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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 21
  • Peer Reviewed essays 2
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  5. 31
  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Weakness of the Directory was the main reasons for Napoleons rise to Power. How far do you agree?

    5 star(s)

    Many moved abroad and began plotting a counter-revolution, but many did not return until Napoleon was leader. Following King Louis XVI fall from power a meritocratic system was set up in France whereby the more able people got higher positions, and allowed Napoleon to rise up the army quickly to a high rank. This rank reached Brigadier General after Napoleon shot on rioters at Toulon and got him noticed among the political elite as well as the military. However the weakness of the directory was the main reason to Napoleon's rise to power, because although the circumstances suited Napoleon and

    • Word count: 1481
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Contrast The Contribution Made By Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi to Italian Unification

    4 star(s)

    Three people clearly played a great role in the process of unifying the State: Giuseppe Mazzini, the ideological leader of the Italian patriots and the creator of the famous Young Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi, a skillful military man that to this day is seen as the Italian national hero and Camillo Cavour, the Prime Minister of Piedmont from 1852 to 1861. All of them shared a great contribution towards the Unification, but they took actions at different paths: Mazzini was an ideological leader, Garibaldi ? a military one and Cavour a political one.

    • Word count: 1568
  3. Marked by a teacher

    How successful were the Five- Year Plans in transforming Russian industry in the years to 1941?

    4 star(s)

    For an country that was struggling as much as Russia was at that time, it was an achievement. Stalin had many initiatives to achieve a better industry. He put in place a reward scheme for workers if they helped reach the targets that were set. Workers were encouraged to work for these rewards. This strategy worked wonders as it increased the turn around in the factories as the workers were all working for something at the end. One case of this would be the Russian miner, Stakhanovite. Stalin used this miner as a propaganda opportunity. Stakhanovite had been claimed to have mined an extreme amount in one shift.

    • Word count: 1590
  4. Marked by a teacher

    The impact of the First World War merely heightened existing social and political tensions which had divided Germany before 1914. How far do you agree with this judgement?

    4 star(s)

    Although, it is seen to be that some social effects just didn't affect the tension in Germany. The 'silent dictatorship' also stemmed tensions as in 1916 Bethmann called off submarine warfare he then wanted to support by means of Hindenburg and Ludendorff which was a major turning point as they proved more popular than the Kaiser and Chancellor, in which they started to take control and that led to the idea of political powers that were in theory sidelined. The tensions then stemmed from this and so is clear further that Germany had certain tensions in Germany and so to help compare to the tensions they had after the war.

    • Word count: 1227
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the view that the lives of the peasants in Russia did not improve in the period from 1855 to 1964.

    4 star(s)

    Investment was made in new agricultural techniques with mixed success as Stalin realised that agriculture had to be used in order to boost industry, much like Stolypin before him. In contrast, under the Tsars peasants did not have access to such technology, however they were able to set their own pace as to how they worked, and therefore how much they produced. In most cases, this meant they had to work as hard as possible in order to provide food for their families, as well as the requisition squads which Lenin would later introduce in an attempt to improve productivity.

    • Word count: 1878
  6. Marked by a teacher

    How successful were n**i economic policies in the years 1933-45?

    4 star(s)

    The fundamental problems consisted of those related to trade, industry, employment agriculture and finance. These problems were to be confronted with the n**i economic policies introduced by Hjalmar Schacht. Financial benefits were given to farmers and small businesses. This helped to stimulate economic growth, but also rewarded the sympathetic supporters of the n**i's. These benefits came in the form of maintaining tariffs on imported produce, reducing debts by tax concessions and lowering interest rates trough the Reich farm law. They also gave allowances to encourage the re-hiring of domestic servants and allocated grants for house repairs.

    • Word count: 1833
  7. Marked by a teacher

    To What Extent was fear of the Gestapo and the SS the main reason why Hitler was able to stay in power after 1933?

    4 star(s)

    The traditional view was that terror was a part of everyday life in n**i Germany but recent historians have challenged this view. An action of the SS was their slaughter of the thuggish SA in the Night of the Long Knives which helped Hitler greatly as the SA appeared as a threat to Hitler at the time and Hitler was not scared to use violent means to get rid of this threat. After this the SS gained their reputation and became extremely powerful, emerging as the chief political arm of the n**i party and it was also found later by

    • Word count: 1699
  8. Marked by a teacher

    The Problems of the Weimar Republic and the Path to War.

