Like many of his predecessors, Lenin was arrested and exiled to Siberia, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya. This was his second marriage, his first Inessa Armand, died in 1920 and this left him distraught. After his Siberian exile, Lenin spent most of the decade and a half in Western Europe, where he emerged as a prominent figure in the international revolutionary movement and became the leader of the 'Bolshevik' faction of the Russian Social Democratic Worker's Party.

    • Word count: 1214
  21. Peer reviewed

    The main reason why the German revolutions of 1848 failed was because they failed to win popular support How far do you agree?

    3 star(s)

    The loss of support was encouraged by the slow progress of the Frankfurt parliament. The Industrial code that was put forward was hope for the working class but after it was rejected, many of the working class lost the faith they held and the support fell even more. Also, the support of the masses was divided and this led to riots and peasant risings that had no aims. This meant that there was a lack of support that was needed in order for the revolution to occur as the peasants needed a leader to control them and this was another key reason why the revolutions of 1848 were a failure.

    • Word count: 1225
  22. How far does Stalins position as General Secretary explain his success in defeating his rivals in the years 1924-1929?

    Stalin also had other key positions in the party, rendering his powerbase as 'bureaucratic' - one that allowed him to outmanoeuvre his rivals through a series of alliances. Stalin was head of the Sovnarkom which enabled him to expel party members who disagreed with his views and aims. In removing people seen as more extreme, such as soldiers and students, this eroded Trotsky's support base (the leading contender), as head of the Red Army. His position as Commissar for Nationalities meant he could gain loyalty from the officials running non- Russian regions - effectively expanding his support base and spreading his ideas.

    • Word count: 1963
  23. Describe the Russia that Tsar Nicholas II inherited

    Tsar Nicholas II continued the belief that autocracy, in that only he ruled Russia, was the only way in which the Russian Empire could be governed. "I shall devote all my strength, for the good of the whole nation, to maintaining the principle of autocracy" - Nicholas II. However, he had inherited an empire which would have seriously rebelled without an agitation for opposition, found in revolutionaries and people like Lenin. This resulted in the question of continuing an autocracy, or making an alteration in the way in which Russia was ruled.

    • Word count: 2677
  24. To what extent was Tsar Nicholas II saved by making concessions in the 1905 revolution?

    Pertinently, this sparked uprisings and some of the armed forces even mutinied at the outrage of it, and it broke the bond that the Tsar had with his people. 'There is no God any longer. There is no Tsar' - Father Gapon. This suggests how the people no longer saw the Tsar as a compassionate man of God, and the unrest spread cross class. 'The workers needed something like this to shake them out of their naive belief in the existence of the benevolent Tsar' - Gorky.

    • Word count: 1752
  25. Versailles Treaty- evaluation of sources

    Its army totalled to some 3.8 million men at the start of WW1 and its navy was just as powerful as the British navy. However as correctly designated by Overy with Wheatcroft, the terms of Versailles "shattered" a once proud nation and the German's bitterness over this made conflict likely. For example, Germany lost all of its colonies, its army was limited to the mere number of 100,000 men and they lost land to Poland and France. As correctly presented in interpretation A, there was certainly "political instability" due to the exile of the Kaiser and it proved uneasy to replace a dictatorship that dominated for decades with democratic principles.

    • Word count: 2003

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Little more than a show and a sham" Discuss this view of Mussolini's economic policies.

    "In conclusion, Mussolini's economic policies were essentially a show and a sham engineered to ensure the regime's support. The battle for land produced few results but was billed as success on an international level. The battle for lira made the country look strong whilst it actually weakened it and resulted in wage cuts. The corporative state did little for the countries workers and was not effective at helping the nations interests. Despite these failures there were two successes. The main one is the government's dealing with the worldwide depression. Their intervention prevented the levels of mass unemployment and recession that were seen in other Western European countries. To a lesser extent, the battle for grain was a success as by 1940 the country was almost self sufficient in this area. Even with these two successes it must be remembered that the countries national debt before the war was over 150 billion lire. With this taken into account it is reasonable to say that Mussolini's economic policies were a show and a sham. History (NAJ) Fascist Economy Essay 3/7/07 Russell Wright 1"

  • Assess the Reasons why Stalin's Political rivals were Unable to Prevent his Rise to Power

    "In conclusion, those that had the skill to oppose Stalin, like Trotsky, didn't realise how much of a threat was and failed to unite against him. He also had a great deal of luck - Lenin's criticisms of him in his testament were not made public, and he had the charge of factionalism to use to discredit anyone who opposed him. However, perhaps above all the most important reason was Stalin's megalomaniac personality, which made him an ideal dictator. Some have commented on his short height, suggesting that he had a tendency to keep himself to himself and was a "loner". Even the number of executions declined after his death. He was mad, evil and ruthless."

  • To what extent is Fascism a single doctrine?

    "In conclusion, it can be said that Fascism ids a single coherent doctrine to a certain extent since both Nazism and Italian Fascism share many fundamental beliefs. The ideas of both helped to shape the doctrine of Fascism and had profound influences on other Fascist regimes both in Europe and abroad. Most notably, Franco's Spain and Vichy France drew many of their central beliefs from the regimes of Hitler and Mussolini. Yet, there are many significant differences and the two should be treated as separate doctrines owing to the profound clashes over areas such as race and the state. Tessa Jones 13.9"

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