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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945
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Stalin was ruthless, cunning, he appeared to be cautious alternative and utterly loyal to Lenin. Stalin used the weaknesses of his opponents against them, so they couldn't strike back. Trotsky wasted obvious advantages like aloofness, being supported by the youth and army. He made stupid errors, not supported by others. He doubted Stalin's abilities as a rival. In the right wing Bukharin was not fearful. In the left-wing Zinoviev, Kamenev. All Stalin's opponents more scared of each other than him.
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Although Lenin supported voluntary collectivization, Stalin made it mandatory that Russian citizens relocate to communes. Once the peasants were established in the communes, where they lived in substandard conditions, Stalin proceeded to eliminate their rights as workers. Workers in industry and agriculture were knowingly underpaid, as there was no designated or set wage. Collectivization ended up being instrumental in depriving peasants of the fruits of their hard labor. Due to Stalin's exceedingly high production estimates established by the Five Year Plan (1927-1933), the communes were pushed to extreme production expectations. If a certain farm or industry did not generate enough profit, it was common that the individual laborers were not paid.
- Word count: 710
This alliance was in an effort to force concessions out of Britain and France. This immediately underlines one of the main foreign policy principles carried out by Mussolini. By not directly taking on Britain and France the Italian leader signalled his intent of a democratic, tactical approach when dealing with greater powers. The "Rome, Berlin axis" was now formed. The independence of Italy rested on the Mediterranean; Mussolini defeated the two 'sentinels' of the sea, Gibraltar and Suez, which eventually opened the door for the Duce to implement his grand design.
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The treaty was renewed in 1926 and allowed Germany to circumvent the terms of the Treaty of Versailles by having military bases in Russia along with factories which produced poison gas, tanks and aeroplanes... In return, Russia received progressive Western military techniques(mainly defensive). In 1928, Russia signed the Kellog-Briand pace outlawing was a means of solving disputes. This was in aid of Stalin's wish to create a 'barrier of peace'. As regards Communist movements in other countries Stalin saw himself as their supreme master.
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introduced in 1921 where although economic control was relaxed, political control was tightened, but it was a start. Lenin couldn't make any sweeping revolutionary policies in State Capitalism because he didn't yet have enough power. It can be said that because both NEP and State Capitalism were ruled somewhat by ideology, it created many enemies for Lenin. NEP, for example, was thought to be a return to Capitalism and many extreme communists felt betrayed that Lenin had compromised and allowed things such as NEP men and private trade all of which reminded them of a capitalist state. In small-scale industry 75% were working privately, not for the state, as communism would have.
- Word count: 709
After Pope Pius IX's election in 1846, Cavour felt that the chance for him to advocate reform had come. He failed in revolutions but he became Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia and at the outbreak of the Crimean War he joined forces with Great Britain and France and, by this, proved himself to be a fine statesman for foreign affairs. And indeed it was his affairs with Napoleon III that helped Sardinia expand in a big way. After meeting with the man himself, Cavour agreed that if Austria were to attack Sardinia, French Fleets would enter the war on Sardinia's side.
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The Rightwanted a strong man to be leader and many placed their hopes in Kornilov.Although the majority were monarchists they agreed that the Tsar was toounpopular to be returned to power. Kornilov still held the loyalty of a fewmilitary units and ...
On 7th September, Kornilov demanded the resignation of the Cabinet and the surrender of all military and civil authority to the Commander in Chief. Kerensky responded by dismissing him from office and ordering him back to Petrograd but either the message failed to reach the general or he ignored it. Later in the same month, Kornilov was riding east towards the capital with some of his armed men. Much seems to indicate that he may have been attempting a coup in order to set up a military dictatorship in Russia.
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Hitlers Plan's: * Get revenge on the November Criminals * Exterminate anybody non Ayrians * World Domination Depression: * Gave Hitler more power as he was able to promise German's jobs and bread * None of the Member countries wanted to pledge their armies as they couldn't afford it.