    3 star(s)

    Long live the new! Long live the German Republic!? (4) Two days later, on the 11th of November, Germany signed an armistice with the Allies bringing an end to the war. This piece of work will highlight the inauspicious circumstances that the German government was born in during the years of 1918-1923. This essay will highlight the political, economical and the violent problems that the new Republic faced and how some courses of its actions led Germany on the path towards another World War. Straight away, a ?political vacuum? appeared within the Republic.

    • Word count: 1025
  9. Marked by a teacher

    Decisions made in Berlin from 1900 determined the outbreak of war in Europe in August 1914. How far do you agree with this opinion?

    3 star(s)

    This increase in tension and "collision course" with Britain could then be seen as a decision that was made that helped determine or at least increase the reasoning behind going to war in August 1914. However, this could be misinterpreted as Britain joined the war in accordance to the Triple Entente as opposed to the race to build a better naval fleet. Source 3 also agrees to a certain extent with the opinion, as the decision made from 1900-1914 was essentially "let the Schlieffen Plan determine events," this is evident that it wasn't a decision that would help Germany or at least the outcome of war as Keegan describes the Kaisers' attitude as though "he panicked" into making the decision.

    • Word count: 1190
  10. Marked by a teacher

    Mussolini's foreign policy.

    3 star(s)

    On the 27th of August 1923 an opportunity fell to Mussolini to show that Italian foreign policy was powerful and dynamic. An Italian general and four members of his staff were shot while working on frontier arrangements between Greece and Albania for the League of Nations. Two days after the murders, the Italian government presented an ultimatum to the Greek government which demanded an official apology and the payment of an indemnity of 50 million lire within five days. When the Greeks refused Mussolini ordered a naval bombardment and occupation of the island of Corfu.

    • Word count: 1242
  11. Marked by a teacher

    Lenin's Legacy Has Been Grossly Exaggerated; to what extent do you agree with the statement?

    3 star(s)

    He was expelled from university for his radical policies. Lenin completed his law degree as a student in 1891. He moved to St Petersburg and became a professional revolutionary for the peasants. Like many of his predecessors, Lenin was arrested and exiled to Siberia, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya. This was his second marriage, his first Inessa Armand, died in 1920 and this left him distraught. After his Siberian exile, Lenin spent most of the decade and a half in Western Europe, where he emerged as a prominent figure in the international revolutionary movement and became the leader of the 'Bolshevik' faction of the Russian Social Democratic Worker's Party.

    • Word count: 1214
  12. Peer reviewed

    The main reason why the German revolutions of 1848 failed was because they failed to win popular support How far do you agree?

    3 star(s)

    The loss of support was encouraged by the slow progress of the Frankfurt parliament. The Industrial code that was put forward was hope for the working class but after it was rejected, many of the working class lost the faith they held and the support fell even more. Also, the support of the masses was divided and this led to riots and peasant risings that had no aims. This meant that there was a lack of support that was needed in order for the revolution to occur as the peasants needed a leader to control them and this was another key reason why the revolutions of 1848 were a failure.

    • Word count: 1225
  13. How far did the policy of industrialisation meet Stalins objectives by 1941?

    ?5? ?year plans demonstrate how Stalin felt the need to use industrialisation as a? ?tool for constructing a communist country. Source B shows his ideology had inconsistencies however and that he had alterative motives; as this source expresses ideas which include class welfare against class enemies such as the NEP and exploiting industrialisation to further his own position. During his consolidation of power towards becoming a single party state leader. Stalin did achieve this objective as he shifted his ideologies drastically to exploit events.?

    • Word count: 1044
  14. How far was the Crimean War a turning point in the development of Modern Russia?

    Alexander placed reforms on Military, education system, government, transport networks, censorship and ways of communications. The members, who were a part of the Russian army, were none other than Serfs themselves. The allies' had won victory in the Crimean war by having professional soldiers who were highly skilled, whereas the Serfs who severed as part of the Russian army had no skill at all and were frail, and had been forced into serving for the Russian Army, which led to the Russian defeat.

