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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945

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  1. To what extent was Arthur Balfour responsible for Conservative decline?

    This did not fit in with Nicholas' view of Russia and how it should be governed: i.e. by the aristocracy. In this way, the government of Nicholas II was showing signs of instability. Instead of attempting to tackle the problem of the educated and "rebellious" middle classes, the Tsar stubbornly defended his rights and privileges, and was determined to rule, yet lacked the necessary qualities to do so. As a result, he could only meddle and disrupt the workings of his government without leading it.

    • Word count: 1238
  2. Compare the impact of Stolypin and Rasputin on the stability of the tsar(TM)s government after 1905.

    Stolypin caused the majority of people in Russia to abhor his actions when in the third Duma he put forward the rule that only people that owned property could vote, which were mainly people who supported the tsar and his government anyway. This perhaps stabilised the tsar's government as it almost guaranteed he would stay in authority as the majority of the people who were able to vote shared his views, however it also caused the peasants in particular to believe his actions were unreasonable, and as they made up 82% of the Russian population the vast amount of Russia were against Stolypin's actions.

    • Word count: 1247
  3. British Course Essay

    They wanted to achieve this by creating central uniform system across the country. Parishes were to group together to form poor law unions and each union was to set up a harsh work house as a deterrent for relief. Outdoor relief was to be abolished for the able-bodied poor. This was to create a modern and efficient centralised system. In 1834 the government responded to the commission by drawing up a bill which broadly reflected the recommendations in the report.

    • Word count: 1398
  4. How Important was Stolypin?

    Stolypin introduced many reforms, the most important of which was land reform. He intended to try to solve the peasant question as peasants made up most of the population and their numbers were growing rapidly. He also wanted to "de-revolutionise" them following the events of 1905. He intended to make a new class of richer peasants which would be referred to as the 'Kulaks'. They would be able to leave the 'mir' and build up their own independent consolidated farms. Stolypin believed that these peasants would provide stable support for the imperial government and so diminish support for radical revolutionaries.

    • Word count: 1020
  5. How far by 1939 had Hitler achieved his Economic Policies?

    Tax concessions and grants were also provided, which stimulated demand to further strengthen the German economy. Furthermore subsidies were given to business men for hiring workers in the private sector. Moreover, the RAD took young people off the unemployment register and then all 18-25 year old males were removed from conscription in 1935 and placed in military service. This indeed led to the growth of the army, thus also complying with the policy of having a defence economy. This also significantly reduced unemployment and stimulated recovery. The main purpose of all the above measures was to stimulate consumer demand; and increase the amount spent into the economy by the average German, all crucial for a healthy economy.

    • Word count: 1188
  6. What Problems did Italian Governments face after WW1

    Also, many believed that Italy should once again become a powerful country as it had been many centuries previously. Moreover Italy feared that should the entente powers win they would not be sympathetic to Italian ambitions in the Mediterranean if Italy had not played a part to bring about the victory, thus in 1915, Italy signed the Treaty of London and entered the war. The Great War left Italian forces very weak and with many casualties. However in 1918 the war ended in the favour of the Entente.

    • Word count: 1052
  7. Explain the importance of government concessions and reforms, in relation to other factors in preserving tsarist authority in the years 1905 to 1914

    The tsar was also to be assisted by a Council of Ministers, led by Russia's first Prime Minister, Sergei Witte. The Russian people were also given civil liberties such as freedom of speech, worship, of association and no imprisonment without trial. The manifesto was designed to divide the opposition against Nicholas so that he would be able to regain control of his country and that is exactly what it did. It split the moderates from the more radical. Those who were more liberal were pleased with this manifesto as it gave them everything that they had wanted; civil liberties and a constitutional monarchy.

    • Word count: 1395
  8. Germany Political threats

    However, posters were also used to celebrate n**i achievements, as wells as display any message the Nazis needed to get across to the German people, at certain times. For example, when the Nazis, needed Germans to buy domestic products this is what the poster portrayed. On the other hand, during the war, posters focused on anti-Allie propaganda, showing the flexibility of the Nazis propaganda machine. Anti-Semitic posters The Nazis, anti- Semitic propaganda, typically depicted commonly held stereotypes' of Jews. Thus, allowing posters to reinforce existing prejudices.

    • Word count: 1043
  9. To What Extent did Hitler become the most powerful opponent of the Weimar Republic?