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Hitler demonised people, creating scapegoats through propaganda, on this scapegoat he blamed Germany's entire problem. This scapegoat was the Jews. Hitler's rise to power was all of his own working. His incredible ability to appeal to people, his great skills as an orator and his German pride all help assert himself as a popular figure. Mussolini's rise on the other hand was primarily based on opportunism. His policies contradicted themselves, his attitudes were dramatic and his facts were very often incorrect despite this he was able to win the hearts of Italians with his incredible speech delivery ability.
- Word count: 827
How far was the transformation of the position of the Bolsheviks from February to December 1917 a result of Lenin's leadership?
They place significance on Lenin's return in April. Lenin refused to co-operate with any other political parties, including the Provisional Government, saying their ultimate aim was to transfer power to the workers, demanding power to the soviets. Lenin realised that to take power in he name of the proletariat there would have to be a Bolshevik takeover of the soviets. The strength of Lenin's personality and his doctrines when he returned on April could be seen to play a key part in the ruination of the Provisional Government.
- Word count: 871
What measures did the Bolsheviks take to maintain power and address Russia's problems before the outbreak of civil war in the summer of 1918?
They could interfere in all aspects of production and distribution of products. The committee were granted the right to supervise production, to lay down minimum output indicators, to obtain data on costs. The owners of enterprises had to make available to the committee all accounts and all documents, commercial secrecy was abolished. However, local leaders had neither the training nor responsibility to 'supervise' and 'control' production and distribution. They could and did sell off materials, steal, disobey instructions. Lenin may have kept his promise but things didn't turn out the way he planned.
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Russia as a whole lost lives but were happy that the war had stopped because they didn't know what they were fighting for anyway. The revolution split Russia into two parts which lead into a civil war and to win this he would have to use war communism. The strip farming wasn't making enough food to feed the people and the soldiers. Factories were slow and Lenin needed trains and weapons. He took over factories and told them what he wanted and when he wanted it.
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To try and console his power the Tsar banned all political parties thus allowing him to do what ever he wanted. Similarly Lenin also destroyed all political opponents. At the start of the revolution Lenin aimed to get into power through democratic procedures although when elections were held in 1917 and he did not win he closed down the Assembly and called in his army (red army) to destroy political opposition. He believed this was necessary in order for communism to work and promised that in time there would be no need to have any leader at all.
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This resulted in many people thinking of Trotsky as an irresponsible person with no respect either towards the Communist movement or towards Lenin, their revolutionary leader Lenin. This incident underlines the fact that a strong personality of Stalin led him to secure much support within the party. He was looked upon as a defender of evolution and Stalin cleverly exploited this feeling to pose Trotsky and Bukharin as opponents of evolution in the eyes of fellow soviets. Historians, when trying to compare the personality of Stalin with his opponents, have found that there were certain characteristics about Stalin that lacked in his opponents and increased Stalin's prospects considerably.
- Word count: 911
Because he organised the funeral, Trotsky did not attend because Stalin gave him the wrong date, which made Stalin look much closer to Lenin. The fact that there had not been any other leader of the Bolshevik party apart from Lenin meant that there was no leadership issue before. The two main candidates were Stalin and Trotsky. Trotsky wasn't very popular within the party as members thought of him as lazy and arrogant, he was a middle-class intellectual and was formally a Menshevik.
- Word count: 604
Was the Nazi regime essentially a terrorist dictatorship, which depended on force and instilling fear in the subject population? Or could it draw on substantial reserves of voluntary support from ordinary Germans? Much work has been done on the state of `public opinion' in the Third Reich: writing in this area focuses on questions of `morale' - ie the mood of the general population and its attitude to the leadership. The key sources for such studies are the reports submitted by police informers and compiled nationally by the Security Service (SD).