    • Word count: 1341
  15. How far was the death of Alexander II a turning point in the development of modern Russia?

    After the assassination of Alexander II in 1881, his son became successor and was now Alexander III Emperor of Russia, and was viewed as being more radical than his father had been. When Alexander III came to the throne in 1881, Russia had already faced financial reforms, a public budget, a new motion of judicial independence and trial by jury had been introduced, as well as the changes to the military. The reign of Alexander III introduced anti-Semitic policies, which places restrictions on the areas where Jewish people could live, as well as restrictions placed upon the occupations that could be held by Jewish people.

    • Word count: 1490
  16. How far was the personality of Nicholas II responsible for the instability in Russia in 1904? (24 marks)

    As a result of this Nicholas was only able to apply his father's repressive policies in a feeble matter. Therefore, Nicholas was incapable of implementing repressive policies as effectively as his father. Nicholas was also a very family orientated person, this had a negative impact upon his rule as he was heavily influenced by the Tsarina which furthermore undermined and weakened his power. Furthermore, Nicholas was inflexible as he possessed a firm and absolute belief in autocracy, he was stubbornly incapable of adapting to changing political and economic circumstances as Russia entered the modern age. However, other factors contributed to the instability of Russia in 1904 and why Nicholas found it increasingly difficult to rule Russia.

    • Word count: 1123
  17. Why was there a revolution in Russia in 1905?

    A group of peaceful petitioners and their families were marching to the St. Petersburg palace, in order to present a petition to the Tsar to aid their desperate social and economic circumstances. The marchers demonstrate the socio-economic difficulties facing the majority of Russians outside of autocratic circles. Yet these marchers were peaceful and non-revolutionary in intent, hoping that the "little father" would consider their concerns and aid their conditions. The march induced a panic in the St Petersburg police forces, which began to fire upon marchers, killing approximately two hundred and injuring hundreds more.

    • Word count: 1799
  18. Free essay

    The unification of Germany was the consequence of Prussias economic policy over 40 years not Bismarcks diplomacy over 10. Discuss

    The Zollverein had originally started to be able to allow Prussia to trade with its new state the Rhineland, but because of the distance Prussia knew it needed other states to join. The Zollverein could also be seen as a tool to eliminate Austrian influence over the German Confederation, as Austria previously had been the main opposition to the uniting of Germany. Many of the states particularly the ones in the South had always been influenced by the Austrians and this was shown in the Austro-Prussian war where many of the states had fought against the Prussians.

    • Word count: 1095
  19. The main threat to the stability of the Weimar Republic in the period 1919 to 1923 came from the political violence of the extreme right. How far do you agree with this statement?

    These figures and examples demonstrate two things to us, that the right wing was clearly a threat to the republic as not only were they responsible for the assassination of a huge number of politicians but it would seem that nobody was safe from them, no member of the republic was high profile enough to be safe. These figures also point out how little of a threat the far left was by comparison; the far left was responsible for only 22 of the 376 murders in those 3 years showing that there was definitely a clear gulf in the threat that the two extremes posed to the stability of the republic.

    • Word count: 1920
  20. The outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 was due to an aggressive German foreign policy which had been waged since 1900. How far do you agree?

    Historians such as Fischer would support this view and would use the document known as "The September Programme" to back up their claims. This document, drawn up in September 1914 shows us what the demands of the German state would be should they be victorious in the war, Fischer argued that this was proof that the German government had been planning a war in Europe for some time and had fully intended to do so in order that they may see through the demands of the September Programme and annex large areas east and west of Germany.

    • Word count: 1567
  21. How far was Stalin's personality responsible for the purges?

    Due to his paranoid nature, he believed there were many who were against his position in the party and he wanted to rid the party of anyone that could rival him. These features of his personality may prove why his former comrades were killed, rather than exiled, which would have most likely been the case under Lenin. By also ridding the party of Old Bolshevik members, he was able to get rid of those who knew his limitations, which fed his inferiority complex.

    • Word count: 1683
  22. How far did the policy of industrialisation meet Stalin's objectives by 1941

    Stalin also wanted to make the USSR self sufficient and strong and felt that the USSR needed the support of the working class, source A refers to how the USSR have obligations to the world proletariat and industrial development could arise through this. Also, from my own knowledge I can suggest that Stalin wanted to industrialise to be able to compete with other countries because there had always been a sense of competition with the west even pre-world war one.