    Each region would have a leader or Gauleiter as they were called. The party also had groups formed within the party such as the Hitler Youth, The n**i Teachers' Association, The Union of n**i Lawyers and The Order of German Women. The Hitler Youth was a group that taught young Aryan Germans to support Hitler and his extremist views. The n**i Teachers Association was an association for teachers to teach n**i ways and the other groups within the party were also to build the n**i Party for the future. Hitler became such a powerful opponent to the Weimar Republic because of the methods he used to become more popular with the German people.

    • Word count: 1278

    n**i economic policy in these early years revolved around traditional socialist principles; for example the nationalisation of industry, and focused on reducing unemployment and building up infrastructure. Schacht, who was in charge of running Germany's economy at the time, used deficit financing to encourage farming and small businesses with the aim of stimulating economic growth and promoting loyalty to the Nazis in a political twist to his policy. Tariffs were maintained on important produce to further protect German farmers. The German state also assumed greater control over capital within the economy, setting interest rates lower and rescheduling debts of local authorities.

    • Word count: 1093
  11. Assess the reasons why Hitler and the NSDAP gained power in 1933:

    Therefore, the NSDAP used propaganda to stir up even more hatred for Versailles and target the Weimar Republic. They also made promises to abolish the Treaty of Versailles and make Germany great again. These promises fell on ready ears and the rise of Hitler and the NSDAP had commenced. The weak Weimar government was already unpopular, and the n**i party seized this opportunity to exploit this and gain further support. The Republic was blamed for the suffering of the people as well as being blamed for the signing of Versailles, which ultimately caused all of Germany's problems.

    • Word count: 1843
  12. The rise of hitler

    very quietly and go through the speeches slowly raising his voice until he was shouting, this meant to start off with he got the people's attention and as his voice got louder so did the people, in agreement with Hitler's ideas. This captivated his audiences and so they would remember his ideas when they went to cast their votes, and due to the Nazis appealing election campaign and promises the people did vote for the Nazis. Other Parties could not place forward such as strong leader and so would never have been able to challenge the Nazis in the eyes

    • Word count: 1351
  13. Hindenburg and the Causes of Mullers government collapse.

    The next problem was the impact of the hyperinflation which further damaged the economy. The last impact was the Wall street crash of 1929 which brought on the great depression via the fact that the war loans had stopped being paid to Germany. This put Muller under great pressure and forced him to resign. This was the end of the last truly democratic government in Germany before the Second World War. This end of Muller's government lead to this period where a series of chancellors entered and left the frame until it came to Hitler who became the Fuhrer.

    • Word count: 1677
  14. Why Did the Bolsheviks Win the Russian Civil War?

    Also the Reds could conscript large amounts of men to fight as this area was heavily populated. Communication was made difficult for the Whites as they had no telephone links - this meant that co-ordinating the different white armies was hard, which meant that the Reds could defeat these comparatively small attacks one by one. The Whites were split up by the different group that made it up. They could not agree on a political strategy as they each wanted different things - Monarchism, Republicanism or for a Constituent Assembly. In contrast the Bolsheviks had a single unified command structure.

    • Word count: 1843
  15. Free essay

    To what extent did German foreign policy become more openly 'n**i' rather then purely nationalist in the course of 1938?

    Hitler on the outside seemed very calm and non-aggressive for example: there was a plebiscite which took place and this displayed the popularity of the annexation, the Austrians were very welcoming to the Germans when they arrived, almost overly welcoming which surprised Hitler. From an outside view it would have seemed that the occupation would have been voluntarily. Hitler at first considered a possibility of Austria being a satellite state, this changed with the major government posts being filled by n**i's, Hitler then saw the potential for Austria to be joined to Germany.

    • Word count: 1393
  16. Fascist education and youth policies played a major role in helping Mussolini secure his hold on power. How far do you agree with this judgement?

    From 1937, under the new education minister Guiseppe Bottai, more radical reforms were planned, intended to make the education system more amenable to strictly fascist ends and to emply the schools and universities to create a truly fascist society. Fascist education policies were reasonably successful in helping Mussolini secure his hold on power. Several generations of students grew up within the fascist education system that paid at least lip service to fascist ideology. The pictures of Mussolini that hung in classrooms alongside those of the king illustrated one aspect of the stress that was laid, even with the youngest children, on the remarkable qualities of the Duce.

    • Word count: 1836
  17. Was Mussolini all-powerful?

    Mussolini had no intention of being dominated by the PNF and the radicals, and after October 1925 with the backing of the Fascist Grand Council he banned the squads, purged the Fascist organisation in Florence and replaced the radical Farinacci with the ore compliant Filipo Turati. Turati restructured the whole party and made them more subservient to the central organisation and Mussolini. A further purge in 1928 removed over 600,000 PNF party members and broke the influence of radicals like Farinacci in the fascist party.