- Word count: 530
In 1799, after the French Revolution had quieted into the Thermidorean Reaction, general Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the Directory
Hearing of the chaos, Napoleon abandoned his army and with great fanfare, returned to Paris a hero. On November 9, 1799 (the month of "Brumaire" in the French Revolutionary calendar) Napoleon Bonaparte and Abbe Sieyes pulled off a coup in France. They overthrew the current Directory and replaced it with a new government: the Consulate. Sieyes and Napoleon both installed themselves as consuls, though the popular Napoleon became First Consul. The overthrow of the Directory and establishment of the Consulate marked the real end of the French Revolution.
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Firstly and most significantly, the poor tactics of his opposition and their bad timing gave the impression that they didn't work together as much as necessary. The "Aventine' secession merely stressed the size of the fascist majority in parliament and failed to produce any parliamentary threat. Furthermore it is important to mention that Mussolini privately admitted that he would have stepped down, hade the King ruled so. However, the Victor Emmanuel disliked the Secession not only because the majority were socialists, but also because it was seen as rather unconstitutional and merely gave him the excuse to do nothing, since in the absence of legislative vote against Mussolini, there was no reason to dismiss him.
- Word count: 662
Intimidated or convinced-unknown, yet highly regarded politician such as Gillette, Facta, Salandra, Bonomi, Orlando all voted for the approval of the decree which granted Mussolini emergency powers for 12 months. One of the crucial deductions Mussolini made is that, in order to remain in power, he had to keep the support of the ones who supported his 'seizure' of power. He therefore tried to ease the fears of the industrial elite and allowed them to organize syndicates, separate from those of the workers.
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These were only a few of the problems faced. One of the problems the Bolsheviks faced was opposition. This was a major problem as Lenin wanted the Bolsheviks to govern outright, but they were faced by wide opposition, even in the soviet. Support for the Bolsheviks was not wide spread and elections were coming up, Bolsheviks members either wanted or did not want to govern Russia with other socialist parties. Lenin had to allow elections as if he did not then he would be a hypocrite. Lenin used terror and denounced and outlawed parties to get rid of opposition.
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In this way it can be said that Germany was already starting to unify of her own accord. As the people continued to suffer during several decades of repression there came a strong desire for reform. Although at first this was only among the educated, wealthy bourgeoisie, unemployment among small artisans encouraged them to join the revolution in hopes of secure jobs. When an uprising occurred in France, the German liberals decided that they too would start to push their own claims.
- Word count: 897
The Liberal government were more concerned by the threats posed by Socialism and their mistrust in the Popolari. Giolitti's injudicious decision to invite the fascists into a coalition government proved to be fatal. Mussolini got in through the backdoor and his route to power was now an easier one. The increasing fear of Socialism was also a factor. Many were concerned by the rise of the Socialists who had won 106 seats in the 1919 elections and posed the greatest threat to the Liberals. Those who concerned only had to look at the Soviet Revolution in 1917 to see the effects of a possible revolution.
- Word count: 794
In 1852 the Government took the initiative to create Credit Mobilier and Credit Foncier and this also boosted France's economy. To further aid the economy, railways developed with public and private financial support. The railways in turn helped the social and economic expansion of France with the advantages of trade and international commerce. Many cities were also redeveloped, but none more so than Paris. The capital was transformed with new buildings being erected in place of older housing for the poor, gas lighting, wider roads and a new sewer system.
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They didn't want to have a leader who would think it ok to cause famine. However, Trotsky was not too concerned about amassing supporters and wasn't to bothered by this. Stalin, however, was a supporter of the New Economic Policy, which was less tightly constrained than the war communism that Trotsky supported. Stalin was only a supporter of this policy publicly, because he introduced collectivisation when he was elected. This was all propaganda by Stalin. Stalin wanted to concentrate on communism in just one country - Russia. Trotsky wanted Russia to be the focus for the spread of World Communism but the Russian people thought it would be better to sort out their country first before concentrating on any others.
- Word count: 787