    • Word count: 1221
  23. How far do you agree that Fascist Italy potentially posed a significant threat to British interests in the 1920s?

    protection of empire; affected by improve influence, o 4) Readiness to defend allies; disagreements over areas within med sea. o Anti n**i Militia o Locarno Pact o Rome Protocols o CONCLUDE Para 3: * Preserving Peace/Balance of Power o Locarno Pact o LOFN peace treaties- no o Peace treaties- not permanent o Mare Nostrum - Med Sea o CONCLUDE Conclusion: * Yes they were a significant threat even taking into consideration that some of the threats were indirect, unlikely to happen threats. How far do you agree that Fascist Italy potentially posed a significant threat to British interests in the 1920s?

    • Word count: 1067
  24. How far does the North South divide in Italy explain the weaknesses of the Liberal State in the years 1896-1914?

    Farms run by capitalist tenant famers employing landless farm labourers on short contracts became the norm. This picture of economic acceleration and industrialisation was in complete contrast to the economy of southern Italy. The south consisted of the poorest farming areas as the hot dry climate mountains and malaria ridden coastal plains reduced the amount of land suitable for agriculture. In addition the system of landholding compounded the problem of economic underdevelopment in the south. The south was the region of the latifundia enormous noble-owned estates. They tended to show little interest in their lands, rejecting new agricultural methods.

    • Word count: 1140
  25. The treaty of Versailles was shaped by French determination to exact revenge and to ensure Germanys permanent weakness How far do you agree with this view?

    It is extremely important when we look at the final draft of the treaty of Versailles to judge who had to the most influential role in the final draft of the treaty by first looking at the aims of the big three- Clemenceau, Wilson and Lloyd George. Clemenceau and Wilson polarised views on what should be done to Germany by the treaty - Wilson famous for his epically liberal views in his 'fourteen points' and Clemenceau wanting the precise opposite, wanting to Germany to suffer for destroying France.

    • Word count: 1116

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Little more than a show and a sham" Discuss this view of Mussolini's economic policies.

    "In conclusion, Mussolini's economic policies were essentially a show and a sham engineered to ensure the regime's support. The battle for land produced few results but was billed as success on an international level. The battle for lira made the country look strong whilst it actually weakened it and resulted in wage cuts. The corporative state did little for the countries workers and was not effective at helping the nations interests. Despite these failures there were two successes. The main one is the government's dealing with the worldwide depression. Their intervention prevented the levels of mass unemployment and recession that were seen in other Western European countries. To a lesser extent, the battle for grain was a success as by 1940 the country was almost self sufficient in this area. Even with these two successes it must be remembered that the countries national debt before the war was over 150 billion lire. With this taken into account it is reasonable to say that Mussolini's economic policies were a show and a sham. History (NAJ) Fascist Economy Essay 3/7/07 Russell Wright 1"

  • Assess the Reasons why Stalin's Political rivals were Unable to Prevent his Rise to Power

    "In conclusion, those that had the skill to oppose Stalin, like Trotsky, didn't realise how much of a threat was and failed to unite against him. He also had a great deal of luck - Lenin's criticisms of him in his testament were not made public, and he had the charge of factionalism to use to discredit anyone who opposed him. However, perhaps above all the most important reason was Stalin's megalomaniac personality, which made him an ideal dictator. Some have commented on his short height, suggesting that he had a tendency to keep himself to himself and was a "loner". Even the number of executions declined after his death. He was mad, evil and ruthless."

  • To what extent is Fascism a single doctrine?

    "In conclusion, it can be said that Fascism ids a single coherent doctrine to a certain extent since both Nazism and Italian Fascism share many fundamental beliefs. The ideas of both helped to shape the doctrine of Fascism and had profound influences on other Fascist regimes both in Europe and abroad. Most notably, Franco's Spain and Vichy France drew many of their central beliefs from the regimes of Hitler and Mussolini. Yet, there are many significant differences and the two should be treated as separate doctrines owing to the profound clashes over areas such as race and the state. Tessa Jones 13.9"

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