    • Word count: 1145
  18. How important was World War One as an influence on the development of the Labour Party to 1918?

    This narrowed the opponents' chances of getting votes, successfully guaranteeing the LRC Liberal votes in a joint bid to collapse the Conservatives. Although Labour won 29 seats in the Commons in 1906, 24 of these came as a result of the Li-Lab Pact, so were realistically Liberal votes and albeit a success, it cannot be seen as solely a Labour win, so was not the most important factor of active development in the Labour Party's support. The reversal of the Osborne Judgement also provided substantial funding for the Labour Party.

    • Word count: 1265
  19. To what extent was Napoleon's success in Europe to 1807 the consequences of his own military ability?

    This also meant that there was no real national identity allowing the kind of patriotism that the French could use to fight with. The Russian army also had huge problems, one of the main ones being the fact that the soldiers did not want to be fighting a war at all. Surrounding the conscript army was a negative, fatalistic view of army life - a darkly amusing fact is that soldiers could often go to their own funeral before they were conscripted away to battle.

    • Word count: 1809
  20. Can a consistent theme be seen in n**i Political, Social and Economic Policies?

    The public never went overboard for the radial racial and social ideals of the Nazis, but an extreme government which puts food on the table and money in the bank is far preferable to the common man than a democratic government which leaves its people starving. The idea of political policy itself is an interesting one, as after Hitler gained the power to rule by decree, there was no sense of a political compromise when making policies, as Hitler could do whatever he wanted, though his alleged apathy towards much of politics, especially domestic matters meant that what was introduced was often along the lines of being 'the will of the Fuhrer'.

    • Word count: 1002
  21. Free essay

    Was Stalin the most successful ruler of Russia in the period 1855-1956? Explain with reference to the rulers of this period.

    Within 20 years, 24,700 mosques were destroyed. By 1939, only 1 in 40 churches were still functioning. However, although he maintained his power this way, by 1937, 57% of Russians were still religious. Therefore, his brutality must not have been the only aspect that allowed him to keep the power. Generally, it is accepted that the other leaders were 'up to their arms in blood.' Alexander II, for example, was in power during the Polish Revolt of 1865, where any perpetrators were caught and publicly hanged. Alexander III, on the other hand, was known as the repressor.

    • Word count: 1956
  22. Why, despite its enemies, was the Weimar Republic still in existence in 1929?

    The output of heavy industry in 1928 reached the same level as 1913; where production was extremely high due to pre-war artier production. But this wasn't just because of an increase in the work put into production; but also down to the fact that production methods were improved and more efficient advances were made in the fields of steel and coal production; allowing Germany to regain it's status as a producer and salvage it's prestige and potency as a strong country. This helped the Weimar Republic stay in existence as it would have pleased both nationalists (increase in German status)

    • Word count: 1053
  23. Assess the reasons why the Second Republic was so short lived

    The economic situation was also unstable: there were contradictory policies and decisions coming from the Assembly, which did affect the situation of the working class and coerced the support for the President. The military conduct of the July coup contributed to the disturbance in society, the way the main general dealt with it affected the negative reception of the Second Republic's politics. Regarding the internal politics of the Republican party, the conflicting ideas weakened its status. When Provisional Government was formed, it included leading politicians such as Lamartine and Ledru-Rollin who had different opinions how the new government should be run.

    • Word count: 1601
  24. To what extend did France help or hold back the unification of Italy from 1848-1870?

    Italy on her own was not strong enough to achieve it, and needed French intervention. Neapolitan armies assisted Italy in military conflicts with Austria, in order to help them win victory. In 1859 France helped Italy to defeat Austria at Solefrino. This had a high impact on the unification, as it resulted in Austria's ceding of Lombardy, which could then join the new kingdom. Without French involvement this would not have been possible as Austria was too strong for Italy.

    • Word count: 1142
  25. Free essay

    To what extent had Liberal Italy satisfied the needs of Italians by 1914?

    The new Italian government united Italy economically by abolishing tariffs and establishing a single Italian market. However, this harmed what little industry existed in South Italy, which could not compete with the more industrially advanced North. This caused the divide between North and South Italy to deepen. The rapid growth of industry in the North after the turn of the century reinforced that this was still an unresolved Italian problem. Another key problem faced by Liberal Italy was the increase in support for Socialism. The Socialist movement had grown in popularity, and by 1900 there was an organised Socialist party, the PSI, which began winning seats in Parliament.

    • Word count: 1132

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